BA brief chronology 1810 1880

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1. Ruptures and institutional legacy of the Spanish Empire

3. The Big Board

4. The First Triumvirate

5. The Second Triumvirate

6. The Assembly of Year XIII

7. The Congress of Tucumn

8. Pueyrredn Directory

9. The Fall of Pueyrredn

10. The Constitution of 1819

1. Ruptures and institutional legacy of the Spanish Empire

The May Revolution ended the colonial order and began a bitter struggle for independence and unification. Although the Self-government was introduced in an attempt to deepen and accelerate commercial prosperity, but instead caused a prolonged economic disruption, decades of civil war and a drop in the dictatorship.

Drivers of revolution used, initially, the same institution colonial and political structure to impose his authority and order immediately. Thus, the Central Board of Buenos Aires replaced the Viceroy and to the name of Fernando VII was used as a bonding and power.

The immediate years that followed the revolution were marked by witnessing the birth of a vortex of competing political forces.

The main features of this period are the following: (1810-1820)

– Gradually consolidated regional self-government and eventually de jure emancipation.

– The price of territorial fragmentation, the collapse of a common authority effectively and a deep economic crisis.

Attitudes which in each region took the news of the revolution were different: in areas where the prestige of the crown was worn, this event was received with gratitude and unconditional support had (Santa Fe, Corrientes, Salta Intendance , etc.). But the attitude was opposed in regions that were dominated by people loyal to the Bourbons (Montevideo, Upper Peru, Asuncin) to which the board spared no effort to try to subordinate.

The act of breaking the imperial power meant no immediate impersonation colonial state, for a national state. Gradually, as muster support were achieved were going from municipal and regional lifts then national.

The weak state apparatus of the independence period were superimposed was political bodies (boards, triumvirates, directories) with the intent to replace the system of colonial domination and establish a power pole around which constitute a national state.

These attempts were not always successful, and in many cases resulted in long periods of regional conflicts and struggles between political factions, in which the existence of the national government was based on the external recognition of their political sovereignty.

The failure was due to the lack of territorial integration, derived from the precariousness of markets and exacerbated by the disruption of ties with the old metropolis.

The real possibility of a more integrated and complex, coupled with the preservation of certain colonial institutions as instruments of political control, provided the cement that amalgamaran territorially settled society and the emerging system of domination in a National State into a national state. This would explain why, in cases such as Argentina, weak regional economies, territorial extent, the difficulties of communication and transportation, the prolonged civil strife, etc., delayed for years the moment that such a mixture would occur.

May 20, 1810. By a proclamation, on May 18, 1810, Viceroy Cisneros confirmed rumors about the fall in French hands of Sevilla and the Central Board that it worked. Cisneros called loyalty to Fernando VII, but it was too late: the unrest became increasingly intense. For days, the Creoles were you arguing about what to do about the situation in question.

In the morning of 20, after several meetings, it was decided to apply for authorization to the viceroy to call a Town Meeting, institutional formula for a ruling from the city residents.

The Viceroy Cisneros and his supporters were able to delay the matter. Only agreed to convene a Town Meeting after meeting with militia leaders. In this query, represented by Saavedra, the military stated their position: the viceroy had to admit, because its mandate had expired after the fall of the Spanish Central Board. The fate of the viceroy was cast.

May 21, 1810. Gunmen occupied the Victory Square and demanded the convening cries a Town Meeting and destituyese Viceroy Cisneros.

Such was the tumult in the square, alarmed, lobbyists were quick to ask the viceroy to authorize the call for a Town Meeting. Cisneros signed the call and called Saavedra, Patricios Regiment commander, to reassure neighbors who were in the square.

May 22, 1810. In the morning he opened the debate, which aimed to make a decision about the permanence or otherwise of the Spanish authorities in the Rio de La Plata. The vote was extended from 22 to midnight. It was resolved that the meeting would continue the next day.

May 23, 1810. At ten o’clock reconvened Common Council. Despite the agreement, announced that the Open Meeting and did not resume the counting of votes from the previous day.

The 155 votes that were for the cessation of Viceroy included various positions:

The formula proposed by Saavedra-delegate to the council the temporary command until it formed a governing-won with 87 votes.

May 24, 1810. In the morning, in session behind closed doors, the council proceeded to constitute the Board, as was clear from the majority of the votes. In these circumstances, the trustee believed Julian Leyva satisfy all sides forming the next Board:

– Chairman: B. H. De Cisneros.

– Members: Cornelio Saavedra (military), John N. Sola (ecclesiastical), Juan Jos Castelli (lawyer), J. Inchurregui Saints (merchant).

The Cabildo apparently satisfied with the outcome of the vote but imposed indeed legalistic position. The same viceroy whose dismissal had been passed by the majority, was the president of the Board. Few lobbyists warned clearly that it was a legal ploy. In the Plaza de la Victoria, however, to spread the news of the composition of the Board, the tension grew. This triggered the resignation of Saavedra and Castelli.

May 25, 1810. During the morning meeting lobbyists were willing to reject the resignations, claiming that the Board had no authority to refuse to exercise a power which the people had given him. The lobbyists relied on the support of military forces to support this position.

Back in the square, went into action the “sparklers”. Just found out about the rejection of the resignations, many of them entered the chapter room and there, as representatives of the people who were in the square, said the widespread disgust and disappointment.

At a meeting, the militia leaders announced they were returning to withdraw support for the council. Meanwhile, the people gathered in the square demanding to know what was happening. The City Council had no alternative but to call for his resignation and the dissolution Cisneros Board presiding. The patriotic side took the opportunity to argue that only the people should assume full authority. To save time, the council argued that such a petition must be in writing. The text, which had been written during the previous night, was introduced immediately. Thus was born the First Government.

2. First Government

It was the expression of the first government formed by Creoles. The purpose of this meeting was to convene representatives from each province to consider attitudes to take to the new situation in the region. He was the one that caused the revolution. The board hoped to achieve the alliance of metropolitan regions with the rebellion.

Within this infighting occur mainly between Moreno (sec.) and Saavedra (pte). The first wanted to achieve immediate independence and the proclamation of a republic politically centralized in Buenos Aires. Saavedra in turn, supported the “self-rule” under the “mask of Ferdinand”, and was a proponent of shared governance with the regions. Saavedra out winner of this litigation and continuing with his moderate line, make the Big Board, to include representatives of the Interior (2 MPs). Moreno resigned and embarked for a diplomatic mission in Europe. On March 4, 1811, died at sea.

3. The Big Board

The regulation of 25 May 1810 stated that the inner cities should send deputies to Buenos Aires to form a Congress. Two days later, a circular inviting them to join the board, but Moreno delayed everything until December when he resigned. However, the victory was very fragile saavedrista: the opposition meeting in the Patriotic Society and supported by the council, still active and won positions. Due to different military campaigns failed former Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata loses control over Upper Peru, Paraguay and Montevideo.

4. The First Triumvirate

Following the failure of Saavedra, mainly military, and the “discomfort” of the Board, who can meet with many members who never achieve an agreement, this is offset by a triumvirate, government three people (the First Triumvirate) and accompanied by a Board Conservative (where fall the other members of the Big Board), for the total opposite of Artigas, who is the Big Board dissolved and provincial. The Government member of the trio is comprised of: Paso, Chiclana and Sarratea. With a provisional statute which created a general assembly of unlimited powers. Urged by Rivadavia, the Triumvirate attempt to achieve the support of Britain, to impose a Constitutional Monarchy (idea previously held by Belgrano). Comes from within a growing rejection of the policy of the Triumvirate and an approach to Artigas.

In 1812, growing political movement under the slogan: “Independence, Constitution and Democracy”, the so-called Patriotic Society, led by San Martn, which brought down the Triumvirate, demanding a more vigorous struggle for emancipation and to win over Artigas and the Interior, proposed the convening of Congress.

5. The Second Triumvirate

According to the Provisional Statute in October should be the choice of successor Sarratea, whose term on the Triumvirate ceased. The candidate favored by the Lodge was Bernardo Monteagudo, a staunch opponent of Rivadavia. Monteagudo was elected and then disqualified him for unfounded cases. Before this move, the people began to complain about a more “decent” people in the Triumvirate. The council agreed to appoint a new executive, or Second Triumvirate, “linked to the essential convening a General Assembly” – as recorded in the minutes – composed of Juan Jos Paso, Antonio lvarez Jonte and Nicols Rodrguez Pea (the last two members of the Logia Lautaro). For this, the first had ruled for one year and fifteen days.

6. The Assembly of Year XIII

The influence of the Lodge

After the Revolution of October 8, 1812, the second triumvirate was the figurehead of the real power: that exercised by the Lautaro Lodge, which proposed radicalize moderate policy followed by the revolutionary governments since 1810. The convening of a Constituent Assembly, dated October 24, clarified that “free neighbors and patriots” should elect representatives: four Buenos Aires, two in each capital city quartermaster and Tucuman, and one for the rest of the cities. The Lodge reached for all resources to ensure that those elected were related to its policy. In early 1813, all augured the organization of a new independent state.

On January 31, 1813, Congress met planned, taking care to give due representation to the interior, and with the intention of logarar social equality. It is modeled after the Constituent Assembly of 1789 (liberty, equality, fraternity). Although the main function is to draft a constitution, many resolutions are achieved, the most important were:

– Abolished the services of the Indians (mita, encomienda and yanaconazgo).

– Deletes the entail.

– Were canceled titles of nobility and landed estates.

– He left the slave trade and freed the children of slaves born after installation (free birth) and all slaves from entering our territory. In the latter arrangement would be excluded, then fugitives from Brazil.

– Abolished the Inquisition and judicial torture.

– Was declared sovereign and imposed the name “United Provinces of the River Plate”.

– Create the Directory Supreme (man rule).

– Creation of the first coin homeland.

– Creation of national emblem

– Declared National Anthem song.

– It failed in the attempt to dictate the constitution, by the rejection of the requirements of the deputies of Artigas, however, the foundations are laid for a constitution.

– Nor is declared independence, but you are looking for the way to identify us as a nation.

Then, one of the decisions of the Assembly, is the appointment of a new form of government, the Board, which shall be accompanied and advised by a Council of State of nine members. Finally, in the office of Director Gervasio Antonio Posadas is assumed by the January 31, 1814 and must face numerous problems including the decision to end the site Artigas in Montevideo, and later, to appoint replacement Rondeau in the Army Northern troops rioting. Posadas, feeling unauthorized, resigned, and the Assembly appointed the same Alvear “Director of State”. Alvear not sustained too long, and problems with Artigas, the council asked for his resignation and the dissolution of the General Assembly. Then the council appointed a new director Rondeau, who estabaen Jujuy Army front and created a Board Observer to the provinces convene a General Congress. This Board, composed of five members, drafted a charter TEMPORARY authorizing the Director to convene all cities to choose and send deputies to a Constituent Assembly to meet in Tucumn. It was the only clause was accepted by almost all provinces, and allowed the meeting to declare our independence.

To replace temporarily to the duration of his absence Rondeau was appointed Colonel Ignacio Alvarez Thomas, who took on April 21. Its main objective was to improve relations with Artigas, who headed a Federal League composed of the Eastern Band, Santa Fe, Entre Ros, Corrientes and Cordoba. But he could not fulfill. In August sent General Viamonte front of forces that occupied the city of Snata Fe and appoint a governor. In March 1816, troops under the command santafesinas Estanislao Lpez, defeated army back to Buenos Aires.

After another failure sending Belgrano, the Cabildo and the board accepted the resignation of observation Acting Director and was appointed on April 17 in his replacement to Antonio Gonzlez Balcarce, who ruled only until July, when it was Juan Martn de Pueyrredn, chosen by the Congress of Tucumn, to take over the executive branch.

7. The Congress of Tucumn

Buenos Aires appointed Juan Jos Paso, Thomas Manuel de Anchorena, Fray Cayetano Rodriguez, Fr. Antonio Senz, Jos Darragueira, Gascn Augustine and Pedro Medrano. His instructions were to postulate the adoption of a Constitution to establish a one-man executive branch, without clarifying whether they preferred the monarchical or republican.

To inaugurate the session is not expected that all members were present when they met two thirds, was set on March 24. That day, the representatives were constituted and appointed president Dr. Pedro Medrano Congreeso, stating that the charge would be renewed monthly, and as secretaries Paso and Serrano.

Following the resignation of Thomas Alvarez, and his temporary replacement by Balcarce, given the absence of the owner Jos Rondeau, Congress decided to choose new Supreme Director. Voting took place on May 3 Juan Martn de Pueyrredn was elected (as I had before rinsing).

During the first three months, Congress considered its organization, the approval of qualifications of deputies, the oath formula to its sovereignty, and the development of a work plan.

The topics presented included 17 points. The main ones were: clear explanation of the purpose of Congress, their powers and duration; discussion of the Declaration of Independence; interprovincial agreements prior to the Constitution, the determination of the form of government and drafting the constitution. The other concerned the financial system, the operation of the courts, the military regime, education, territorial boundaries and the agrarian regime. The influence of San Martin and Belgrano for the consideration of the third point of the summary was decisive.

San Martin said, “how long we will wait to declare our independence Coin money is ridiculous, have national flag and insignia, and finally, make war on the sovereign who is said to depend and stay ward of enemies. What else we have tell ”

Belgrano, meanwhile, who had just returned from Europe, he moved to Tucumn in early July and the 6th Congressional explained the situation in Europe, after the diplomatic mission accomplished frustrated by Rivadavia.

July 9, 1816. On day 8, the deputies deliberated in private on the Independence, and proclaim it resolved in the next session. Meeting under the chairmanship of Narciso Laprida involving large audience, on July 9, after a vote, he built the minutes signed by the 29 congressmen: “In the very worthy and deserving city of San Miguel de Tucuman, the ninth day of July, 1816: We, the representatives of the United Provinces of South America, in General Congress assembled, invoking the Lord who chairs the Universe, in the name and by the authority of the people we represent, we protest to Heaven, to Nations and men all the globe, the Justice rule our votes.

“I solemnly declare to the face of the Earth that is the unanimous will and indubitable these violent break Province links linking to the kings of Spain, to recover the rights that were stripped, and investirse the high character of a free nation and Independent of King Ferdinand VII, their successors and metropolis, thereby being in fact and law, with broad and full power to give the required forms and justice prevails cluster present circumstances. Each and every one of them well they publish, declare and affirm, through us committing to compliance and support of that will, under the insurance and guarantee of our lives, assets and reputation. ”

The following July 19, and Medrano added initiative to independence “of Fernando VII, its successors and metropolis” other party “and all other foreign domination” in both the Act and the oath formula which require the representatives, officials and troops.

The origin of such a modification was rumored that behind the Congress was planning a protectorate of Portugal.

Once sworn Independence, Congress passed to deliberate on governance. Belgrano had exhibited at the meeting of the day 6, the situation in Europe, where there was a boom and the ruling houses monarchy sought to impose on members of the royal families in America. So thought the establishment of a dynasty of its own in the United Provinces of South America, could be a guarantee of stability to the external ambitions.

In late 1816, Congress sent the Supreme Director Provisional Ruling a Statute for enactment. But Pueyrredn it back because it believed that the powers of the executive branch were limited understanding that military forces should be under the control of the Board.

Congress moved to Buenos Aires in early 1817 to jointly cope with the grave situation Pueyrredn: the Portuguese had invaded the Banda Oriental, the Viceroyalty of Peru’s army was threatening North borders, Guemes and defended by few provinces reacted vehemently against monarchical project.

Resetting the session it was decided that: The head of the executive branch would be appointed by Congress, and governors would be elected by the Supreme Director among candidates nominated by the councils. The latter gave the regulation mechanism centralist orientation followed causing conflicts with the provinces. The tendency would be accentuated in the Constitution that would sanction in 1819. The so-called “Congress of Tucumn” continue in session until February 1820.

8. Pueyrredn Directory

Pueyrredn was generally fruitful management, beyond the serious problems that were occurring in the Banda Oriental and north. Economically, founded the National Fund of the South, which was the basis of the Argentine banking system; awarded land to the settlers to extend the borders of the Indians and promoted agricultural and livestock production, grain exports and industries, rationalizing the exploitation of salting.

Pueyrredn faced the heavy financial cost of the Revolutionary War. It was not a new problem, but more pressing: the war was prolonged and affected, if not destroyed, the channels of commerce and production. The civil war encouraged the systematic looting of livestock production Littoral. To all this is added that the campaign of San Martn to Chile imposed a cost of a hitherto unknown magnitude. In 1817 Pueyrredn tested several regular revenue measures such as the imposition of customs duties, but, in 1819, the government was still unpopular resorting to special levies.

The main revenue came from import taxes, which indirectly affect consumers. In exchange for the loans I applied for traders, the government gave orders to long term. Such orders could only be deducted at the time by large traders, mostly British, who became strong state creditors. In 1819, the increase in public debt prompted the government to increase the compulsory taxes by 11%.

9. The Fall of Pueyrredn

In early 1819, Carlos de Alvear, together with Jos Miguel Carrera and Manuel de Sarratea, planned in Rio de Janeiro’s dismissal Pueyrredn. Warlords Lopez and Ramirez, unhappy with the Constitution of 1819, entered the conspiracy. San Martin tried Puyrredn support and sent a battalion of hunters led by Mariano Andes Mendizabal, but he joined the revolt. On June 9, 1819, resigned in favor of Pueyrredn Jos Rondeau.

10. The Constitution of 1819

Back in Buenos Aires, Congress approved the constitution of the new state, which was sworn on May 25, 1819. The letter provided for a one-person Executive, with few cuts, could be transformed into a constitutional monarchy, if diplomatic missions seeking a monarch in Europe were successful. The legislature was composed of two chambers: one of Representatives, elected in proportion to the population, and a Senate with representatives of corporations (the councils, the church, the army or universities). The rejection of his marked centralism began in the Litoral. Shortly after his swearing was when Pueyrredn was forced to resign.

The Constitution of 1819 responded to the scheme established by the French thinker Montesquieu: Executive, Legislative and Judicial.

In terms of representation, MPs had one for every 25,000 inhabitants or fraction over 17,000. The deputies were “the nation” and not in the provinces.

The executive power rested with one person, the principal. This could be reelected only once, if you had the vote of two thirds of both Houses.

The figure of the Supreme Director held until ao1820 achieved when the Battle of Cepeda, begins a period of provincial autonomy (Dissolution of centralized government).

Category: History