* Concept poles
* Functions of the poles
* Technology Parks
1. POLE CONCEPT
Structures that meet excellence centers and companies concentrated in a particular region, without sharing a common property, in order to create synergy between the productive sector and the science and technology that provide greater competitiveness to the industrial and / or services, managed by a group of people dedicated to provide advisory services
Technological poles is another step towards the sustainable growth of enterprises. The form business associations, clusters, regions, etc..
In Mendoza is Mendoza Pole ICT (Information Technology and Communication)
An example, in Argentina is the Petrochemical Bahia Blanca. It is because there petrochemical companies, university and services to help develop them. Thus when, in Argentina, a petrochemical company starts, you can choose the geographical area where there are centers of C and T, other firms and universities are linked, regardless of whether or not a technology park. However, a Technology generally includes a park and an incubator. Incubators in a park there in these small businesses are under development.
2. FUNCTIONS OF POLES
Provide advisory services by a management group consisting of specialists that drive linking together companies or other promotion agency activities
scientific, technological and / or production innovation for technology and knowledge transfer
Are those projects are using basic aim of encouraging the competitiveness of all firms based in the same territorial area through the generation and transfer of knowledge and technology
Those who reside in the Parks Companies that are already well established and have all the services they need to develop their products.
In many technology parks that exist in the world (in Argentina there are very few) are resided development divisions of companies that decide to settle there because at that place are backed by prestigious universities and therefore many resources specialized human innovations, which are enhanced also from the same development divisions.
In Technology Parks companies will not be installed permanently.
Fifty years after the emergence of the phenomenon of technology parks there are different interpretations of what is meant by this concept. Here are some of them from various literature sources:
1) The International Associaton of Science Parks (IASP), created in 1984 adopted the following definition: A Technology Park is an initiative:
* Has formal and operational links with one or more universities, research centers and other institutions of higher education.
* It is designed to encourage the formation and growth of knowledge-based companies and other organizations that are normally found on the site.
* Possess a leadership role that is actively engaged in the transfer of technology and business skills to the organizations that are installed in the park.
2) According to Bob Hodgson, the main characteristics that define a technology park are:
* A technology park is a real estate project that brings benefits in the area of the image. Is a real estate business that seeks economic performance to its promoter.
* It is a technology business community to get benefits and provides value to each of its participants due to their network of mutual interests.
* A node that identifies an even wider international community of interest in the business of technology commercialization.
* It is a magnet for investment technology sources. Attract businesses that are dedicated to applying innovative technology.
* It is a bridge to the commercial field of research, something of importance to commercial interests.
* It is an incubator for technology-based activities, which allows researchers to start a business using innovative ideas without necessarily abandoning their academic work.
3) The Directorate General XIII of the European Union defines technology parks as real estate initiatives that aim to provide placement to companies involved in the industrial application of technologies. The activities of these companies include one or more of the following: research and development, production, sales and service. A technology park differs from a scientist in its greater emphasis on production activities.2.1. TECHNOLOGY PARK FEATURES:
* Provide the venue for the business infrastructure afincamiento.
* Provide services of electricity, water, gas and communications necessary for the operation of enterprises.
* Provide management services that promotes the transfer of technology and knowledge between companies using the park.
2.2. INFORMATIONAL DATA
A survey by the AIEPyPT shows that exist in the country 9 Technology Parks and 18 centers that carry out research in business management.
3. BUSINESS INCUBATOR
Organizational structure with adequate physical spaces that allow them to promote and generate productive enterprises that incorporate new technologies, providing training and support for growth
The Business Incubator Program is a process that encourages local development, managing the interface between the labor sector and the knowledge sector and consolidation of university entrepreneurial culture.
The Business Incubator Program, provides the necessary support for project ideas, companies can become successful, viable and self-sufficient, able to collaborate with the growth of the region and the country.
To achieve the objective to develop mechanisms tackles preincubation of ideas college projects and private entrepreneurs, facilitating the creation and consolidation of micro, small and medium enterprises, primarily based on technology. Preincubation can be internal to the university (university spin offs and potential preincubated ventures), or external, supporting innovative business ventures and businesses in the region.
3.1 Functions of HATCHERIES
* Marketing and marketing.
* Specific training in different areas according to the needs of the business
* Provision of common resources reception, secretarial, telephone, fax.
* Program of Intellectual Property Protection.
* Entrepreneurs Promotion and Training
* Science, Technology and Innovation.
* Business Management.
* Use of facilities and / or services of the incubator for a maximum Requirement set or determined by a committee based on the nature of the project.
The system used for the incubation of companies consists of three stages:
At this stage entrepreneurs involved presenting an idea, project and seeking to develop detailed business plan, supported by experienced tutors, to then make the final commissioning in the incubation stage. Tends to strengthen the quality of entrepreneurship in its earliest stage, providing support innovative entrepreneurs to plan the successful development of business opportunities. A period of six months of preincubation.
Consider the implementation of the project or business plan structured in the preincubation step, in order to get to market products or services. At this stage, efforts are focused on reducing the risks of the business and strengthen support through experienced, networking and a range of services designed to facilitate the implementation of the project, transforming scientific and technological advances in industrial and commercial successes. It provides the infrastructure for the creation of new businesses, and provides a range of support services to start-up, combining entrepreneurship, research and development, commercialization of technology and capital.
Consolidation and growth of the company. Through monitoring the Business Incubator grants, is provided to entrepreneurial training, advisory, consulting and support in specialized areas.
3.3 CONCEPTS AND GRADUATED incubated companies
Incubated Company: An organization that develops innovative products or services. It is warm in incubator, goes through the selection process and receives technical, managerial and financial institutions rede specially constituted to create and accelerate the development of small businesses. Some institutions use the term “resident enterprise”.
Graduate Company: Organization passing through the incubation process and development reaching enough to be enabled to leave the incubator. Some institutions use the term “company released”. The company can continue to maintain bond graduated with incubator partner status.
Objectives 3.4.1 Preincubation stage
126.96.36.199 General Purpose
Develop pre-incubation stage companies, defined as the process of monitoring and technical assistance in the formulation and evaluation of ideas, project, business plan generation (market analysis, engineering, size, location, innovation, cost) and planning of management (marketing, technology, finance, human resources, schedule).
* Provide a business planning model that facilitates the implementation, development and consolidation of the same, together with the training of entrepreneurs and companies competitive in the regional, national and international levels, skills, attitudes and values that contribute to economic growth and social development of the region.
* Strengthen the quality of entrepreneurship in its earliest stage, providing academic support to entrepreneurs, technical, physical and economic to achieve the successful development of business opportunities.
* Encourage and promote the emergence of a new generation of young entrepreneurs and provide controlled conditions for the birth and growth of a new company or entity.
* Support the creation of companies related to scientific and technological innovation that enables the creation of a new product, service or process, or improve the performance of existing businesses, or become parallel projects.
188.8.131.52 Expected Results
At the end of each project preincubation step will be able to:
* Establish a strategic plan for the company and a number of targets to assess the development of the strategic plan;
* Evaluate scenarios and strategies of project operation;
* Establish goals and short and long term;
* Identify critical business variables, ie those whose fluctuations could materially affect the project and require constant monitoring;
* Identify critical assumptions for business success;
* Explain, justify, plan and evaluate the underlying assumptions of the business;
* Reduce project risks, to make more informed decisions and better;
* Provide possible solutions to potential problems that the company may face.
* Physical space for the development of activities, sharing infrastructure and basic inputs, access to information and technology services
* Environment in which the preincubated can share their experiences, reducing the risks associated with starting a business
* Training of strong practical and theoretical content,
* Legal, tax, accounting, organization and management, technical assistance and tutorials: design and evaluation of projects, business planning, design and communication, financial planning, identifying sources of financing, strategic planning, entrepreneurial behavior, network management support, technological innovation, innovation strategy, impact analysis, promotional tools, etc..
* Access to the network of linkages and institutional support in negotiations with public and private agencies or other companies,
* Support in negotiations with financial sources,
* Tools for the development of entrepreneurship, business plan, finding investors and futures markets.
3.6. INFORMATIONAL DATA
A survey revealed that PT AIEP and there are 11 business incubators and 18 Pre Incubation Program, and identified 97 companies and 83 incubated in preincubation. Actions include national and private universities, national agencies and NGOs.