Sonata (Italian suonare, ‘sound’), musical composition for one or more instruments. First, the term refers to sonata form the musical structure of the first movements of sonatas and related to her gender in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. But since the mid-eighteenth century, the term sonata was generally used for the works of three or four movements for one or two instruments, as in the sonatas for piano (solo) or the violin sonata (for violin with a keyboard instrument). They often use different terms to sonata in works that have the same layout but are made for other instrumental combinations, for example, is called sonata for orchestra symphony, sonata for solo instrument called concerto, sonata and quartet string is called string quartet
Symphony (Greek, syn, “together”, phone, ‘sound’), in music, orchestral composition usually consists of four contrasting sections called movements and, in some cases, days. The name was first applied in the sixteenth century to the instrumental interludes of forms like the cantata, opera and oratorio. A notable example is the ‘Pastoral Symphony”s oratorio Messiah (1742) by George Frideric Handel. The symphony in its modern sense emerged in the early eighteenth century.
Cantata, in music, vocal composition with instrumental accompaniment. The cantata has its origins in the early seventeenth century simultaneously with opera and oratorio. The oldest type of cantata, cantata da camera called, was composed for solo voice on a profane text. It contained several sections in contrasting vocal forms, such as recitatives and arias. Among Italian composers who wrote these works are included Giulio Caccini, Jacopo Peri and Claudio Monteverdi. Towards the end of the seventeenth century, the cantata da camera became a composition for two or three voices. Composed especially for churches, this form is known as cantata da Chiesa (church cantata). Its exponents were Italians Giacomo Carissimi’s oratorio true creator, and Alessandro Scarlatti. In Germany, during this period, the cantata da Chiesa in the hands of Heinrich Schtz, Georg Philipp Telemann, Dietrich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and other composers, evolved into a much more elaborate than its Italian model. Bach cantata made the church the center of their vocal production while also composed secular cantatas as the famous Coffee Cantata.
Opera, drama in which he sings all or part of the dialogue and containing overtures, interludes and instrumental accompaniments. There are several closely related theatrical genres of opera, such as musical and operetta.
Preclassic and classicism of the Opera
Several composers attempted in the mid-eighteenth century, operatic practices change. Introduced different forms of da capo arias and encouraged in choral and instrumental music. The most important composer of this time was the German Christoph Willibald Gluck. One of the factors contributing to the reform of the operatic practices during the eighteenth century was the growth of comic opera, which received several names. In England it was called ballad opera, opra comique in France, Germany and Italy Singspiel opera buffa. All these changes had a lighter style that Italian opera seria. Some dialogues were recited rather than sung and the arguments used to dealing with people and platitudes instead of mythological characters. These features can be clearly seen in the work of the first Italian master of comic opera, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. Since comic operas placed more emphasis on the natural talent in the scenic, offered an opportunity for serious opera composers to give more realism to his compositions.
The musician who transformed the Italian opera buffa serious art was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who wrote his first opera, La Finta Semplice (1768), at age 12. His three masterpieces in Italian, The Marriage of Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787) and Cos fan tutte (1790), shows the genius of musical characterization. In Don Giovanni created one of the first great romantic roles. The German Mozart Singspiels ranging from comedy The Abduction from the Seraglio (1782), to the ethics of inspiration Masonic symbolism of The Magic Flute (1791).
Music (genre), musical composition, usually in three movements, for one or more solo instruments accompanied by an orchestra. The concerto name attached to the music first used in Italy in the sixteenth century, but was not common until about 1600 at the beginning of the Baroque. At first, the show and its related adjective, concertato, referring to a mixture of tonal colors instrumental, vocal, or mixed. Applied to a wide variety of sacred and profane pieces that used a mixed group of instruments, singers or both. This group could be treated as a mixed well unified, either as a sound set opposite each other. This concertante style was developed especially for the Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi, especially in his books of madrigals fifth to eighth (1605-1638). Influenced partly by Monteverdi, the German composer Heinrich Schtz applied the new style to their sacred work in German. This concept remained in force until the eighteenth century, as seen in the many sacred cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach who bear the title of concertos.
The classical concert
A mid-eighteenth century musical decisive change meant a move from the baroque to classicism could not fail to affect the concert. Apart from the brief flowering of a French derivative called Sinfonia Concertante, the concerto grosso died and gave way to the symphony, he kept much of his features. However, the solo concerto as a vehicle for virtuosity persisted, indispensable for both composers were interpreters of their own work. The piano gradually supplanted the violin as a solo instrument preferred. It was the favorite instrument of both Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who wrote the most important concerts in the late eighteenth century as Ludwig van Beethoven, whose five piano concertos and his only violin concerto (1801-1811) gave his final consecration development.
During the classicism, the concert grew. Its structure was a reflection of a commitment to the traditional form of the ritornello, in a display of virtuosity, as well as new forms and styles developed with the symphony. The first movement is built as a variant of the ritornello. This and the first section resembled solo exhibition section of the first movement of a symphony. The rest of the move also followed a similar development to the first movement of a symphony, but with the soloist and the orchestra playing together or alternately. The final movement was usually a rondo with some kind of recurring refrain. The slow movements were less certain in their way. Like symphonies, concerts became major works, with a distinctive personality, which were performed in public concert halls, in front of a large audience.
History of sonata
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the term sonata, which appeared with increasing frequency in the titles of instrumental works, meant merely as distinguished instrumental sound piece of vocal compositions. The term does not imply then a form or style specific composition. The shape and style developed in Italy in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the first cultivated instrumental music scale. The form had several sections clearly delineated in time and contrasting textures, like a dance type section followed by a slow melody with accompaniment, which was a fast section on how to jailbreak. Such compositions are not necessarily called sonatas, most often used terms or canzona ricercare. During the 1630s the number of sections in these pieces tended to decrease to three or four, while increasing the length of the remaining sections and formal structure became more complex, incorporating long-term relationships that involved rhythm, harmony, melody and other musical features. Finally, sections became separate movements.
By the seventeenth century two categories emerged: the Sonata da Chiesa, or church sonata, a serious work with the structure four movements with slow-fast-slow-fast, reflecting the complexity of the counterpoint of the oldest and canzona ricercare, and Sonata da camera, or chamber sonata, a series of short movements with origins in the dance, the forerunner of the suite. The most typical instrumental combination for the sonata during the middle and late Baroque was the trio sonata: two melodic instruments accompanied by basso continuo (low melodic instrument supported by a harmonic instrument). The teacher par excellence of a trio sonata was the seventeenth century Italian violinist Arcangelo Corelli. Also wrote for small instrumental sonatas (including many of Corelli) and for solo instruments such as Johann Sebastian Bach’s sonatas for violin and cello soloists, and the soloists keyboard sonatas of German Johann Kuhnau. Also wrote works for a single melody instrument and continuo, including Austrian violin sonatas of Heinrich von Biber, author of the admirable Rosary sonatas for violin.
During the Preclassic and early classicism, the Sonata da Chiesa, influenced by the sonata da camera, evolved into a definite form of three or four movements, the first of which was usually in sonata form and had a moderately fast tempo, the second slow tempo, and the final movement, in fast tempo. When a fourth movement, a minuet had was inserted before the final movement. In the middle of the eighteenth century the term sonata was first used only where the interpretive medium was a keyboard instrument or any other instrument soloist accompanied only by a keyboard. Sonata form along with their principles, influenced the music of the time, not only in the instrumental sonatas, but also in the symphonies, concertos and string quartets, as well as other chamber music. The classical sonata is illustrated with the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven, the great masters of Viennese classicism. Like most nineteenth-century composers, Beethoven wrote sonatas in four movements, but in his later years sometimes left the proper disposition of the sonata in favor of a much smaller or larger movements.
During the nineteenth century, the tradition of classical sonata remained in the hands of Austrian and German composers of Romanticism as Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms. However, many composers, including the Polish pianist Frederic Chopin, were more easily for short pieces for larger works, when they wrote sonatas, tended not to take into account the large-scale musical relationships and wrote surprisingly distinct movements whose internal structure making them correspond realzaban differentiated episodes. Others, such as the Hungarian pianist Franz Liszt, did not consider much of the traditional scheme. His Sonata in B minor is a long work in a movement that seems to approach the symphonic poem.
The twentieth century composers have followed very different schemes to write his sonatas. Some, such as Samuel Barber, are long pieces written in the nineteenth century tradition. Others, such as the Russian Igor Stravinsky, have returned to the classic principles of containment and formal clarity. A third group, such as the American Charles Ives, use the term sonata indefinitely to suggest in the listener’s mind the great traditions of the past, but with a structure and character tend to individualism. The meaning of the term sonata, for all that, is returning to its original definition, somewhat ambiguous, as instrumental piece without involving so predetermined characteristics necessary