Dramatic genres: comedy

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* Terms of theatrical and changes introduced by Moliere

* Hypertextuality

* Comparisons between hypotext and hypertext

* The role of the slave

* Resources comedy

* Technical Theatre

* Units of time and space

* The Metamorphosis and the topic twice

* Perspectives on the birth of Hercules

* Conclusions

Latino comedy and comedy of Moliere: Host, Plautus, Amphitryon, Moliere.

Introduction

The works analyzed are Host Host Plautus and Moliere. The second is an adaptation of the first, a re-write, but has some differences, due mainly because the writing is different era, Plautus wrote about in the third century BC while Moliere did in the seventeenth century.

Plautus wrote his book during the era of Alexandrian comedy, which is very different from the classic comedy. It’s a comedy, in the prologue Mercury speaks to the public and presents it as a tragicomedy as they occur gods and ordinary beings like a slave, a key player in the comedy because “it brings and takes.”

There are two arguments present in the work of Plautus, the first (attributed by some to Priscian by others Sidonius Apollinaris and others at the same Plautus) briefly summarizes the events occurring in the work, while the second (attributed by some to Priscian) does the same, but gives us some intrigue since at no time mentioned the culprit, says Alcmena only gives birth to twins (a fact which the other argument is not mentioned.)

Moliere re-writes the work of Plautus in the seventeenth century. It was the era in which Italy and France won the Greco-Roman tradition and the comedy made a sharp cut with the medieval. His big challenge was to succeed in imposing the comedy in a classic, for it was essential to renew the comedy with different resources. In Host, Moliere decided to use a model of the ancient Latin comedy.

 

Theatrical conditions and changes introduced by Moliere

At the time of Plautus (s. III aC) theater organized by the government: some theatrical exhibitions were incorporated into religious ceremonies, triumphal and funeral held in conjunction with the Roman Games (festival). These proposals were also acting skills, the audience gave him the award for the actors.

“The table, which is installed near the temples, on the corner of a square, were tentative, but took on the dimensions of a scenario (pulpitum) without decoration or backdrop, before him lay an empty space and an enclosed semicircular where was the public. The works were represented by companies whose director bought the poet’s work “(Guidelines for theatrical genres.)

All this changes at the time of Moliere. First we mention that he grew up in a middle-class. At that time France was under the reign of Louis XIV, the symbol of absolute monarchy.

Notably, it wrote a new poetics which mentioned three units: action, time and place, while at the time of Plautus was written only the poetics of Aristotle which only mentioned as essential unity of action.

Moliere questioned these three units and used a variety of resources to renew the comedy: the coexistence of the comic with the rule of three units, dividing the work into five units as in ancient tragedy, the structuring of comedy from linguistic challenges, not the simple gymnastics body slaps and runs across the stage.

 

Hypertext

For there to the hypertext (one way transtextuality) must have a text “B” (which we call hypertext) that has a relationship with the text “A” (called hypotext) in such a way that if there were “A “,” B “can not exist. “B” mimics and, in turn, transforms the text “A” in its plot, its style, its characters or their gender or all aspects at once.

In this analysis, host of Plautus is hypotext, which derives Host of Moliere, which we call hypertext.

 

Comparisons between hypotext and hypertext

According to what Mercury tells us in the preface to the work of Plautus, a tragi-comedy is the genre where gods and common people live. In tragedy beings appear above us and the comedy these higher beings (gods and heroes) only intervene to solve problems, the main character is the slave.

I think that Moliere is not necessary to explain the gender because the work is defined as comedy, not much interested in the characters, but the facts and the facts of this work (entanglements, metamorphosis and confusion) are typical of comedy.br> The primary difference between the hiccups and hypertext is prologue. In the work of Plautus Mercury addresses the audience and explains the problems of gender, among other things. And we have to know the customs of the time, such that the actors hired people (clique) so applaud them. Mercury mentions as follows: “Jupiter sends me tell you this: that two separate inspectors for each bank go around the room looking at the audience, and if they saw agitators or people paid to applaud, they take in the room turn on the togas. ”

In contrast, in the preface hypertext is completely different, since appears Mercurio talking through the night, asking him to lengthen and Jupiter can spend more time with Alcmene.

What they have in common is that both prologues briefly presented the problem and the beginning of the play, Jupiter took the form of Host to be with Alcmene, which is love.

With respect to the subject, we can say that there is a degradation (ie humanity, in this case) of divine beings and mocked burlesque. On the other hand it is also the theme of deception and the fact of seeing men as pawns of the gods (for example, Plautus’s work by becoming Sosia Mercury, led to believe was true that he did not himself but another person and so handled, while in case something like Moliere’s arguably even more “date”: Mercury in the form of the true forces Sosie to do that Mercury wants, but sometimes tries to rebel Sosie (for example when he says “What would you beat up if he had the courage to do, oh great son of a bitch full of pride!” adding, when Mercury asks what he said “It will be a parrot excited for a good day”) .

As for the plot, humorously explains the legend of the birth of Hercules (or is that Plautus would hypertext myth).

In the petition of the work, the gods appear as “the worst” is dehierarchized the hierarchical and there is a desecration (a recess of the divine). Jupiter (god) feels like being with Alcmene and commits an infidelity, typical of ordinary beings.

Moreover, the effect it has on the public is the remoteness and the idea of superiority. In addition, the tragedy has a role in educating the public, through suffering and fear.

With regard to the vision of the world, in the second century BC, the company was “mixed”, there were many hierarchies. In addition, both public works are different in America is popular child while in Moliere is popular with marked hierarchies (like it was the King, is a refinement of manners).

Moliere’s world was far removed from “Host”. he makes a satire of manners, satirizes and parodies the love affairs and extramarital relationships on the Court. You can say it is a kind of humorous criticism for educational purposes.

With respect to appeals to both make the public can be said to be more present in the work of Plautus: Mercury addresses the audience in the prologue, which does not occur in the work of Moliere. What it is present in both are the “nods to the public” to be achieved through dialogue “aside”, for example in Act III Scene VI in hypertext when Mercury or Sosie insults in Act II scene VI when Jupiter speaks other than saying “his tears touched my soul and pain afflicts me.” Hypotext Also in this resource is, for example in Act I Scene III in which Mercury separate speech saying: “I know rogue bigger than my father. Observe how this woman flatters flattery.”

 

The role of the slave

One of the characters that always appears in the comedy is the slave, who drives to and and be a victim of the brutality of his master (which address both Plautus and Moliere.)

There is something that appears to Moliere and Plautus not, which is a parallel between the couple and Host-Alcmena Sosia Cleantis, can be seen as marital problems in all social classes, both high, as slaves.

In addition, there is a difference between Sosia Plautus and Moliere Sosie, the second is about the end of the book, criticizing the Mercury, saying “In my life I have been a god so devilish!”, While in the work of Plautus, is silent on Sosia Mercury and also speaks at the end of the work. It seems that the characters in Plautus more respect to the gods than those of Moliere.

 

Resources comedy

To achieve this comedy (which in my opinion is better accomplished in the work of Moliere, I think it is more current) language as used insults (both works), for example, when Host is angry because he did not believe Sosia what is telling and uses phrases such as “I will tear you to Hercules that language damn evil” and “great rogue!”, Moliere’s also used but are insults “present” for example “oh, great son of a bitch full of pride, “” Coward!, Tales! “. Also accomplished comic scenes that confuse, as the scene III in the works of Moliere, when speaking to Cleantis Sosie and celebrates the fact that he had not wanted to kiss and who had treated her badly. Viewers know it was because he was not really, but Mercury in the form of Sosie, but Cleantis do not know, and do not understand the behavior of her husband. Here is an example of the superiority of the viewer with respect to a character.

As for visual comedy with hits both work (of a “superior” to a lower, for example, Mercury Sosia Host or Host or Sosia) but not using both Moliere and Plautus.

 

 

Theatrical techniques

There are three ways of talking about the characters: one is the dialogue, that is a conversation between two, which is used as the antithesis of what the character says and what the character does, the second is the polylogue, a talk among many three or more characters talking at once and serves to create confusion and mess, and finally the monologue is when a character speaks alone, this allows us to get into the character’s inner world.

Another possible way of talking is when the character makes it “apart”, so it is turned on you are talking about, it’s almost like a nod to the public. This technique is different from the monologue, which does not occur within the dialog. It is a resource that generates comedy and makes us understand aspects of the complex and on the other side gives the character knowledge.

Units of time and space

Aristotle claimed that the action time lasted 1 day: the tragedy the tragic hero’s fate brings happiness to misery in a very short time, causing much terror in the viewer.

With respect to space in all Greek tragedy happened in one place and there were also violent scenes not shown since they are painful (eg death).

 

Metamorphosis and the topic twice

According to the dictionary, metamorphosis is “reversible or permanent transformation of a person into an animal, object or force of nature. It is a symbol of the power of the gods.”

Both the hypotext as hypertext appears metamorphosis of Sosia Mercury and Jupiter in Amphitryon. In both works generated much confusion, especially when they are Sosia and Mercury in the form of Sosia, where the real does not understand anything, can not believe how has a double, but finally you end up accepting the blows. This also rebuilds the superiority of the public to the character who does not understand what is happening.

Uncertainty also creates comic characters and anger Host wants to clarify things and can not not believe anything he says Sosia and this leads also to fight with his wife and accusing her of adultery. At the same time, Alcmene because she does not understand anything to be with Jupiter in the form Host believed to be her husband.

In short, the metamorphosis generates humor in this work by all the mess it causes.

With regard to the topic twice, I think it achieves a similar effect of metamorphosis: confusion, doubt and failure to distinguish what the real Amphitryon.

 

Perspectives on the birth of Hercules

Hercules (mythology), in Greek mythology, a hero known for his strength and courage and for his many legendary exploits. Hercules is the Roman name of the Greek hero Heracles. He was the son of Zeus and Alcmene, wife of the Theban general Amphitryon. Hera, Zeus’ jealous wife, determined to kill the child of her unfaithful husband shortly after the birth of Hercules, sent two large snakes that killed him. The boy was still very small but strangled the snakes. As a young man, killed a lion with his bare hands. As a trophy of this adventure, put on the skin of his victim as a layer and its head as a helmet. The hero next conquered a tribe from Thebes demanded payment of tribute. As a reward, he was given the hand of the Theban princess Megara, by whom he had three children. Hera, still relentless in his hatred of Hercules, gave him a fit of madness during which he killed his wife and children. Horror and remorse for this act, Hercules would have committed suicide, but the oracle of Delphi told him that could purge his crime became a servant of his cousin Eurystheus, king of Mycenae. Eurystheus, compelled by Hera, imposed the twelve challenge facing difficult tests, the twelve labors of Hercules.

Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia.

The piece I got is not exactly the birth, but still there are some similarities with the works of Plautus and Moliere. The first mention of the fact that the child born of Jupiter was to deal with two snakes, which is also mentioned in this passage. This fact, however is not mentioned by Moliere, born just say that Hercules, but that will face two snakes.

Nor does it mention that the two snakes were sent by the jealous wife of Zeus-Jupiter.

Conclusions

Both works refer to a dramatic, almost unbelievable, the birth of Hercules.

The differences between the two works are clearly caused by the evolution of theater from the time of Plautus to reach what is the theatrical performance during the time of Moliere.

I liked the work of Moliere, I guess because it is current and I also believe that achieves the effect of comedy better than Plautus.