BACKGROUND Internet

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* Summary

BACKGROUND Internet *

* What is the difference of the current Internet Internet2

* What is Internet2 (Also known as I2)

* Why another network

* Why are the universities at the forefront of Internet 2

* Build a new private network Internet2 to replace the current Internet

* What other types of organizations are related to Internet2

* How can I connect to Internet2

* Internet2 Development

* Red Internet2

* Internet 2 will displace the current commercial Internet

Summary

Internet2 is a consortium of universities linked to the development of advanced Internet applications.

The Internet2 institutions connected to communicate with each other via high performance networks used by the same current Internet connection, ie it is the ISP (Internet Service Provider) connected to Internet2 which is responsible for directing traffic through Internet2 or commercial Internet as appropriate.

No specialized equipment is needed to connect to Internet2, simply link the University is connected to Internet2 to any computer within the University makes use of Internet2 as appropriate (when the other, or the other) pair of communication also is connected to Internet2).

It is possible to filter certain directions only within some University for example, are connected to Internet2 and at certain times. This is true here in Chile because they are the universities who must bear the full cost of connection to Internet2 and the University pay for only those who really want to go for an interesting use of the resource. This is not the scenario in other parts of the world like USA or Europe in general where is the government that supports much of these expenses and therefore not perform the above restriction.

BACKGROUND Internet

The Internet of today is the result of research and collaboration between American universities in the sixties. These projects had a strong financial support from businesses and government entities in the United States. Thus, the Internet was initially a network-oriented academic and research collaboration between universities making up this network. Over time this academic network evolved into what is now the Internet, mass media over the planet.

The Internet backbone (in their early ARPAnet) became NSFnet and even today is the Internet backbone. But after its privatization in conjunction with the explosion of Internet service deteriorated and often congested. This of course has had a negative impact on the work for which it was initially created Internet, collaboration and academic research.

A project similar to the sixties is currently being carried out between about 190 universities throughout the world. The project’s main objective is to provide the academic community understood networking for collaboration and research among its various members and thereby enable the development of applications and protocols that can then be applied to the Internet for all.

What is the difference of the current Internet Internet2

In addition to the networks being used by Internet2 will be faster, applications developed used a comprehensive set of tools that do not exist today. For example, one such tool is commonly known as the guarantee “Quality of Service”. Currently, all information on the Internet is given the same priority as if it passed across the network from one computer to another. “Quality of Service” will enable applications require a specific amount of bandwidth or priority for her. This will allow two computers to run an application like tele-immersion communicate at high speeds required for real-time interaction. At the same time, an application with a communication needs as the World Wide Web only need to use the transmission rate needed to function properly.

It is important to note the difference in speed to be much more than a quick WWW. It is thought that a network of 100 to 1000 times allow applications to change the way we work and interact with computers. Applications such as tele-immersion and digital libraries has changed the way people use computers to learn, communicate and collaborate. Perhaps the most exciting possibilities are those that have not yet been imagined and will be developed with Internet2.

What is Internet2 (Also known as I2)

Using the Internet as a tool for education and scientific research has grown rapidly due to the advantage that represents the access to large databases, the ability to share information with colleagues and facilitate coordination of working groups.

Internet 2 is a computer network with advanced capabilities separate from the current commercial Internet. Its origin is based on the spirit of collaboration between the universities of the country and its main objective is to develop the next generation of telematics applications to facilitate research and education missions of the universities, and assisted in the training of personnel trained in the use and advanced network management computer.

Some of the applications being developed within the Internet2 project internationally are: telemedicine, digital libraries, virtual laboratories, remote handling and visualization of 3D models, all applications that are not possible to develop the technology of today’s Internet .

In the United States this development project is led by Internet2, in Canada the project CAnet3

In Europe the TEN-155 and GEANT, and in Asia the project APAN. Additionally, all these networks are interconnected, forming a large high-speed advanced network worldwide.

In Latin America, Mexico’s academic networks CUDI, Brazil, Argentina and Chile REUNA RETINA already have joined Internet2.

The Internet2 project is administered by the UCAID (University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development) and is a collaborative effort to develop advanced technology and Internet applications, vital for research and education missions of higher education institutions.

The backbone of Internet2 (Abilene network and the network vBNS) has speeds in excess of 2 Gbps, and connections to the backbone universities vary between 45 Mbps and 622 Mbps

Why another network

The Internet of today is no longer an academic network, as in the beginning, but has become a network that involves, in large part, commercial and private interests. This makes it unsuitable for experimentation and study of new tools in large scale.

In addition, service providers on internet “oversell” the bandwidth available to them, making it impossible to guarantee a minimum service during peak hours of use of the network. This is critical when thinking of applications that require guaranteed quality of service, since the protocols used in the current Internet does not allow this functionality.

Furthermore, the high-speed links are still too expensive to carry out their mass marketing.

This, then, leads us to the conclusion that the Internet is a vehicle to take the technological leap is needed.

This process is usually represented with the “spiral development of the Internet” ..

Internet2 is a network that will replace the current Internet. Internet2’s goal is to unite the national and regional academic institutions with the resources to develop new technologies and applications that will be used in the future Internet.

Why are universities at the forefront of Internet 2

The universities have a long history of developing advanced research networks and operating them. This combination of needs and resources provides the perfect setting to develop the next generation of Internet possibilities.

Universities are the main source of demand for both intercom technologies such as the talent to implement them. Research in several areas of knowledge are conducted mainly in universities. Applications are currently being developed in Internet2 include various disciplines such as astronomy, medicine, distance education, architecture, physics, social sciences, etc.. Educators and researchers increasingly require collaborative task and communication infrastructure. These are exactly the elements for which the Internet today provides insufficient tools and technologies they need to Internet2 intends to create.

At the same time, it is in the universities where the greatest level of expertise in computer networks, where users are specialized in various disciplines. Finally, the scholar is, the sectors with the capacity to carry out such investigations and is less permeable to commercial pressures.

This does not exclude the private sector, since it is an important partner in this project, and will benefit from new applications and technologies developed to join as partners in this effort.

In the same way that the Internet of today emerged from academic networks in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to the commercial products such as TCP / IP, e-mail and the World Wide Web, will leave a legacy of Internet2 technologies and applications to be adopted by commercial communication networks of the future, such as IPv6, multicast and quality of service (QoS).

Such experiences and strategies have been found to be suitable from the success of today’s Internet. Internet2 repeat this success in the new millennium, would ultimately benefit to all sectors of society

Internet2 build a new private network to replace the current Internet

Internet2 will not replace the current Internet, and Internet2 is a goal of building a new network. Initially, Internet2 will use existing networks in the U.S., such as the National Science Foundation’s Very High Speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS). Eventually, Internet2 will use other high-speed networks to connect all its members and other research organizations. Part of the mission of Internet2 is to ensure that the technology of software and hardware is based on the standards and is available to be adopted by others, including business networks and Internet providers.

Internet2 will not replace existing Internet services or to members or to other institutions or individuals. Member institutions have committed to use the existing Internet services for all types of networking that is not on Internet2. Other organizations and individuals continue to use the existing Internet services through commercial providers for applications such as email, the World Wide Web, and newsgroups. Internet2 will provide the means to demonstrate that engineering and applications of the next generation of computer networks can be used to improve existing networks

What other types of organizations are related to Internet2

Ensure the goal of transferring technology to general networks I2 is achieved, and to use the vast experience that exists outside the university, Internet2 is working with the federal government, agencies, private companies and nonprofit organizations that have experience on how to develop computer networks. These organizations provide members of Internet2 resources and expertise in addition to what they have on their own campuses. Moreover, the project provided a channel for the type of considerations that have to be taken into account so that I2 technology can migrate to other more general and commercial networks

How could connect to Internet2

If you are part of a university, a nonprofit organization related to networking, or a company interested in being associated with Internet2, you should review the documentation available at Internet2 as a first step.

Internet2 is a research and education network that connects computers in the member institutions. By connecting to Internet2 in the way that a person connects to the Internet through an ISP or through a company network is not possible. Internet2 is not simply a separate or private network that requires a special connection. Not provide links as WWW or email. Developments will be doing, however, will soon find a way to introduce any computer network, including the Internet. Applications and equipment provided by Internet2 has transformed the way people work with computers.

Internet2 Development

The above objectives are accomplished through development activities and testing of new protocols and applications for Internet2. These developments are made in committee called Working Groups (Working Groups, WG). Each WG belongs to a technical field of development of Internet2: Engineering, Middleware (software interface that provides functionality in a typical connection routine Internet. Among these may be mentioned as an example user authentications) and Applications. Each of these areas has an Area Director who is responsible for the activities of their respective areas. The members of these working groups can be members of both companies Internet2 as external support (financial support firms for example).

If a member of Internet2 have any ideas to develop then you should contact the appropriate Area Director.

The current area working groups are:

* Engineering: IPv6, Measurement, Multicast, Network Management, Routing, Security, Topology.

* Middleware: MACE-Architecture, MACE-DIR (Directories), HEPKI-TAG (Technical PKI), HEPKI-PAGE (PKI Policy).

* Applications: Arts and Humanities Initiative, Digital Imaging, Digital Video Initiative, Network Storage, Health Science Initiative, Research Channel, Video Conferencing (Digital Video Subcommittee Initiative), Voice over IP.

The first two areas are tasks that are transparent to the user and which only serve to provide better service to the third area applications, Applications. From the names of the working groups of the Applications area one can deduce roughly what it is. In the working group of Network Storage, for example, develops the Distributed Storage Infrastructure in Internet2 (or, in English, Internet2 Distributed Storage Infrastructure), abbreviated I2-DSI. The aim of this is to store replicated data over the network and when a client tries to access the data then the system will provide data that are in the closest server (on the network) to him, maintaining traffic as local as possible

Internet2 Network

The network consists Internet2 backbones or backbone in USA, which are connected to so-called international backbones gigaPoPs and which in turn are connected in particular gigaPoPs or nodes such as universities. A Gigapop is a regional network (with bandwidth of the order of gigabits per second) connected to Internet2. For example in USA MIT, Boston University and Harvard University GigaPOP called up the BOS.

Below is an outline (very generalized) Internet2:

In the picture you can see that there are currently two major backbones in USA (although today the Abilene backbone is much higher bandwidth, 2.4 Gbps), which are distributed backbone links to other countries. One of these international backbones is REUNA (National University Network).

For connection to Internet2 do not need new equipment or new connections on the side of the users of the respective universities connected to Internet2. The backbones are responsible for routing the data flow or commercial internet Internet2 accordingly.

Internet 2 will displace the current commercial Internet

The Internet 2 project will not replace the current Internet. It aims to unite the institutions with the resources to develop new technologies and capabilities that can then be extrapolated to the global Internet. Universities will continue to maintain growth and meaty in using existing Internet connections, which may continue to obtain their commercial suppliers.

Moreover, the private sector will benefit from the applications and technology developed by Internet2 members. Today, universities and research institutes have made significant investments and efforts aimed at connecting most of its facilities to the commercial Internet, the investment and effort can not be neglected.

And what of the educational institutions that are not members of the Internet 2

Participation in the Internet 2 is open to any college that is committed to providing facilities for developing advanced applications on your campus. The financial investment required to meet these obligations may be more than many institutions can afford for now. However, the Internet 2 is intended to accelerate the transfer of new possibilities to the larger community network system. The cost of the technology used and developed by Internet 2 will drop to a level attainable for any institution that currently has a basic connection to the Internet.

 

Added by:

FERNANDO MORENO

ASUNCION, PARAGUAY