* Computer Concepts
* Information in relation to other sciences
* Development of new technologies related to computer
* Technological advances
It is known that reality change over time, now live in an era where the complexity of processes and information technology has forced the man to use means for computing and information processing, which has to be increasingly accurate, fast and plentiful. For this reason, we assisted in the computer.
Thus, this paper aims to inform students about the concept of information technology, evolves and analysis of its relationship to other sciences.
It should be noted that we have reviewed the literature in the library of the Universidad Nacional del Santa, in which not provided us with sufficient information regarding this work, however we have been guided by some books: “The World of Computers “,” Thematic Library Computer “and several websites.
With all these tests, the idea is that we are able to put the computer in the total context of human culture.
It is worth mentioning that computing is of vital importance in our lives, especially the importance that is on globalization and technology development.
* The information comes from the French term “informatique”, which in turn is derived from the contraction of two words: “Information” and “automatic” and is defined as the set of disciplines and techniques that are responsible for the automatic treatment information.
* According to the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy says that computer science is the “set of scientific and technical brews that make possible the automatic processing of information through computers (PCs).” Moreover, in the same dictionary says that “computer” is the word used in America to speak of “computing.”
* While the definition proposed by the Organization of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is much broader, referring to information technology and science that deals with information processing systems and their economic, political and cultural.
* The concept of information is very recent and also very simple. It was developed in the late 40’s by the American mathematician Claude Shann, to refer to everything that is present in a message or signal when establishing a communication between a sender and a receiver
* Information processing involves storing, organizing and, most importantly, the transmission of it. To this end, various technologies involving information technology, in general terms, we can say that there are two pillars: the computation and communication, ie in what we now know as information together many of the techniques and machines that man has developed throughout history to support and enhance their skills of memory, thinking and communication.
* THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The great development achieved by the organizations today, demands a huge amount of information.
On the other hand, companies of today are forced to make decisions ever more accurate and faster.
The computer is facing these problems and relates, studying the best way to provide the necessary information to make decisions.
To achieve its goals, computing studies the design and use of equipment, systems and procedures for capturing and treating the appropriate data for useful information in making decisions. For us, the computer is like the study that defines the relationships between media, data, information needed in decision-making, from the point of view of an integrated system.
Some of the areas of computing that we believe are suitable to mention is data processing, analysis and design of information systems.It is noteworthy that the data processing the usage of computers in information systems, while the analysis and design of systems include the study, design systems and procedures in relation to decision making.
Within this field include such important aspects as:
Automatic decision making, mathematical models to obtain useful information, human problems in the training data recording and processing ce interpretation of reports.
Whereas computing is an applied science directly related to the decision-making.
We say it is a science because it is a set of universally valid knowledge, and also by using the scientific method to achieve their goals.
Soften the scope of information that is very wide, as some of its objectives are to define procedures for establishing a sales report, to establish whether production progress reports should be prepared manually or with a computer, drafting reports of an accounting, information processing in order to decide where to locate our next plant, etc.. In these cases come to regard the computer as the science of communication.
* THE DATA AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Currently the computer has so many applications that it is almost inconceivable that there is a field or area where the information is not present.
In the administrative area: The information management is currently one of the most important activities of modern society. This can be seen by the high percentage of the daily work that is dedicated to processing and communication of information. In addition, Management Systems are based on the integration of different functional areas of an organization such as:
* Human Resources
* Upper management.
In making decisions: they are useful programs that can generate charts administrative use, such as: bar, pie, line and area among many others. In this way an employer can get a quick idea, for example, income versus expenditures in the same graph and see if it really gets good gains and if their expenses are so many that almost reach to those gains, and in view of this development studies and take action.
In education: the rise of the microcomputer is of vital importance in education, thanks to the availability of equipment at affordable costs and ease of management thereof, are currently being widely used in the home, schools, universities, teaching and business.
Because of its ability to store large amounts of data, computers can be used as instruments of study and consultation of any material at any level, giving the student individual attention. The computer offers a lot of ways to achieve an effective learning such as the use of graphics, drawings, characters of different formats, color sound. Overcoming the limitations of classical computer science education allows man-machine dynamic dialogue to bring this process to the particular needs of each person according to their speed of learning.
In the Navigation: In the sea area computers controlling Positioning or location by satellite. In the ports, a large part of the loading and unloading is performed according to a schedule set by the computer.
In the Air: the computer performs functions such as air traffic control, presenting the position and height of the aircraft through the radar screens, simulate special flight operations.
In science: the computer is helpful to analyze the data, store and retrieve information, simplifying expressions, control experiments to identify molecules, measure areas of specific figures, lead processes statistical information, etc.
In urban transport: there are systems that control the bus service as demand for the service, identifying new routes if there is no waiting passenger.
In industry, tasks such as spot welding in car body or paint gun, are ideal for industrial robots.
In monitoring: computers provide instant information about stolen cars, forgery, securities and analysis of evidence. Overseas countries in some police cars are equipped with terminals and keyboard or microphone questions are asked concerning a fact suspicious, having received the answer in seconds.
In the field of medicine: it is possible to make medical diagnoses, can detect, for example, when the patient has suffered a heart attack.
Computing, in general, including development of algorithms for solving problems (computer) and information processing software and hardware level. The solution to any problem requires a procedure, a method, a series of orderly steps to convert inputs into outputs, the damages in solutions. Computing is concerned with the tools, both hardware and software, to solve problems automatically.
A computer is any device that is used to process information according to a well-defined procedure. Ranging from mechanical devices such as the slide rule, the full range of mechanical calculators from the abacus onwards, as well as contemporary electronic computers.
A modern computer is an electronic device consisting basically of a processor, memory devices and input / output. She performs a sequence of operations from the instructions supplied with a program processing an input data set to obtain a set of output data.
* History of Computing:
In the seventeenth century, the famous French philosopher and scientist Blaise Pascal, a very young age, he invented what he calls “calculating machine” which, although clearly more primitive than today, and defined the trace of the mechanics of them. The principle of operation was similar to the original abacus, that is, using the decimal system, but the primitive traditional rods (Chinese instrument) had been built by a number of gears, so that the rolling ten teeth of the first round advancing to the second tooth, the rolling ten teeth of the second made him a tooth of the third and so on.
Of course, this machine only served to add and subtract, and also used as the only technology prevailing at the time based on mechanical assumptions, its use was rather tedious and subject to numerous disadvantages. In fact, the fundamental aspect of the first computers did not lie in its usefulness (it was often much faster to perform the operations manually) but on the very concept of calculating machine that Pascal, with the prospect of future that characterizes all great geniuses of mankind, he knew a glimpse into his complicated device.
Inspired by this design, a century later, other scientists attempted to emulate Pascal and built machines, as Hahn Mattieu German scientist in 1779, could perform the four basic arithmetic operations. However, the German mathematician Leibnitz who came forward more to the development and built for the first time, a machine that would provide a link between a problem and its resolution. Thus, the German scientist designed a device that allowed, in addition to traditional addition and subtraction, performing multiplication and division through cumulative additions and subtractions respectively. We can assure you that at that moment was born the first calculating machine itself.
The machine, also based on mechanical assumptions, used cylinders with different lengths jagged incisions in the other gears that fit smaller size representing each a figure of the multiplicand. Each full turn of all the gear in a figure long increased the number indicated by short or multiplicands gears. The number of turns made by the gears longer part determined by the number associated with the multiplier. Of course, the importance of this artifact from his current perspective is more in its conception as a mathematical tool of work itself (in this case the idea of the machine as a bridge between a problem and its resolution) that the reality of their mechanical principles operation.
We also found Babbage machines, in the nineteenth century comes a basic personality that drives their commitment and dedication to creating these machines mathematics, as he used to call them. This personality is none other than the scientist Charles Babbage. Partly constrained by technological limitations of the time and the other by the reluctance of society for this type of machine, Babbage found numerous obstacles to get their projects. The mechanical complexity that presupposed the most of his designs at odds with the real possibilities of technology in his time and also its limited financial availability was deprived in most cases to carry out their ideas. Thus, one of its earliest and most ambitious projects, the construction of the Difference Engine in 1823, had to be finally abandoned because of financial difficulties after five years of hard work.
Undeterred by this, Charles Babbage embarked on another project that he himself called Analytical Engine. The peculiarity of this machine is that it could use part of the results of its use as input for new calculations on them. In the words of the scientist himself was a machine that was biting the tail. A series of gears and levers allowed to adjust the input data and the operations to perform with her and get results.
The analytical engine used punch cards for machine work. Unfortunately, not this time Babbage came to see improved and completed their project.
But the main novelty of his invention came in the concept of programmable machine notes, however, this always means an external program to the device in question.
Computers in relation to other sciences
When defining computing, according to multiple sources, seem to be three main positions, of course, that each has its particular nuances definitions: one which sees it as a field or emerging science where disciplines converge, other than identified with the computer and a third considered a science of information.
Informatics is an emerging discipline-inclusive product arising from the application-synergistic interaction of various sciences, such as computers, electronics, cybernetics, telecommunications, mathematics, logic, linguistics, engineering, artificial intelligence, robotics, biology, psychology, information science, cognitive, organizational, inter alia, the study and development of products, services, systems and infrastructure of the new information society.
Computing presents a theoretical and applied component, as with the Computer Information Science and many other branches of knowledge. She studies the structure, behavior and interaction of natural systems and information technology. It covers both the art and science as the human dimension of information technologies, the study, implementation and social consequences of use of such technologies. Computer science focuses on understanding problems and applying information technologies as needed.
It also deals with the processes of collection (collection), representation, organization, storage, retrieval and use of information on natural and engineering systems, as well as assessment, communication, processing and control of information in such systems as way for the creation of devices capable of playing certain functions of natural systems.
Both natural systems and in the artificial, the information flow at different levels, ranging from the biological molecule and electronic devices, computers and the nervous system to companies and large-scale distributed systems. The upper levels are supported at lower levels. To understand this structure is useful to apply the layer concept, thus, for example, in a modern computer there is a physical layer (hardware) and a logical layer (software), which, in turn, has several sub-layers (operating systems, software general use and applications).
This scheme applies to both natural and artificial systems, because for the organization of any system, the essential raw material is information. Each of these levels is under study in any discipline of science or engineering. Now the computer will develop and consistently apply mathematical and theoretical principles to computer systems at all levels.
Therefore, the computer provides the infrastructure necessary to support the cycle of information acquisition, processing, delivery and use of information, both lower and upper levels of the circulation of information systems and organizational artificial. Include many more technologies that computers, although many of them are based on computing devices or perform according to its principles in handling information in various forms: text, images, sounds.
One of the core concepts of computer is the transformation of information, either by the processing of information technologies and the effects of communication, both in organisms as artifacts.
Informatics covers many aspects such as mathematical foundations, theoretical computer science, hardware and software, organization, information processing, development of specific methodologies, among others, as well as a number of academic disciplines as above . Each of them takes part in the computer as if you were in their natural domain.
Cognitive science, for example, study natural systems, the computer science deals with the analysis of the foundations and computational processes, as well as computer systems design, artificial intelligence, which designs systems that emulate those found in nature, connects to the disciplines mentioned, also happens with many other participants from other disciplines.
Computer enriches and is enriched by all these disciplines. She provides links between disciplines based on their methodologies and perspectives, contributing to the creation of a common scientific paradigm for the development and strongly encourages scientific and technological progress. She helps us understand what life is and what is the mind, to provide a basis for studying the organization and processes in cognitive and biological systems.
The relationships we found are:
* Mathematics: A way, perhaps the original, we can easily derive their problems and issues of an elaboration of the theory of compatibility, as was practiced in the first half of the twentieth century by Turing and other great mathematicians.
One of the things that builds a computer, it is engraved in the memory the necessary instructions to perform complex mathematical calculations (including trigonometry, complex numbers, integrals, etc.).
* Logic: Another of the sciences that make possible the operation of a computer.
Thanks to her, the microprocessor (computer center) is able to run between different possibilities in a predefined, that is, not thinking for yourself, and resolve the most successful option.
* The mail is linked to data very closely, and as the electronic enhancement, reducing the size and price, and increasing product quality, thus for example computers get faster, more economical and effective.
* Physics: As the physicists were delving into ever lower levels of reality, the phenomena were becoming discrete, ie, discontinuous. “The measured physical yesterday. The physician of today has.” In computer science, meanwhile, things have gone the other way around: it started from the other end, moving in the opposite direction. The Turing machine was essentially digital, and still our computers are fundamentally digital, probably because even the history of computing is very short. For Hillis, this is one reason to criticize the state we find: “We have not been counting.” The computers will remain very limited until they have evolved sufficiently to computer events become so complex that we need to measure rather than count them.
To all this must be added that the computer serves many other sciences, who use it to simplify common tasks and not so common, such as medicine, chemistry, etc.
2.2. DISCIPLINARY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTING
2.2.1. The Computer as a Scientific Discipline
Claudio Gutierrez, said that computer science can be conceived as essentially a theoretical and empirical discipline on the phenomena related to information and computing. As a theoretical science focuses on the theory of computers and as empirical science, its assumptions can be refuted by reality, ie they can be falsified by experiment.
The disciplinary structure of Informatics consists of a diverse network of theories and disciplines budgets (General Systems Theory, Cybernetics, Information Theory and Communication Theory, Formal Languages and Automata, mathematical and logical theories) and its central theory is the Theory of Computability. Computability theory, is closely related to mathematics and its key concept is the concept of algorithm. Therefore, this theory is identified by some as the theory of algorithms. Was developed in the decades of 30 and 40 thanks to discoveries of mathematical logic and G”odel, Church, Kleene, Markov and others.
Around 1936 were made almost simultaneously, several proposals to make precise the concept of algorithm. Among them are the following concepts.
2.2.2. Computer and Technology Discipline
According to Mario Bunge, a body of knowledge is a technology if and only if:
* It is compatible with contemporary science and controllable by the scientific method.
* It is used to control, transform, or build things or processes, natural or social.
This definition of technology allows for all disciplines, practice-oriented, always practicing the scientific method is, technology is a social activity focused on the know-how, using rational, organized, planned and creative resources materials and information specific to a human group, in a certain period, provided responses to social demands regarding the production, distribution and use of goods, processes and services.
Computer Science, technological discipline, covering both the activity (research, development, implementation, etc.) And the resulting product (knowledge, goods, services, etc.) Which are the result of responses to concerns and needs of society. It is roasted and, generally discusses certain issues related to the acquisition, storage, processing and transfer of data-information-knowledge society poses and tries to find its solution linking technique (knowledge, tools, inventiveness) with science and the economic and socio-cultural environment.
This conception of information technology as a discipline is related to the characterization of computer science as an empirical discipline and engineering discipline, this is how we approach the discipline of IS and software engineering, where he addressed the design and development software systems to meet real world needs. In this context, it gives them a high organizational goals and missions and the application of information technologies to achieve the objectives.
2.2.3. The Computer as a Scientific Discipline – Technology
The differences lie in the context in which the job runs, the types of problems they solve and the types of systems design and management. That is, the differences lie in the phenomena that investigates each.
Commonly used to characterize a discipline refer to objects or phenomena that studies investigating the discipline in question. With regard to theories, they play the role of integrating and unifying the fundamental concepts of the discipline.
Methods are the procedures used to capture the phenomena or solve problems related to them. Depending on whether the processes of research, development, implementation and evaluation of the Computer objects (systems, algorithms, etc..) Is taken with emphasis methodological features, in general respond to undertake scientific work and respond to their knowledge the requirements of universality, objectivity, reproduction, etc.
In Computer methods include the so-called “instruments of analysis.” These strategies are based on logical reasoning and mathematical modeling. The methods of computing has to do with its central theory and all theories presupposed while the technical procedures of the link to reality.
In short, Information technology as a scientific discipline and discipline is composed of elements that are interrelated, studies phenomena associated with your domain objects (information systems) and, on the one hand, with a set of methods or procedures (modeling, abstraction) that can capture and study phenomena related to the systematic treatment of information, and the other with theories (ICT Theory of organizations) that conceptualize the objects of their domain. Like other disciplines, has practical applications or technologies that are supported by specific theories and also use their methods and procedures. The technological tools emerge as a result of the application of scientific knowledge of the discipline in the construction of devices that are incorporated into the virtual world or in the form of products or services.
2.2.4. Cognitive Informatics as a discipline
Cognitive science is understood as an interdisciplinary science consists of many subject areas such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics and computer science.
The development of cognitive psychology should be, a very special way, the impetus given by researchers in Artificial Intelligence. Following this, the computer is one of the pillars of the Cognitive Sciences, along with psychology and biology.
Cognitive Informatics focuses on the study of mechanisms of information processing and its relationship to brain processes. Conceive human beings as information processing was a cognitive revolution and marked the origin of Cognitive Psychology. While there is some analogy between the functioning of the human mind and computer, are more differences than similarities. Computers can not think abstractly (specifically human faculty.) Moreover, a computer manipulates data / information, not meanings. The meanings are qualitative and require a mind to interpret. The information theory is not concerned with signs of significant carriers of meaning, but of signs, ie empty signs. From a semantic point of view symbols with operating a computer are merely signals that “trigger” actions are not vehicles of knowledge or understanding, as the true symbols.
Although there are some approaches in cognitive science presented as alternatives or additions to the usual computational approach we conclude that the appropriate concept for information processing system is the basic assumption common to the cognitive sciences.
2.2.5. Biological Informatics as a discipline
Computing as a biological discipline is an emerging field that combines biological information based on geographical data, weather, health-related and socio-economic to provide a framework for understanding biocomplexity in the context of scientific, social, and significant economic .
There are many definitions on the Bioinformatics. One of the most complete is that which is depicted as a scientific discipline concerned with all aspects related to the acquisition, storage, processing, distribution, analysis and interpretation of biological information through the application of techniques and tools of the mathematics, biology and informatics, in order to understand the biological significance of a variety of data.
The new challenges of bioinformatics applied to biomedicine are not related only to technical problems with handling large volumes of data, but the way in which new knowledge can be extracted from them.
2.2.6. Social Informatics as a discipline
Social computing is the interdisciplinary study of design, use of information and communication technologies in their interaction with institutional and cultural contexts. Social Informatics refers to the body of knowledge that studies the use of information technology and influence in organizational settings. This term was coined in the late 90’s when systematized some research on the social aspects of computerization.
Social computing studies the interaction between society and information technologies and communication.
Social computing is a relatively new discipline, there are not many programs that specialize in it.
2.2.7. Cultural Informatics as a discipline
The cultural information is a technical development practice includes research and understanding of the relationship between computer science and culture, ie merging two software majors: social computing and cultural heritage computing.
Cultural heritage informatics includes a set of topics related to museums, archives and libraries, and practitioners of arts and humanities.
The cultural heritage comprises computing researchers and practitioners applying information technology to the activities and collections of cultural heritage. Participants will include policy makers, students of humanities, archivists, information specialists, electronic publishers, museum curators, collections managers and educators.
The purpose of investigating the changes in cultural values and attitudes not only in the past but also in real time involves a difficult task, because they need systems that can handle hundreds (maybe thousands) of languages and cultural groups.
Development of new technologies related to computer
The computer is probably the most rapidly advancing science, creating new devices faster, more reliable and ultimately better almost daily.
Thanks to information technology has made great strides in the diagnosis of diseases using various methods such as mini-robots camera, scanner, ray machines, etc.., Controlled by computers.
The automotive industry has improved greatly through the computer to analyze the performance of a comfortable car in certain situations, recreating them and doing calculations of endurance, speed, power consumption and more without even having to be mounted inside.
Mobile telephony is increasingly linked to the computer, so much so that there are already phones with Internet, allowing to send an e-mail from anywhere in the world with your phone, but even that seems so modern, is already quite usual, which will soon be replaced by UMTS, which will bring a high-resolution video from a mobile phone only 100 grams.
3.2. IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SOCIETY
Mainly the increased use of computers to simplify the job of storage, accounting and data analysis. But thanks to advances in computing is not limited only to this. Now many things have changed, social people use the computer coming to be seen as an indispensable good for humans. In the political arena is not where else has done, although laws have been created on the INTERNET, which is perhaps what has really revolutionized the world in all its aspects, putting a lot of services available to us from anywhere in the world , or even something as simple as a good friend in a chat, who knows. Religiously, with Internet presents several problems, people take advantage of that is behind a computer to show the darkest of his personality.
3.3 PRESENT INFORMATION ON THE COMPUTER
Perhaps in the field of computing where it is more difficult to talk about today, since what is new now, tomorrow, or next week, and it is not. The latest in computers, are the new ways to connect to the internet that are emerging, all dizzying speed (satellite, electrical network, T1 and T3) will soon be available to any home user with a very low price, and navigating at high speed. Speed is vital for any use of the Internet, because it implies a continuous data input and output, faster and more data per unit of time, allowing voice conversations in real time via the Internet (and there, but better) , video, share files, listen to the radio and watch TV via the network.
Despite the extraordinary talent that had these early scientists, his wit was often barriers at the time. It was not until the mid-nineteenth century for the discovery of electricity was the beginning of gradual decline of the mechanics and science used primarily in the construction of calculating machines. Thus, thereafter, the wheels and gears were replaced with new components, but also of considerable size, simplified the design of machines. In this sense, one of the first machines that used the principles of electricity and that was some diffusion at the time was the Hollerit Herman tabulating machine. This, large and equipped with a front panel with numerous digital areas, enabled a reliable calculation of the outcome of U.S. elections in 1890 and in short time of ten days, which was a real revolution for the time because the vote counting process traditionally entailed a much higher time and a margin of error as high.
We conclude then that information is based on the problems and relates to so we can provide information needed for decision making, enabling data processing, analysis and design of this system.
The solution to any problem requires a procedure, a method, a series of orderly steps to convert inputs into outputs, and thus gives us the solutions, and Computer is dealing with the tools, both at hardware and software, used to process information according to a well-defined procedure, to solve problems automatically.
Computer talk today is the word used to talk about computing that as a definition, takes the computer. In others it refers to the account or calculation. In the evolution of computing, we have seen that their origins were actually calculating machines, such as the scientific philosopher Pascal, whose invention was the inspiration for other scientists, but his main objective in his invention of a calculating machine, did not file mainly in what was useful, but in order to create a future perspective, despite his young age at the time to create this machine, which only served to add and subtract, and that it was often much quicker to perform operations hand, the suspected or believed that their complicated device, it would be as a starting point for new expectations in what is now a computer and which enables automatic processing of information.
Based on the above for the last two chapters, one can say that the Computer, for its genesis and its essential features, is unadisciplina science – technology and in their interaction with other disciplines, is a discipline bio-psycho-socio-technical- cultural.
Any area of knowledge from their disciplinary identity, the attitude should be open to dialogue, capable of recognizing other disciplinary perspectives and recognizing the need for complementarity in terms of rebuilding a more all-embracing and integrated knowledge.
The claim that computer science is a discipline bio-psycho-socio-techno-cultural commits us to raise questions and inclusive global response to the phenomena and problem situations as they arise. To understand that the technical performance (by nature effective) should be relevant (with regard to cultural contexts) and relevant (with respect to social demand).
There must be an awareness that we, the computer, the only responsible for explaining the phenomena and problems related to the acquisition, storage, processing, transfer, communication and use made of the information / knowledge in real organizations and virtual. If this does not happen we will be unable to predict or understand the events that happen within the discipline.
It is not enough knowledge and know-how, continuous and ongoing reflective attitude on scientific knowledge of computer technology allow us to grow and grow, in a responsible manner, to the discipline.
In short, we must overcome the crisis of adolescence, to be clear about who we are, what we can know and how far we can go.
This is in honor of the University
National Easter, which gives us the
Conditions necessary to educate ourselves.