* Applications of Chemistry in Food Industries
* Processes used in the food industry to preserve food
The chemistry is nowadays one of the processes applied in the food industry. Through food she suffer certain changes or modifications to its own preservation improving constituent properties.
Currently the population consume various amounts of chemicals found in food. This is because most foods are based on chemistry, contains a high level of addictive (sabonizantes and artificial colors) for making pepitos, pastries, and other sweets. Artificial colors such as yellow No. 5 that causes an upset stomach, allergies and more.
These industrial applications of food is causing some diseases that today have the modern consumer society, allergies, ulcers, upset stomach, gastritis, among others mentioned.
Applications of Chemistry in Food Industries:
The processes used in the food industry are the most important factor in the lives and in the search for solutions to preserve the characteristics of food for long periods, using proper procedures in the application of chemicals in foods such as cooling, freezing, pasteurization, drying, smoking, storage for chemicals and other similar character that they can apply these preservative solutions and human benefit.
Food industries as MERK have developed new products as flavoides, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3) for functional foods and dietary supplements. also offers vitamin and mineral supplements which MERK has been internationally recognized as a provider of quality, plus all the products are fortified with enzymes, antioxidants and preservatives, etc..
The additives are important in the value of processed foods, and foods that are employed over 2000 food additives, artificial colors, sweeteners, antimicrobials, antioxidants authorized for use in food.
Most of the food such as flour, canned, but further contains additives candies, pepitos.
Processes used in the food industry for preserving foodstuffs Through the application of chemistry:
1. – Nitrogen:
It is one of the most natural ways of giving protection to food of unwanted oxygen defects. Nitrogen meets certain availability, management and property preservation influencing them with chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics.
In the food industry, the nitrogen is applied in the production of fish and vegetable oils, animal fats, meats, dairy products. In grains like coffee, peanuts, almonds, walnuts, pastries and prepared foods. In juice and pulp of fruits and vegetables, wine storage, among others.
The application of nitrogen as inert gas keeps the organoleptic characteristics of food for long periods. These features are typically altered by the use of conventional methods.
The packing with protective atmosphere of nitrogen, allows to eliminate bacterial and chemical changes experienced by foodstuffs in conventional processes.
* Holding organoleptic qualities.
* Holding of nutrients.
* Canned Heat.
* Do not allow the growth of bacteria.
* Your application can be made in existing plants and in all lines packaged systems.
2. – Cryogenic freezing (freeze drying):
This process involves the application of intense cold to reduce the temperature at -18 C minimum, thereby blocking the biochemical reactions that destroy enzymatic processes food. –
Freezing by conventional systems requires long periods, undergoing cell dehydration foods, protein loss, color, flavor, etc., Missing up to 10% by weight of H2.
* Applicable to different products: meats, vegetables, fruits, prepared foods, etc..
* Dehydration of less than 0.5% weight.
* Fastness of surface appearance.
* Significant reduction of investment costs.
3. – Criopulverizacin:
These are substances which have low softening points or thermosensitive as products from rubber, oil products, food and pharmaceutical products as well as some materials which can not be crushed in conventional mills are today easily and cheaply sprayed with liquid nitrogen.
In the coffee industry, sugar, spices and oilseeds, etc., This application provides additional benefits such as:
* Increases production.
* Reduction in energy consumption
* Product homogeneity and reduction of recyclable material.
4. – The Hydrogen:
In the fats, oils and fatty acids, the hydrogen is applied to modify some physical – chemical properties such as melting point, chemical stability and decreased color and odor.
Edible oils are commonly hydrogenated soybean, palm, peanut and corn.
5. – Sparger:
liquids have many unwanted dissolved gases (O2) that cause damage or poor product quality. These gases are removed by fluid Sparger system, maintaining product purity.
Oxicar puts their hands on this technology for food processing, chemical, petrochemical and oil.
6. – Irradiation:
is exposed to high levels of radiation to kill harmful insects and bacteria, then packaged in sealed containers in which they can be stored for months without spoiling.
The radiation sources used to preserve most foods are: cobalt (60) and cesium (137) which are emitters and can also be used X-rays and electron rays.
Through radiation can destroy nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids.
7. – Ionizing Radiation:
Produces reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals which in turn react with organic molecules and produce potentially dangerous substances. Interestingly new effects occur during the cooking of food.
Let’s look at several examples of industries that form food and chemistry apply:
* Mavesa – S.A. Caracas
1. – Margarine
Hydrogenated vegetable oils and hydrogenated H2O sobarto potassium, citric acid, antioxidants, calcium disodium (EDTA), vitamins.
* Cargill – Venezuela
1. – Wheat balanced
Fe, P, Ca
* Nesttle – Venezuela
Monosodium glutamate, vegetable oil, corn starch (maggi chicken soup).
* Nutrition Norvates Venezuela
Yukery (native fruit casting) citric acid, vitamin C, Na, Ca, Fe
* Food Factory Chispirin C.A.
Vegetable oil, color annatto, cheese and salt.
* Quaker Products
Artificial flavor and color (additives), ascorbic acid, citric acid, CMC and BHA.
* Kraft Inc.
Fe, folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, glucose, HCO3 (NH4), NaHCO3, Ca3PO4.
Margarine, hydrogenated oil, H2O, soybean lectin, monoglycerides, sodium benzonato, sobarto of potsio, calcium disodium (EDTA), lactic cultures, vitamin A, betacoroteno.
* Cargill – Venezuela
2. – Vegetable oil Vatel
Paper given by:
JORGE L. T. CASTILLO