The MS-DOS. Internal and External Commands

February 1, 2013 | Author: | Posted in Operating Systems

Chapter I

Internal and External Commands

* The MS-DOS

* Starting the system

* The character of interaction (PROMPT)

* Introduction of MS-DOS commands

* Internal commands and external commands

* Changing unit

* Changing the System PROMPT

* Creating text files

* Managing data lines

* Using wildcards

* Using the question mark ()

* Using the help of the MS-DOS (help)

* The DIR command and its parameters

* Examples directory command

* How to move files

* Deleting files

* How to rename files

* Comparison and printing files

* Managing disks diskettes handling

The MS-DOS

The MS-DOS is a program, but it is not any program. No program will work if it is introduced MS-DOS. The reason is that MS-DOS controls each of the parts of the computer. The MS-DOS not only enables our programs work, but also allows completely control what the computer does and how it does. The MS-DOS is the connection between the user and the hardware.

No matter how powerful the hardware (keyboard, screen, printer, etc..), A computer can not do anything without the programs that form the logical structure and are called software.

The MS-DOS is an operating system for IBM and compatible computers and is called Disk Operating System because much of its operation involves managing disks and disk files. An operating system is operational function to put a machine and monitor and manage all system components.

DISK

Personal computers used units 51/4 (currently not used) and 31/2, these are the flexible disk, hard drive has a storage capacity far superior to that of the floppy disks.

Disk files

A disk file (file usually called) is a set of related information that is stored on a disk, can be a letter, a list of customers, etc..

Different versions of MS-DOS

The MS-DOS has been updated many times since it was released to the market in the year 1981, the first version had the identification number 1.00. The versions are made to increase the capacity of the operating system to take advantage of more sophisticated hardware elements and to correct errors.

THE TERM COMPATIBILITY

The term IBM or compatible essentially refers to the ability of a computer using programs and data created or stored in another computer. In daily use, the most significant measure of compatibility is the ability to be able to use the same programs, data and records on computers of different makes and models.

EJ: Software for PC and Macintosh

MAJOR UTILITIES MS-DOS

The MS-DOS computer coordinates the operation of our application programs. You can use the MS-DOS using instructions called commands for managing files, control the workflow and develop useful tasks that would otherwise require additional software.

Also:

* We can create and revise our text files

* MS-DOS can adapt to our needs

STARTING SYSTEM

The act of loading the MS-DOS program on the computer work area is called booting.

* Insert the MS-DOS disk in the floppy drive

* Turn on the computer

* Displayed: Starting MS-DOS …

* Displayed: The current date is Monday 08/09/1998

*

  • Enter the new date (dd-mm-yy): _

    * Displayed: The current time is 12:45:30.2

    *

  • Enter the new time:

    * Finally:

    * A: \> _

    CHARACTERS OF INTERACTION (PROMPT)

    The system prompt identifies the default drive, the drive where the MS-DOS searches for files, also called character interaction or command prompt, and is used by the MS-DOS to indicate this by asking you to enter a command.

    Ex:

    C: \> _

    A: \> _

    INTRODUCING MS-DOS COMMANDS

    The instructions we give the MS-DOS commands are called, generally being used keys: enter, reverse and turn signals.

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    FILE TYPES

    We consider three types:

    * Text Files: Contains information that can be seen. For example processors (with no COM and EXE extensions).

    * Data Files: Contains information that can be read by a program, but not a person. No extensions are COM or EXE.

    * Programs Files: contain computer programs can run. They COM and EXE extensions.

    Filenames and EXTENSIONS

    A file can have a name consisting of up to eight characters long, either letters or numbers. You can add a suffix – called extension – the file name to describe its contents more accurately. The extension can have a length of up to three characters, and there must be a point between the name and the file extension.

    Ex:

    INFORME.ENE

    INFORME.FEB

    INFORME.MAR

    SPECIAL EXTENSIONS

    Internal commands and external commands

    The commands are interns or residents who are transferred to memory when loading the OS and can run without having this in the DOS default drive from which you can run the command. The default unit is the unit in which it is, for example A: \> _, and the specified drive is one to which we address or specify being on another drive, for example C: \> B:, the unit specified is B.

    The internal commands are stored in a file called COMMAND.COM. Some of the internal commands are: dir, the, date, time.

    External commands as opposed to internal commands is stored in files called transient or external commands, and to run need these files, and external commands have names and can be copied from one disk to another.

    MAIN INTERNAL COMMANDS

    DOS and external

    CHANGING UNIT

    To change the unit is put the name of the unit, followed by a colon and the enter key is pressed

    Ex:

    A:> C: 8

    UPDATE AS OF THE DATE AND TIME SYSTEM

    COMMAND TIME: Sets the clock system. It is an internal command

    SYNTAX:

    TIME [HH: MM [: SS [. XX]] [A / P]]

    PARAMETERS:

    HH: Defines the hours, based on a 24 hour clock (0 to 23 where 0 is midnight)

    MM: Are the minutes (0 to 59). If not included, but HH is specified, the MS-DOS the reset

    SS: They are the second (0 to 59). This value is optional

    XX: Are hundredths of seconds (0 to 99). Optional. If you specify includes SS

    A / P: Define A.M. or P.M. respectively

    You can change the time format using the command in the CONFIG.SYS COUNTRY

    Ex:

    TIME 14:35

    DATE COMMAND: Set the system FEHA. It is an internal command

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    SYNTAX:

    DATE [MONTH-DAY-YEAR]

    MES: It is a number from 1 to 12

    DAY: It is a number between 1 and 31

    YEAR: A number between 80 and 99 (1980 to 2099)

    Ex:

    DATE 10/10/2002

    CLEAN SCREEN

    CLS COMMAND: is an internal command that clears the screen and displays the pointer system command

    SYNTAX:

    CLS

    Ex:

    CLS

    View version

    Command View: Displays the version of MS-DOS that is being used

    SYNTAX:

    SEE

    Ex:

    SEE

    DISPLAY LABEL

    COMMAND VOL: Displays the volume label and serial number assigned to a record, if any.

    SYNTAX:

    VOL [DRIVE:]

    Ex:

    Vol C:

    CHANGING THE SYSTEM PROMPT

    COMMAND PROMPT: Changes the system command plucking the string you specify.

    SYNTAX:

    PROMPT CHAIN

    PARAMETERS:

    Chain: The text to replace the current prompt

    You can specify any combination $ x following:

     

    Ex:

    $ D $ PROMPT $ P $ G

    System reset

    CTRL. + ALT + DEL

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    TEXT file creation

    Example:

    A: \> COPY WITH PRUEBA.DOC

    THIS IS A TEST FILE

    IS THE FIRST CREATED

    Under MS-DOS version 6.22

    CTRL + Z + ENTER

    1 FILE (S) START (S)

    A: \> COPY WITH NOTA.DOC

    THIS IS THE SECOND TEST FILE

    Under MS-DOS version 6.22

    COURSE: TWO

    CTRL + Z + ENTER

    1 FILE (S) START (S)

    CONSIDERED AS A TEXT FILE

    Example:

    A: \> TYPE NOTA.DOC

    THIS IS THE SECOND TEST FILE

    Under MS-DOS version 6.22

    COURSE: TWO

    A: \> TYPE PRUEBA.DOC

    THIS IS A TEST FILE

    IS THE FIRST CREATED

    Under MS-DOS version 6.22

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    PRINTING A TEXT FILE

    Example:

    A: \> COPY PRUEBA.DOC PRN

    Can also be printed using the PRINT command (external command)

    Example:

    A: \> PRINT PRUEBA.DOC

    COPYING A TEXT FILE

    The COPY command is one of the most versatile command of MS-DOS. The COPY command also duplicates files

    Ex: Duplicate file NOTA.DOC

    A: \> COPY PRUEBA.DOC CARTA.DOC

    1 file (s) copied (s)

    A: \> DIR

    DELETING A TEXT FILE

    The DEL command is used to delete files.

    Ex:

    A: \> DEL PRUEBA.DOC

    Now look at the result:

    A: \> DIR

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    MANAGEMENT DATA LINES

    The SORT command sorts lines or classified information, a list of names.

    Ex:

    A: \> SORT

    A: \> SORT / R PRUEBA.ORD

    A: \> SORT / R / 4 PRUEBA.ORD

    Viewing a LONG OUT

    One screen

    You can use the more command (external command) to display a long run one screen

    Ex:

    A: \> DIR | MORE

    How to send the output of a command

    A PRINTER

    Ex:

    A: \> DIR> PRN

    HOW TO FIND DIFFERENT CHARACTERS

    IN STOCK

    The find command searches for lines containing the string specified

    Ex:

    A: \> find “FILE” PRUEBA.DOC

    Management and Treatment

    FILE

    Using COPY create the following files:

    Report.doc

    INFORME.BAK

    BANCO.DOC

    VENTAS.ENE

    VENTAS.FEB

    VENTAS.MAR

    USE wildcards

    Wildcards let you manage multiple files simultaneously. This way when you want to do the same thing with multiple files (eg perhaps rename or delete), it is necessary to introduce a different command for each file.

    ELCOMODIN ASTERISK (*)

    Asterisk command facilitates use with groups of files with similar names or extensions, this character can make up the characters of the name oho archivoo hasa a three character extension.

    Ex:

    A: \> DIR SALES. *

    A: \> DIR V *

    A: \> DIR *. DOC

    USING question mark ()

    The question mark replaces only one character in a file name or extension. Usually the asterisk is used more often, the question is only used when vary one or two characters that are in the middle of a name or extension.

    Ex:

    A: \> DIR SALES. A

    USING MS-DOS HELP (HELP)

    For a list of commands for which you can get help, type HELP and press ENTER:

    Ex:

    A: \> HELP 8

    You can view help on a specific command directly typing HELP followed by the command name

    Ex:

    A: \> HELP DATE 8

    You can display a different kind of help, typing the command name followed by a space and the /

    Ex:

    A: \> DIR /

    The dir command and its parameters

    The dir command lists the files in the directory

    DIR [FILE NAME] / W / P / A :/ O / S / B / L / CH

    : Is the name of the file you want to examine, you can use wildcards or the name of a unit

    / W: Displays file names and extensions arranged in five columns

    / P: Displays the directory screens

    / A :: Displays input files that have the specified attribute, colons are optional and the attribute can be:

    * H: Show hidden files

    * S: Shows the system files

    * D: Displays only the name of the directories

    * A: Sample files whose security attributes are enabled

    * R: Displays only read-only files

    / O : Specifies the order they will be presented the directory entries.

    Can be any of the following parameters:

    * N: Sort entries alphabetically by file name from A to Z

    * E: Sort by extension alphabetically from A to Z

    * S: Order by Ascending size

    * G: Groups the directories before files (-G vice versa)

    / S: Displays all files in each subdirectory matching disc

    / B: Displays only the name and extensinde each file in the specified directory that match

    / L: Lists the directory entries in lowercase

    / CH: Displays the compression of files on a compressed drive.

    DIRECTORY command examples

    A: \> DIR / W

    A: \> DIR / W / P

    A: \> DIR / OE

    A: \> DIR / B

    A: \> DIR / AH

    A: \> DIR / AR

    A: \> DIR / W / P / ON

    A: \> DIR / AS

    FILE LISTINGS

    The TYPE command allows you to list the contents of a file

    TYPE

    Ex:

    A: \> TYPE report.doc

    A: \> TYPE VENTAS.FEB

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    EXECUTION OF COPIES OF ARCHIVES

    The copy command allows copying files out

    COPY

    is the name of the file to be copied (source file) and is the name of the copy is made (target file). Wildcards can also be used to make multiple copies at once.

    Ex:

    A: \> COPY report.doc INFORME.RES

    A: \> DIR

    C: \> COPY A: report.doc

    A: \> COPY VENTAS.ENE C:

    A: \> COPY VENTAS.MAR *. ABR

    A: \> COPY REPORT. * PREVIEW. *

    HOW TO SEND FILES TO PERIPHERAL

    When you send a copy of a file to a peripheral, the COPY command has two parameters:

    COPY

    Ex:

    A: \> COPY *. PRN DOC

    Combine files

    You can merge several files into one following the proper syntax:

    COPY

    : Represents the files that are to be combined

    Dest: Represents the file resulting from the combination of source files

    Ex:

    A: \> COPY report.doc + BANCO.DOC TOTAL.DOC

    A: \> DIR

    A: \> COPY VENTAS.FEB + + VENTAS.ABRL VENTAS.MAR

    A: \> DIR

    (To copy VENTAS.FEB)

    A: \> COPY SALES. * ANUAL.VEN

    A: \> DIR

    A: \> COPY *. BAK + *. DOC *. MIX

    A: \> DIR

    (Combines pairs creating files: INFORME.MIX and AVANCE.MIX

    Moving files

    The MOVE command moves a file from one place to another. Move works mostly like the Copy command, except that it leaves a copy of the file in the original position. Move is an external command.

    The MOVE command requires two parameters:

    MOVE / Y

    / Y: Indicates that you want to replace MOVE (the) file (s) present (s) without prompting

    /-Y: Indicates that you want to prompt the MOVE replace files

    : Is the name of the file to move

    : The name for the file in its new location

    Ex:

    A: \> MOVE report.doc C:

    A: \> MOVE *. * C:

    NOTE: This command will be used more chapter directory

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    Deleting files

    The DELETE command (you can type either DEL or ERASE) deletes one or more files from one disk

    The delete command has two parameters:

    DELETE / P

    / P Prompts for confirmation before deleting

    Ex:

    A: \> DEL VENTAS.ABR

    Create the files on your hard work:

    OFFICE.TEC

    DISEO.TEC

    ENSAMBLA.TEC

    A: \> DEL *. TEC / P

    Renaming Files

    The RENAME command renames the file, its size, or both, you can use wildcards to rename a set of files

    Can be abbreviated to REN

    RENAME command has the following parameters:

    RENAME NAME> ANTIGUO>

    Ex:

    A: \> REN ANUAL.VENT FINAL

    A: \> DIR

    A: \> REN VENTAS.MAR *. TRI

    A: \> DIR

    A: \> REN *. DOC *. TXT

    A: \> DIR

    Comparing files

    The FC command compares two files and lists the differences found in the screen.

    Ex:

    A: \> FC report.txt VENTAS.ENE

    Printing Files

    PRINT command is used to add a file to the print queue, erase this file, cancel all printing and display the names of the files in this. The PRINT command has four parameters:

    PRINT / P / C / T

    NAME> _ARCHIVO>: Is the name of the file to be added or deleted in the print queue. It introduced several files separated by a blank space

    / P (Print): Indicates the MS-DOS added to the print queue

    / C (Cancel): Indicates remove the print queue

    / T (Terminate): Stops all printing overrides the print queue

    Ex:

    A: \> PRINT report.txt

    A: \> PRINT report.doc BANCO.DOC

    A: \> PRINT / T

    A: \> PRINT *. TXT

    A: \> PRINT *. *

    RECORDS MANAGEMENT

    HANDLING OF DISKETTES

    INTRODUCTION

    Disks provide storage long term. The information recorded on the disks remains intact until it is deleted.

    The discs store information on magnetic surfaces. In a disk, the magnetic surface is a thin, flexible disk in a protective plastic cover. A hard drive has two or more hard disks stacked one above the other in a sealed box. A hard disk is also called fixed disk Fixed Disk or because it stays in your computer system.

    The information on the disks is divided into tracks (tracks), similar to the grooves on a music disc. Each track is a concentric circle that contains a certain amount of information. The more tracks contains a disc can store more information. A hard disk contains much more information than a floppy disk, because it has more sides and more tracks per side.

    FORMATTING DISKS

    Before you can use a diskette, you must first prepare using the FORMAT command. The disk may have been formatted or not before.

    When a disk is formatted, the MS-DOS FORMAT SAFE takes a default or secure format. Thanks to insurance formatting, a disk can be restored to its original condition, ie before formatting by UNFORMAT command, provided that no files are stored newly formatted disk.

    You can add the / U the FORMAT command to perform an unconditional format. If unconditionally formatting a disk by mistake, there are still chances of regaining the lost information, as long as the program is installed MIRROR before using the FORMAT command.

    STRUCTURE OF A DISK

    Formatting a disk, DOS reserves for its own use the outer race of the face 0.

    Then the disk space is separated into two areas:

    * The user area: Intended for recording programs or user data

    * The System Area: Area reserved for own use DOS

    System Area

    The System Area occupies about 2% of the total disk space and is further divided into:

    * Boot Sector (Boot)

    * FAT (File Allocation Table / File Allocation Table)

    * The root directory

    The boot sector

    The boot sector contains a program (BOOT) that starts the computer, turn it on or pressing the keys: CTRL + ALT + DEL.

    When you turn on the computer, it performs a series of diagnostic routines to ensure that the hardware is in good condition. If you have a hard disk or floppy disk system, the initialization of the ROM writes the boot record of the disk in the computer’s memory (RAM) and take control over.

    The program scans the disk initialization system files:

    * IO.SYS

    * MSDOS.SYS

    * COMMAND: COM

    To verify that the disk is a system disk.

    When the system finds the files: IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS the load on the computer and passes control to the DOS COMMAND.COM. During the process, the files are loaded CONFIG: SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT, and any such device driver VDISK.SYS.

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    By:

    Miguel A. Candela Chavez

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