Adolescence: General changes experienced

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General changes experienced during adolescence.

Physical changes:

During the elementary years, girls are as large or even larger than the children in your group. Between 11 to 14 years, on average girls are taller and have more children of their age. The difference in size can give advantage to girls in physical activities, although some may have a conflict and, as a result, underestimate their physical abilities. However, the difference in growth rate is more pronounced at the beginning of puberty.

Puberty is not an isolated act, but a series of changes that cover almost the entire body. The end result of all these changes is the ability to reproduce.

Girls usually start puberty two years earlier than boys and reach their maximum height at age 16, most children are growing up to 18 years. For a normal young, adolescence begins with breast development between 10 and 11 years and lasts about three years. While this is the average age, the age range is presented is 9 to 16 years. 80% of girls have their first period between 11 1/2 to 14 1/2 years. For the young rule, development begins between 11 and 12 years. In general, boys are more variable than the girls in regards to when these physical changes occur in adolescence. The time required for the submission of all the changes of puberty varies more in men and the range of differences in height and weight at the end of puberty, is higher for men than for women.

The physical changes that occur in adolescence have important effects on the individual’s identity.

Psychologists are interested in particular in the social, academic and emotional discovered among adolescents who mature early and those who take it anymore.

First, it appears that early maturation brings academic advantages. Generally, students who are physically mature tend to get higher scores on tests of mental ability than other students of the same age but less mature. Second, early maturation seems to have certain special advantages for young people. It is more likely that they enjoy a higher socioeconomic status tend to be the leading and most popular. On the other hand, late-maturing youth spend bad times. In addition, because women mature faster than men, even young people mature later be fully developed by the time late maturing youth finish their development. The last out of childhood could be many years surrounded by mature fellow. These young people are often less popular, and most anxious attention.

This situation seems unfair, especially because it is very little you can do to change your individual genetic clock. Subsequently, however, these young people have certain compensations.

Some studies show that, in adulthood, men who have matured before thinking less creative and less flexible, while those who matured late are more creative, perceptive and tolerant. Perhaps attempts (action to try) and the original anxieties by late maturity help some young people to solve problems better.

For young, early physical maturation seems to be less important in determining the social level. However, they mature faster than their peers may be a disadvantage.

Being larger than all other group is not a characteristic that is valued in our culture. Perhaps the girl begins to mature earlier, is the first to go through the changes of puberty. This can not be a worry for some, especially if they are not prepared for these changes or if friends tease her. It seems that girls who mature later have less problems, however, are afraid that something bad will happen All students can benefit known that maturation rate variability is large.

Physiological changes.

Puberty is the period of major changes physical, sexual and psychological. You can start at age 10 and end at 17. Puberty is located, for most boys and girls between 12 and 15 years. From that moment, are physiologically prepared for reproduction.

Do not forget that to be completely under the influence of hormones running at full speed, the behavior of boys and girls is the most strange and varied.

Puberty in females.

The most important indication of the onset of puberty in girls is the appearance of the first rule. However, numerous previous demonstrations indicate that something is changing in your body are evidence that the hormonal system has been based.

In the lower part of the brain are two closely related organs: the hypothalamus, which is the focus of regulation and control, and the pituitary gland, which is the head of all the hormonal system. At about 7 or 8 years, pituitary, stimulated by the hypothalamus, is operated and secretes two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). But still can not see the job. Later, with the gradual increase of these two hormones, sexual organs (ovaries) are operated. These, which in turn are stimulated by FSH and LH, secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. All this work is done slowly, so slowly the female genital organs are maturing to carry out the installation of reproductive function.

The first role of estrogen (which are hormones secreted by the ovaries) is to bring up the hair and order growth of breasts. This whole process takes place in the following order:

* Appears pubic hair around the labia and also shows how the disc protrudes slightly from the breast.

* While covering the pubic hair will thicken, topped by the buttons of the breasts.

* The breasts grow progressively but not yet developed the nipple or areola.

* The breast forms with areola (the area is something irregular skin surrounding the nipple), which extends and darkens, and the nipple, which enlarges and projects; pubic hair thickens and spreads. Usually at the time when the first menstruation.

* The breasts are fully developed, are marked with precision contours and underarm hair appears.

These transformations take about two years.

Puberty in males.

When the boy is the first ejaculation (the first expulsion of semen out of the penis), can be considered to have entered puberty. Corresponds to the first rule of women, but until the body of the guys can get to that state of affairs has to spend a longer time, about 3 years or so.

Age may be just as a matter rather variable, puberty can start at 14 or 15 years and continuing up to 18 or 20 years, also influences the heritage, but it is more difficult for parents to remember their first ejaculation, it is not as obvious as the first rule.

The pituitary gland is a small gland at the base of the brain, when stimulated by the hypothalamus secretes a hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The action of these two pituitary hormones is done, in men, testicles, producing the same result as we have seen in the development of women: the maturation of the genitalia that enables reproduction.

The FSH multiplies and matures germ cells found in the testes. These will become sperm. The glands such as the prostate, are responsible for the sperm will be suitable for fertilization.

Moreover LH causes the testes secrete a male hormone, testosterone, which gives male characters. In men, unlike women, the formation of germ cells occurs in cycles (which occurs in cycles), but is permanent throughout life.

The secretion of male hormones remains constant balance, so when the rate rises in blood testosterone, LH secretion is hampered by the pituitary and vice versa.

The transformations of sexual marks occur in the boy according to the following steps:


* At age 11, according to the average (9-13 years), the penis and testicles are the same as those of a 4 or 5 years, maybe you can see a slight pubic.

* At 12 years (average 10 to 14), the testes begin to increase in volume, pubic hairs are more visible but appear in a scattered or clear, the penis size varies.

* By age 13 (average between 11 and 16 years) pubic hair becomes more dense, curly and thick, covers more area, the penis begins to lengthen, the testes continue to increase their volume, multiplied by 8 in 3 years approx.

* The area forms a triangle of hair, it’s almost like the adult but takes lesser extent. The penis lengthens, the gland enlarges and becomes increasingly challenging (there may be some involuntary erections, ejaculations not followed, very early), skin color and takes another form some folds or pockets that gradually become darker and thicker.

* They appear early ejaculations, but not completed puberty until they reach 17 or 18 years (mean 15 and 21), when the genitals in form and framing are as an adult.

Secondary sexual characteristics:

Molting: the voice change, then, due to the action of testosterone. The form of the larynx avanzndose slightly altered.

The beard darkens when the chin and mustache mark a little, it means that puberty is already ending.

Hairs: Down the armpits grow quite late, first extends through the stomach to the navel, then in the bottom of the legs and above the testicles and penis grow past puberty and chest hair, in the hands and the sword.

Emotional changes.

Teenagers are faced with a dilemma, torn between the desire to fly with their own wings and fear of letting go of the hand of their parents. Opponents, who have to endure the bad mood, but that’s normal. Adolescence is a period of unrest, which raise serious doubts, contradictions, scores, excesses of all kinds, which are necessary at this stage that serves to affirm. Being lenient (easy to forgive), not go against, help them describe their personality, values of adult, this is the only way to live this stage, between parents and children, in an enriching. The road may be more or less painful, fast or braking attempts uncertain. We must learn to listen to can stop depression or other ends such as leaks, secret affiliations or until the worst case: suicide attempts.

While we must assume, however good or bad, your body changes, the teenager discovers he has to do one more thing and that is very important: take charge of your personal life.

The teenager realizes that it can not go on like this, being the boy or girl who obeys his parents. But no longer a child but not an adult, and then enters the identity crisis, not knowing who he is, he needs to discover at any cost what their benchmarks and it will go through several stages as doubt , rejection, provocation, experiences, anxiety, etc..

The change of mood.

Teens are often moody and nagging, sinking a sad little thing, become angry, furious and no one understands them. Adults do not know how to say and suddenly, they’re smiling, friendly, loving, etc..

Frequent changes in mood can have physiological root due to the discharge of hormones that drain into the organism (as when women are menstruating), or psychological causes. I out of my mind all these reasons so conventional that rely on many parents. Teenagers are dissatisfied beings and can understand why: they are unhappy with themselves, when they fail to know what to do or think or say, when they fail to organize their own impulses or desires.

They are quite egocentric (who believe they are the center of attraction) and do not like to be disturbed in their way of life.

Mood swings are also a reflection of what living inside; their love problems, disappointments, his poor grades, the certainty of failure makes them become grumpy, restless, grumpy.

It is difficult to get women.

Until puberty, the girls did not ask many things, because they looked like boys. With the arrival of the first rules, the girls realize that they are forced to become a young woman. Defined everything that has been coming to the guys and trying to imitate them. They are very comfortable, are becoming timid, sensitive, dream fantasies must find a way to stick to your personality. Also required, which is capable of dealing with the world begins to look masculine in other respects.

Are all difficult to collect all the models can not choose. Somehow, you feel cheated. Indeed, the young woman of today should be outspoken and intelligent, but turn sweet and subservient, but feminist athlete. Especially not to be frigid, but neither of exuberant sexuality, must be a mother and homemaker, and also study and make a living. They think it’s crazy what modern society calls it. They asked all the time: I’m normal, How to reconcile it all

It is difficult to become a man.

Since childhood, children are strongly influenced by their status as boy, a girl would look like the worst thing. In adolescence, men must discover their physical and intellectual gifts, must be made known in the field of sport, worry about your body, compared with their peers (I’m handsome, Quite muscular). In class, you must know what it quickly: o is a brilliant student and has an assured future, or is an average student and no longer presents the future as well.

It is also the age of the experiences, certain machine starts: their worldview on their parents (not as perfect as they seemed), girls (are more complicated than previously thought), in short, is the great moment of the deeds, the disappointments, the formation of personality. Finally you will make in your future is to build a life plan that is based on certain abstract values (friendship, generosity, culture, social status, etc.) or specific (bank account, house, travel with colleagues , home economics, etc.). This project should be done with the means at their disposal, are imposed disadvantages, which brings a lot of headaches.

Sexual Development.

Probably the most important aspect of the development during these years is sexually mature. Sexually mature adolescents have the necessary equipment to sex, however, in modern cultures, go through a long period of education or entertainment before that society deemed ready for marriage. The emotional effect of sexual experiences during this period may have implications for the school, both students involved, as peers who learn from their experiences. In decades past, it was more likely than men to have sex before marriage. Currently, about 60% of unmarried adolescents, men and women have had sex before age 19.

As their bodies mature sexually, teens must make some emotional and psychological adjustments. His position on what it means to be a man or woman has been developed for years, perhaps since childhood. Now, they must begin to consolidate their sexual identity and feel comfortable with it.

Teachers may have students from many different sizes, maturity, and sexual knowledge. As we have seen, very different from the others seems to be an advantage only for boys who mature earlier than their peers. For others, being different can cause them problems in their social and emotional development.

Many young people are surprised that adults give much importance to sex: “For me, flirting” and I do well, kissing, caressing, holding hands walking for hours, seeing eye to eye, we simply lean on a tree and covering up with the sweatshirt from prying eyes. The rest for later. Sex not care whether you do not go out with someone, often refuse sex until you are sure your partner sometimes postponed until the courtship to marriage to finishing school, etc. At the same time they say that to surrender to someone “you have to love to distraction.” And they’re right. Making love is not an act either, is one of the most remarkable, the most rich in sensations and, to be successful must be accompanied by a great deal of love, of tenderness, of emotion.

But who says teenager says “fragile”, easily influenced, soon everything for gossip, bragging or lack of affection, especially in families where there is disagreement, stiffness or slackness. Adolescents from these families will before other sexually active, but not so full.

In our society where love is easy, immediate pleasure triumph in cinemas everywhere, in every corner of the streets, and in magazines, we should not be naive and believe that adolescents are protected against the evils Always and forever.

We know that sex understood the full assumption of our bodies and their responsibilities. It is justified in the harmony of two beings that are achieved in time. Often, teenagers are not mature enough to take this experience, an imperfectly known running your body and have not yet acquired the sense of responsibility and want to know the consequences of their actions. Many times the “action step” results in failed acts, desencantadores, sometimes dramatic due to prematurity.

But we found some young people who tend to believe that candidates must have experience tended sex to be “normal” and put in relation to others, to be important in the eyes of others and to be accepted by others. The big question I’m normal Still scares. The pursuit of uniformity found in adolescence and, once again, we have to lament.

While there is no age for first sexual intercourse, youth will not pull anything satisfactory, nothing really positive sexual relationship that exists rush “to be like everyone else” or “to know what”, etc.. There rebel surveys that half of the boys interviewed stated that they had slept with girls who did not love, and only 25% of the girls recognized him.

Social importance of contraception ”

All agencies to reach maturity reproduce, so the population grows. Among humans, the population growth is very high. The advancement of medicine and technology have increased and so has decreased mortality. The birth rate makes the population increases, yet also brings problems. Family planning is a decision of a couple of the number of children they have and that they can offer. Currently, the health institutions for providing the information necessary for a couple to decide the number of children they will have.

Couples have the right to use the contraceptive method that suits them best use. If population growth is not balanced, humanity will self-destruct because resources are depleted.


The responsibility of parenting starts since being born again, so it is important to know the methods to prevent fertilization and to plan the family.

Natural methods in women:

The rate, which is to avoid sexual contact during ovulation.

Also taking basal temperature, which is to record daily temperature of women using a thermometer and record the data on a graph. When there was a decrease ovulation occurs.

The Billings method consisting flow observation secreted by the vagina because during the days when the egg matures, there is a whitish substance that manifests elastic ovulation.

Natural methods in men:

The natural method in man is called coitus interruptus, meaning download seminal fluid out of the vagina at the time of ejaculation.

Artificial methods:

Artificial methods are mechanical diaphragm, contraceptive sponge and intrauterine devices.

The diaphragm is a rubber or plastic dome shaped ring attached to a flexible metal that is placed in the upper end of the vagina over the cervix to block the passage of sperm, it can be safe if properly positioned, if you have the right size and if it stays in place about 6 hours after intercourse.

Intrauterine devices are elements of a flexible plastic and metal such as zinc or copper are placed in the uterus, can have a helix, ring or T. This needs to be placed and supervised by a physician.

Chemical methods can be spermicides or anovulatory. The first (jellies, creams. Foams, egg and showers) is n prepared from chemicals that destroy the sperm, it is recommended to use together with another contraceptive. The substances are anovulatory prepared from estrogen and progesterone and are presented as pills or injections. The pills are taken daily and injections are given every one to two months.

The only method that you can use artificial man is the condom. Surgical techniques are permanent. The woman has tubal ligation

(Tubal ligation), in man practiced surgery which bind the vas deferens (vasectomy).


SYPHILIS. – Also called Lues. Raised by a spirochete called treponema pallidiun. The infection occurs during sex. and indirectly transmitted through the patient’s personal items.

The first manifestation occurs 15 to 20 days after infection, is recognized by the appearance of a rash or nodule called chancre, is an injury to the

or a similar skin ulcer appears on the penis or the vaginal mucosa.

The chancre disappears spontaneously after 15 to 45 days. Then begins the danger, the individual thinks he has cured himself, syphilis him in the second stage. It is characterized by the appearance of red spots in large quantity;

affects the skin and internal organs can occur in 50 to 75 days after exposure.

If the patient continues without treatment these signs disappear again and enter a period of dormancy or rest, and after a few months or years begins the third


At this level may affect the syst. Causing nervous disorders. One aspect is that it can be transmitted from mother to child and is called congenital syphilis, and can cause abortion or fetal malformation.

Penicillin through the individual may be cured if the treatment is sought during the early stages of this disease. Arriving tertiary syphilis is now irreversible.

Gonorrhea. – It is the most common STD of all.

It can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth. In man appears at the time of urination and feeling a burning sensation of heartburn.

Purulent secret way that causes itchy in women also cause smelly secretions and causes much ardor.

In both sexes can cause sterility.

To diagnose gonorrhea practiced secretion analysis in order to find the neisseria gonococci.

To prevent this disease should avoid sexual contact.

GENITAL HERPES. – In man the disease appears on the penis and vagina in women as between red and yellow flares that produce clear transparent liquid. And the person feels pain, tingling, burning and burning.

In women may occur at the time of menstruation, in all cases may come and go for years. And it can be confused with syphilitic chancre.

Chancroid. – Is caused by a bacterium “Esteriptobacilo of Ducrey” airs objects, hands or sex of the patients. The first symptoms appear 3-5 days after exposure.

It is known by the appearance of soft ulcer, discharge burning, swelling and pain. Ointments and treated with antibiotics.

Acquired Immune SYNDROME (AIDS).

Immunity is the body’s ability to correspond to disease. This system works by detecting and attacking invaders.

The main areas are the blood vessels and lymph nodes, thymus and spleen to the bone marrow and are usually found in groin, armpit and neck.

When HIV enters the body enters the lymphatic system and then play the body is not responding to the virus for any disease to the flu can be deadly.

It is transmitted by blood and sex. 5 or 6 years after infection and can spread. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea and fever, swollen glands, night sweats and weight loss. 95% of cases result in death.

It can be prevented as well:

* Avoid sexual contact with patients.

* Avoid blood-transfusion unauthorized.

* Upon receiving unsterilized contact with objects.

* You need to use condoms for intercourse.

Anorexia And Bulimia

Girls who accumulate both an exaggerated consumption of snuff and alcohol, practicing some sport, sleep poorly and tend to eat in an unbalanced way, should have the full attention of parents, doctors and teachers. This behavior translates definitely some “boredom of life”, which usually leads to anorexia or bulimia.

Qualified marginal, these problems increase, unfortunately, in many ways, and represent a real nightmare for parents. They are always a reflection of psychological disturbance.

Mental anorexia and bulimia occur almost exclusively in girls you.

Anorexia: One of the most difficult conditions of life for parents and doctors to treat as both a method and another random result.

Appears in girls aged 13-14 or 15-16, and in similar circumstances:

– Obsessive fear of gaining weight: The girl starts before the summer regime to lose a kilo, with an iron will, manages to lose weight without problems, but, without being satisfied of the good results, and continuing the regime loses 10 to 15 kilos until it becomes a walking skeleton.

– Conflict or rivalry with the mother or the father.

– Penalty love (desire to hurt physically, of wanting to die, etc..).

However, no symptoms of illness or psychiatric problems. Rather he looks happy to continue losing weight, and very active in the physical and on the intellectual (improve school grades). However, since no rules (senl alarm) as hormonal secretions decrease because of the thinning. This does not happen if you take birth control. For her sexuality has no attraction, we could say that seems asexual. In fact, unconsciously rejects her femininity, transforming your body. It is relatively aware of the problem, but think you can leave when you want.

Bulimia: Not lighter than anorexia, may be less distressing for others, since I have not offered the same ghastly spectacle of thinness and think your life is not in danger. And, we’ve all been bulimic someday: Who has not ever eaten a chocolate bar or a giant ice cream to cheer

Just as the anorexic is content with his lot, the bulimic is unhappy, culpabilizada by the fact that it is impossible to contain. Indeed, during the crisis (one or two per week), the person suffering from this disease throws to anything, preferably sausages, bread, etc that can be eaten at any time, alone or sneaking about. Inevitably fattening or to compensate, induces vomiting, purging (take laxatives) or fasting. So find bulimics who are not obese. Spend the day with sleep, dizziness, stomach pain, depressed. One thing is certain: do not eat do not eat because you are hungry, eat to decrease anxiety sufferer. Eating gives him a sense of security, moral welfare.

Bulimia occurs, most of the time, at 14 or 15 years, the age at which conflicts with parents are more difficult and the relationship between mother and daughter are not easy. They blame each other: “My daughter does what he wants, no wonder you do such nonsense.” “My mother does not help me, mocks me a bad mother.” Above the psychological disturbance that is not that is not expressed openly, food guerrilla complicates everything!

Parents should give help without reproach, encouraging, understanding the conflict affront to parents and daughter, taking the initiative to talk to her when I can be. What is required is patience parents.

The combination of these two problems (anorexia and bulimia) is much more common than thought, the doctors see girls ranging between thinness and obesity most incredible, they spend 35 to 90 kg in a few months, and much worse supporting bulimia period.


In my opinion adolescence is a difficult period for many physical and emotional changes. It is a time when the child starts to become adult, but this growth is achieved gradually and in several years.

As we saw the body develops and this causes hormonal changes occur which result in the teen has many problems and different moods.

There is also the attraction to the opposite sex and the desire to perform sex, but as I mentioned earlier, there are diseases and unwanted pregnancies that could lead to a change in the adolescent’s life. Therefore we must be prevented with the use of condoms and safe sex. It is important to wait to achieve maturity to have sex and not have negative consequences in our lives, we also could lead to death.

In this period the social influence is very large, the young man feels misplaced and therefore any trends can be significant for him, so it is advisable to set standards and rules to carry out at home and school , so it is not as easy to motivate negative aspects (eg, drugs, alcohol, tobacco, prostitution, etc).

I also think that on TV and in film should make no such thin models, common people, for young women who take them as an influence not want to be so skinny and problems of anorexia and bulimia.

From what I learned in this job I can conclude that you should try to spend this time as calmly as possible, devoting our time to social and sporting activities that are for our benefit and helping others, dealing in our school work and social and avoiding the negative aspects and idleness that we do not lead to anything good.