* Origin and evolution of the University
* The University in Latin America or Latin America
* Constant university revolution
* The university reform of 1918 (Argentina)
* World University
* Consulted bibliography
Origin and evolution of the University
The term comes from the Latin university (universitas – atis), meaning the facility or educational institution devoted to higher education, and the fascinating world of research, where they produce, reproduce and recreate knowledge. It is unknown the exact date of its inception, such as University, but can trace its appearance with other denominations, such as imperial academies of higher learning in Asia around the time of Confucius, Zhu Xi and Zhang Shi. Probably these schools or settlement of molding or casting studies were definitive basis of existing universities.
1.2. SOURCE Eastern or Western.
While it is true that during ancient times, came the great schools, such as Athens Academy founded by Plato, about 388 years BC, Persian and Arabic schools appear, which appear to have initiated the process that led to the modern university. During the late fourth century and the famous V operating schools of Edessa and Nisibis, founded by Syrian Christians (Nestorians), organized as communities of teachers, dedicated to biblical exegesis. In 489, the Nestorian Christians are expelled from the Byzantine Empire, so that they, led by Nestorius, patriarch of Jerusalem, decided to move to Persia, where they are well received and established the School of Medicine Gondishapur, which will be celebrated throughout the world.
1.3. THE UNIVERSITY AS THE BIGGEST FRUIT OF THE MIDDLE AGES
Probably the establishment of universities was one of the greatest contributions of this dark time for humanity over the centuries has been refined over the nuances in the service of society, including some universities consider.
a. THE UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA .- Possibly the oldest university in Europe and the Western world, having been founded in Bologna, Italy, in 1088, by Irnerio, from municipal schools, a characteristic that distinguishes it from other major European universities Episcopal departing. The University of Bologna appears as law school, where teachers and direction depended on the commune, in their classrooms studied Dante and Petrarch. The Italian writer and semiotician Umberto Eco, he has held the chair of semiotics at the university. And former Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi, has been professor of the economics department.
b. THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS .- This historic university (Sorbonne), founded in 1150, institutional model that emerged from within the church, special openings, mostly oriented religious belief as a result of the boom that characterized the Dark Ages, a long time, where man in his way, God centered worship, limiting this approach, scientific progress.
c. UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD .- oldest university in the world, speaking English, which was founded around the year 1096, located in England.
d. UNIVERSITY OF PALENCIA .- Known colloquially as the University of Palencia, devoted to general study, Theology and Arts (Trivium and Quadrivium), founded by the year 1208, in Spain, and one of the first in the old continent.
e. MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY MODEL .- The structure of the University of Paris, comprising four faculties, three higher order: theology, law and medicine and basic consisting of the trivium, including: grammar, rhetoric and dialectic logic, and quadrivium which included: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. During this time, we can argue that college focused on God as understood and interpreted how the men of those times. Scholasticism spanned much of the story to his influence, which was tied up before the Renaissance universities, exaggerating, Aristotle away from life strongly influenced by universities.
As a result of the divine presence in the Middle Ages, science developed as independent efforts1.4. RENAISSANCE UNIVERSITY .- After darkness, slowly science was strongly penetrating the University Senate, laying the ideological basis that meets the need of the time, low thoughts of great personalities who touched them to direct the destinies of a country in a given time.
The earliest European universities were founded by the Arabs, acting as a bridge between university-based Arabic and modern European universities, including dare we mention:
* University of Bologna, Salerno (Italy) in 1088.
* University of Oxford (England) in 1096.
* University of Paris (France) in 1150.
* University of Modena (Italy) in 1175.
* University of Cambridge (England) around 1208.
* University of Palencia (Spain) in 1208.
* University of Salamanca (Spain) in 1218.
* University of Papua (Italy) in 1222.
In European universities, germinated slowly empirical method of thought, producing scientific discoveries and cultural developments giving rise to the industrial revolution and technological society from the XVIII century. Parallel to the global expansion of Europe, will become knowledge centers in the world until the nineteenth century. The founding of universities gave rise to development in old Europe, remaining until today, passing it culture worldwide, among which stand today, arbitrarily quote:
b. UNIVERSITY OF ASIA .- It is precisely in these places, where they began teaching based on a profound philosophy that today we can see that influence in their society is highly sensitive toward the mysterious, sometimes impenetrable.
c. UNIVERSITY OF OCEANIA .- Influenced by European and Asian universities, universities are defined today as highly pragmatic, scientific and humanistic.
d. AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES .- basically founded by European settlers on this continent beaten, called with good reason, the world’s hope for the coming century.
e. AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES.
The presence of universities in the Americas, dating shortly after the arrival of Europeans, based in the Dominican Republic, the University of Santo Domingo in 1538, San Marcos in 1551 and Mexico in 1553, implanting the model of the medieval University of Salamanca founded by the Spanish. In North America (U.S. and Canada), the universities, were founded by the British and French, the first, Harvard University, 1636, Yale in 1701, Columbia, in 1751, Princeton in 1756 inspired by that of Oxford. Some U.S. universities use the term instead of University College (Boston College, College Dartmouht, ect) or Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he works most often cited living scientist in the world, Noam Chomsky. After the Second World War, the United States emerged as a world superpower with the decline of old Europe and experienced the presence of thousands of intellectuals and scientists from Germany and other countries, achieving a singular development.
From this we can deduce the enormous difference that exists within the same continent, from the creation of universities in Latin America were created by Portuguese and Spanish settlers, “medieval”, while the universities created in countries north of were created by English-speaking pioneers “freethinkers” British, perhaps this is the answer to the huge gap that separates us, paradoxically, within the Americas, were created under different and even opposing ideas on the design of the world.
After a brief stroll through the universities, we present the following table with the number of inhabitants which puts into question the quality of which boast today, noting the following table is in Latin America where there are more college than in the old continent, however, our continent is one of the poorest, the gap between rich and poor is huge, then the question arises, perhaps the creation of many universities will solve the problems, probably not, because the amount is different quality. The important thing is that universities educate future professionals from a global perspective, no matter how many students could potentially, but what matters is quality.
The University in Latin America or Latin America
The original model introduced in our continent college, Spanish was practically medieval universities.
The title of the first university in the New World, ranging from the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (in 1538, operating under Royal Charter since 1558) and the University of San Marcos, (in 1551, 1 st in obtaining the Royal Charter). He later founded the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (in 1551) direct antecedent of the UNAM, considered the best Latin American university.
Peruvian universities is governed by the University Act, No. 23733, 1983, its various amendments and the Constitution of Peru. With the founding of the University of San Marcos, starts college life in our country and in South America, under the initiatives of the Dominicans, to the extent that teachers were incorporating various specialties was opening towards liberal ideas, arriving at 1574, when adopting the name of San Marcos. Then he created the University of San Cristobal de Huamanga, (1677) and San Antonio Abad del Cusco, (1692). These universities initially benefited the nobility or upper class or aristocratic, calling him an elitist universities.
During the Republican era founded the University of Trujillo, in 1824, then the University of Arequipa in 1828. When the Russian revolution in Europe moving story set in the year 1917 he founded the first private university, the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru.
Universities in the past favored the elites now college men must build and supportive colleagues to advance their studies, seeking an appropriate educational community, the word or the feelings of friendship is the key to a successful college career, building a balance between teaching and learning focused on students as individuals, open to new ideas of the global village in order to transform their environment in pursuit of a better world.
The continuing revolution university.
“Never mind the dangers or the sacrifices of a man or a people, when it concerns the fate of mankind.” Ernesto “Che” Guevara, the son of the university revolution.
Understood by the University to open to new ideas, debate heights, the constant struggle of ideas, University of revolution is synonymous with struggle against dogmatism, facing the real revolution, revolution, fighting the scourges afflicting humanity revolution that breaks borders and border patriotism, revolution that seeks a more united and better for all revolution that bridges the gap between rich and poor, revolution that humanizes modern man based on the education revolution that opens hearts to all cultures. Looking from this perspective, the university landscape is a world to discover, rediscover and recreate a better world, in short, we believe the university should aim towards the globalization of solidarity.
The university reform of 1918 (Argentina)
The evolution of science and education are spiritual and cultural phenomena, where the responsibility of intellectuals to the social problems, are commitments to educational, social and human. Putting into question the mode of instruction, guidance teachers and the quality is in Cordova, 1918, (Argentina) students take the University of Cordoba and Argentina fly the flag, start a great cultural movement that spread throughout Latin America, known by the name of the university reform. The movement has been kept alive over the decades and has been pushing for Latin American universities are organized according to the principles of independence, student co-government, university extension, access and competition schedule for the chair, academic freedom and Chair parallel, wide and free access, integration in society, which aims to excellence based on quality.
a. IMPORTANT EVENTS DETERMINING THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSITY REFORM IN ARGENTINA:
* World War I did understand that the powerful countries, shared markets as well as military victories.
* The universities of Argentina and other Latin America had fallen behind in time, still maintained the same paradigm of earlier centuries.
* In the universities the teachers were appointed from their family or friends, and even today you can see in some universities in Peru, if not, we would have the most competent professionals who produce research exercise in public and private universities, which change our world position, because the quality is not related to the quantitative.
b. SPREADING THE REFORM MOVEMENT .- The University of Cordoba became a few months, the symbol of the student revolt throughout Latin America. The events were spread throughout Argentina crossing borders throughout the continent. In Peru, the university reform was echoed by extraordinary leaders, Victor Ra’ul Haya de la Torre, Jose Carlos Mariategui and many others, gave new impetus to the reform movement translating into limited implementation in university life, perhaps because of the unwillingness of the class power.
c. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE UNIVERSITY REFORM .- This revolution meant many changes at all levels of Latin American universities open to research, academic freedom, free competition teachers, university autonomy, co-governance of the university, now we can see some progress but never all, and that revolutions in other words, paradigms are changing and they must be renewed and adapted from time to time, since everything evolves and nothing remains static in this era of globalization, is it necessary intellectual revolution solidarity
e. Academic freedom ONE OF THE MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 1918 REVOLUTION .- Academic freedom is a fundamental right of academic freedom, consisting in developing students’ thinking from all optical potential, monitored by instructors with extensive borderless skills and ideas, introducing discussions in light of the reasoning. Academic freedom is to become a teacher with high responsibility, far from imposing outdated ideologies. So would the Pegunta in these times of globalization and excessive pragmatism: There will be academic freedom in Peruvian universities, Some teachers will dare to put the question the curriculum, Reading some books called banned, Because we are forgetting read the Bible.
It is quite an unforgettable experience of new discoveries based on research and human solidarity towards the weakest, but this bit is practiced by limited financial and human resources now with this phenomenon of rampant consumerism and the savage competition and dehumanizing.
1.9.1. UNIVERSITY .- educational institution of higher academic standards in the country, consisting of teachers, students, staff and graduate students engaged in research, education, dissemination of knowledge, culture, extension and outreach. It is an educational institution of higher education which creates and recreates new knowledge, then, if a university does not contribute to the development of their country, region, through research, projects, scholars say, the university should close its doors , many.
1.9.2. I PURPOSES OF THE UNIVERSITY FUNCTIONS .- Within the purposes and functions of the university can support the following:
a. Conservation, enhancement and transmission of universal culture with a sense of creative, critical, saying national and universal values.
b. Research in the humanities, science, technology and the promotion of intellectual and artistic creation.
c. – Training of humanists, scientists and professionals to the needs of the country and the planet.
d. Development of ethical and human values based on the responsible attitude and social solidarity.
e. Extending its range of services to the community by promoting integral development, eradicating the scourges afflicting humanity appealing to the investigation.
1.9.3. PRINCIPLES OF THE UNIVERSITY .- probably include:
a. The search for truth, the affirmation of values and community service.
b. Pluralism and freedom of critical thought, expression and academic, with loyalty to constitutional principles and universal.
c. The rejection of all forms of violence, intolerance, discrimination and ideological dependence or other factors affecting mankind and the planet.
d. The continuing construction of a better world in solidarity.
1.9.4. OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIVERSITY .- The purpose of a university can be summarized perhaps in the words of the great philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset, “The university should not only be professionals or specialists, but also and especially educated men. Understanding of culture is not set anachronistic language and systems of thought “classic”, but that set of living ideas that man needs to navigate the world that he lives “, added, educated and supportive.
Add some goals of the university in 2015.
* Determine the mission and core functions of universities in the current context and the new role of public and private universities as generators of knowledge.
* The full development of university education, meeting the criteria of quality and social adjustment in the global context of the emerging knowledge society.
* Increase research capacity and the impact thereof on the progress, welfare and competitiveness.
* Improving the capacity of universities to serve the social and economic needs of the country, as well as cultural vitality and human progress.
* Increase funding for universities based on goals and projects, and improve the policy of scholarships, grants and student loans
* Increase the autonomy and specialization of universities and their accountability to society
* Support the professional development and social value of university staff
* Bridging the gap between rich and poor.
* Promote sustainable environmental education.
* To build a caring society, tolerant and free.
1.9.5. MISSION AND VISION OF THE UNIVERSITY .- Here.
1.9.6. UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATION .- The organizational structure of a university usually has.
a. POWERS .- Composed of faculty and students, and curriculum, under the authority of the Dean. Here we study a discipline or career, as the affinity of its contents.
b. .- ACADEMIC SCHOOL OR DEPARTMENT integrated schools by teachers of the same specialty, coordinating the academic activities of its members and determine and update the syllabus according to the requirements of the powers cuirriculares according to the changing times, the departments serving one or more schools by specialty.
1.9.7. ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY .- Let
a. UNIVERSITY ASSEMBLY .- The highest body of the institution, represents the entire university community and ensures the proper functioning of the university, consisting of the rector, the rector, deans of faculties, directors of graduate schools, representatives of teachers, student representatives, representatives of the graduates, and representatives of administrative and why not, representatives of the civil community.
The University Assembly representing the university community and have many functions that benefit the good development of the university.
b. THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL .- Authority senior management promotion and implementation of the university. Consists of the rector and the rector, the deans of the colleges and the graduate school, when available, by student representatives, representatives of the graduates. In many cases the College Board is both part of University Assembly.
c. THE RECTOR .- Is responsible, with the University Council who presides over the executive management of the university, representatives and legal representative of the institution. To suck the rector is required at least hold a PhD degree, professional competence and high moral qualities tested.
d. THE DEAN .- directs schools throughout his term, for this function is required to possess a doctoral degree or Phd, professional competence and high moral qualities.
e. SCHOOL DIRECTORS .- They run schools, undergraduate doctoral degree is sufficient, while for direct graduate schools require hold a PhD degree and high moral qualities respectively.
f. TEACHERS .- When we talk of university professors, immediately we are talking about professionals, soldiers of culture, researchers who produce knowledge, and produce new knowledge, considering the teacher as the soul of the university.
g. STUDENTS .- Of course the main protagonists of university life, some are assessed, some not, there must be a careful selection of future professionals in the training process, we do not share the tedious evaluation of university entrance, as well as assisting so-called centers, PRE, they should be free and only within them proceed to a strict selection and rigorous, because we are discriminating when evaluating, while if there were no review would open the door for all, democratizing education would aim at developing Peruvian educational skills, professionals who require a globalized world.
h. ACADEMIC DEGREES AWARDED TO THE UNIVERSITY .- In universities usually study for ten cycles or more, depending on the races, which are awarded upon completion of a bachelor’s degree or designation of the profession. As for degrees, the university awards the first bachelor’s degree, then the master’s, or master teacher, then the Doctor and then her PhD, Post Doctoral called, doctor of philosophy.
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Wilfredo Villegas David Auris
W. Auris David Villegas, Peru (1975). Writer, educator, professor of literature and science teaching, graduated from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, and MA in education from the University of Havana in Cuba.
In 2005 he published his book of short stories, “Tales of Midnight”, the same year he founded and edited the cultural magazine of education, “Rickchari llacta” In 2006 he published his poems, “Tomorrow when I go, think of me” ” Study Strategies and methodology of college “and” Reading Comprehension for Life. ”
DATE: December, 2009.