4. Cultural and scientific achievements.
6. Home Calendar
Egypt is a country that currently has 1000000 km2, where 97% of the country is desert. It is the country that has the most brilliant culture and history of humanity’s oldest.
The Nile River protect the Egyptians from some invasions while separated it into two: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
It was one of the earliest forms of socio-politically organized into states. Egypt arise due to its internal development rather than previous models
For 35 centuries, (for which, spent 26 dynasties) Egypt lived in splendor. Where were also invaded by Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine.
The main characteristic of Egypt was their religion. The Egyptians deified forces of nature and animals. Were polytheists.
Priests belonging to the upper class and took care of the gods.
The gods could be local or state. Some disappeared and others endured.
The Egyptians believed in life after death, so they preserved the body. These are known as mummies.
Egyptian culture had great achievements as: writing, totally complex system and the pyramids built with a religious order with which demonstrated knowledge in geometry and mechanics who ran at that time, among many other achievements that took.
In the science the Egyptians showed his great astronomical knowledge built much like a calendar that we know today. Also very well mastered mathematics.
The history of Egypt is a religious version, polytheistic.
The Egyptian deified forces of nature, which is why all their gods together human and animal characteristics. The annual cycle of flooding and fertilization of the land that produces the Nile was a central element Religious beliefs. In recent periods, until the economy was organized around the temples.
In Egypt, religion is clearly divided into the official state, of which we know many details (the burial area, which is also well represented) and daily practices of the majority of the population that departed markedly from the official cult.
The official religion had as its central figure to the sun or sun king, called Ra, Horus or Amun. The Pharaoh (in theory) of the gods cared and looked after their cultic images, for those who really cared about them were priests. The gods, meanwhile, established his residence in the images and showed his favor to Pharaoh and thus humanity.
Neither the man nor the Pharaoh can “love” a god, but only “respect”, “worship” or “give thanks.” The “fear” means the ability to lift and “love” the power to inspire.
The purpose of worship is to maintain and enhance the established order of the world. The cult practiced it a whole hierarchy of priests. Only the priests could enter the sanctuary, it was not for the people. The god left the temple only in some festivities, cultic image remained hidden in a chapel that was transported on a symbolic boat, so that it knew the presence of God, but was not seen. The official religion was irrelevant to the individuals.
To satisfy their religious needs attending to other sites as the main temples and many local shrines in honor of the lesser divinities.
The people came to these shrines, and they prayed, had deposited their offerings or oracular consultations. There were also pilgrimage centers such as Abydos and Saqqara, people visited shrines every day, or possibly praying at home.
Religious activities such were accompanied by others, many of which were gradually falling. Among the various types of religious objects include, almost at random, amulets with divine decrees, busts of ancestors who were placed in homes, and many other objects and forms of clothing that accompanied the birth. Unknown rites for newborns, only some referring to circumcision of boys seems to be just before puberty to marriage, or to facilitate delivery and purification of the mother after this.
In religious life there were also animals they considered sacred to particular gods, or possibly they were worshiped as gods themselves, being buried with a ceremonial accurate. The elegant cats that lived in Egypt were very similar to those of today (as were domestic) the cat was a sacred animal to anyone who killed a cat could be sentenced to death.
Species associated with divinity were mummified and buried a single or all members. The most famous of the animals was the Apis bull, sacred to Ptah. These animals could be dogs or jackals, cats, baboons, icneumones and rams, various types of fish, snakes and / or crocodiles.
The priesthood was not an exclusive contract. In the Eighteenth Dynasty emerges as a class, could be devoted to the priesthood one officiating, a priest or ritual specialist reader. There was a consistent trend for the son to follow his father in the priestly office, but this was slowed because the Pharaoh could choose the best for each position and Egyptian society was evolving into a rigid position. I get to create a kind of caste, took a special diet, had their dress and wear beards and sexual continence when they were in service, although perhaps not in other circumstances. They received their income from the temples of the offerings that were deposited before the god (these should constitute a small proportion of the income of the temples) had temples and schools attached workshop.
Priests professionals and bureaucrats, including the military, were the two basic categories of people literate. The bureaucracy seems to have lost its independence and relief in politics. So the priests became the repository of intellectual culture. The culture of the Greco-Roman period temples was a culture whose priestly one salient features understates what is the role of the Pharaoh in prior periods, the priests presented themselves as delegates divinity of Pharaoh, the ruler was now that appeared under his priestly dignity.
The Egyptian pantheon
I could not command the gods in precias categories. There are two reasons: the complexity of the religious ideas of Egypt and the long period of time in which they developed. Religious practices of the people changed markedly from the official religion of the great temples.
Their names provided three types of information: 1-iconographic traits, principal for which can recognize a divinidad.2-character and function, its relations with other gods etc.3-main places in which he was worshiped.
Gods and myths:
Egyptian polytheism in an extremely complex, the gods themselves have greater importance than the myths about them, the myth was not a notable feature. Some gods are defined by myth, others by geographical location and group organization. Maintain some aspect of the world, as in the case of Ptah with trades, etc. Hathor with women.
* The myth relates that Osiris Osiris, the god of fertility and the dead, symbol of the sun and the Nile was shattered by the god Seth (symbol of the desert) and again rebuilt by Isis (his wife, and moon goddess protective of children) returning to life with a mission to judge the dead.
* The Osiris (god of death), the son, Horus (Ra or Amun), deriving the royal dynasties.
* The god sun rises every morning, crosses the sky in the solar boat, older, but does not die and travels through the underworld at night in a regeneration cycle.
* While the creation myth of the sky goddess, Nut is the granddaughter of the sun god, in order to pursue objectives that the cycle is rather his mother in whose mouth comes at night and morning born . In the revival can also be called Hathor daughter of Re
The world of the dead:
The fate of each was not secured in any way. The afterlife was full of dangers, which usually be overcome by using magical means. The starting point of all these ideas was the tomb. The deceased could continue to exist in the tomb and its surroundings or could travel through the afterlife. His goal was to identify with the gods, and in particular with Osiris or incorporated with some spirit transfigured in the solar cycle as a member of the “boat of millions” the boat never showed in its entirety.
Between death and entry into the divine world held a trial (this issue less important to the pharaohs as the rest of humanity), often depicted in the tombs, in the papyri, coffins and shrouds.
The trial scenes showing a female monster, called “eater” or “devourer of the dead”, its function was to engulf those who failed the test. The scenes on the walls of the tombs were part of the per diem allowance for life or after death, so tells the “Book of the Dead” also contained a series of rules to reach the afterlife, in which envisaged the incorrupt body maintenance. This belief leads to the complex technique of embalming corpses: Mummies and the construction of large tombs so they could continue living in the past. The burials contained large variety of material goods, including 1st time in large quantities of food, statues that could be accustomed to the “soul” of the deceased and the carefully wrapped mummy, protected by numerous charms (up to 400 figures shawabty) placed in a coffin or a nest of coffins and magically to life was driven by the rite of “opening the mouth”.
Many of the objects from the tombs repeated the motif of rebirth in symbolic form.
The emphasis was on changing beliefs, but few disappeared.
This method was to artificially preserve the bodies of people and / or animals (the examination of royal mummies can set the age at which the person died or discover family relationships)
Mummification began as a result of the interaction between man and his natural environment. It was an attempt to preserve an element of the same artificial means and also stipulated in the “Book of the Dead”, “had to keep the body corrupt”
For almost the entire period Predynastic burials were very simple. The bodies were placed in shallow graves, dug at the edge of the desert, covering them with sand. In dry atmosphere that contact with the hot sand produced a dehydrating (or drying) very quickly, often before they decompose tissues, so that sometimes bodies were preserved by natural means. Sometimes occasionally mummies were discovered and developed the belief that the preservation of the body was essential to the continued existence of man after death. That was the beginning of mummification and funeral custom. A constant struggle between two ways of approaching the problem. The 1st pursued a genuine preservation of the body, while the 2nd, more formal, focused on the wrapping and packaging of the mummy.
The art of mummifying peak was reached in late New Kingdom and in the time that followed immediately after.
The methods varied according to time and according to the riches of the family of the deceased.
The method is used at the end of the Empire and during the interim period lll; required about 70 days and its most important part was the dehydration of the body, a dehydrating agent consisting of a mixture of carbon, bicarbonate, chloride and sodium sulfate:
* Removing the brain.
* Removal of the viscera through an incision in the left flank practiced.
* Sterilization of body cavities and viscera.
* Treatment of the viscera with waste removal, dehydration with natron unos40 days
* Packaging natural body with natron and fragrant resins.
* Dip the body with natron for 40 days.
Removal of temporary packing materials.
* Packaging subcutaneous members with sand, clay, etc..
Anointing the body with ointments.
* Treatment of the surfaces of the body with molten resin.
* Bandage and including amulets, jewelry, etc.
Canopic jars: These vessels are usually made of calcined (alabaster) also limestone, clay or ceramic, and contained. Containing the viscera removed from the body during mummification.
* Note: In addition, the practice of embalming generated knowledge in chemistry, anatomy and medicine, which are preserved in the famous Book of surgery.
When a cat died it was embalmed and placed in a special coffin, in cat form, before being buried in cemetery for cats.
Mummify a cat was embalmed like a person. Mummy To stay compact, the embalmers placed the cat’s front legs to the sides and rear stood glued to the belly. Then rolled the tail between the legs.
Coffins and sarcophagi:
Each is formed by the lid and the bottom (box) coffins are often placed in a sarcophagus.
Above one of the only mummy mummy put a lid (coffin or sarcophagus, which was made by the successive application of linen, glue and plaster around a “mummy model”, painting with watercolors after bright.
The coffins and sarcophagi had two basic forms: a rectangular and other anthropoid, but only the second is known in cardboard. The anthropoid coffins or in human form appeared in the Middle Kingdom as a natural extension of the primitive-mummy masks that covered the top of the deceased.
The decor varies by age. The rectangular coffin was often covered with inscriptions and texts of sarcophagi with representations of various items of funerary equipment and a list of offerings. The anthropoid coffins are characteristic of the eighteenth dynasty, while the white coffins with bands that suggest the bandages of the mummies were common in the Eighteenth Dynasty. The wood was ideal for making coffins, but in Egypt there are few trees so the best parts were imported. An excellent alternative was the board that was cheap, light and easy to fit and paint (the same was done with the masks as already said) For the rest of the New Kingdom, the added decoration small scenes with various gods and texts. The sarcophagi were constructed in a rugged, dark stone, usually basalt, but no lack of wood imitations. The decoration and inscriptions on the coffins and sarcophagi, were inspired by religious texts and vignettes included the “Book of the Dead”, the pyramid texts and other books funeral. The outside of the lid often presented Chapter 72 of the “Book of the Dead”, the formula for a day out and re-open the grave.
The resemblance of the mummified body of the deceased with agricultural implements and other was a reflection of two main ideas related to these objects: a body and a replacement worker to act as delegate of the deceased when he was called to perform various personal services in the world beyond.
During the Ramesside period can be seen in increased funerary statuettes: made tough and dark stone (xxv dynasty) made in the woods (XXVI dynasty) and some very rough (the late seventeenth and early eighteenth; hanging baskets ahead (Eighteenth Dynasty), polychrome decoration: blue / green, red, yellow, black on white (late Dynasty XVIII) back flat and head filled (lll interim period) and small rear pedestal and column, (mid- the XXVI dynasty and later)
A mask not only served to protect the face of the mummy, but head to parts if the real head of the mummy was lost or damaged. When the soul of the dead person back to the tomb, the mummy could recognize by his mask. One of the most famous artworks in the world is the amazing wearing golden mask of Tutankhamun’s mummy. The use of gold was related to the belief that the sun god, who hoped to meet the mummy, gold had meat. Mummies lesser wore cardboard masks, prepared in the manner of paper mache with cloth or scrap of papyrus impregnated plaster or resin. The moistened cardboard was molded to fit the mummy. Once hardened, could brown or painted with beautiful colors.
Having completed the lengthy process of embalming and wrapping, finally stood the mummy’s head and held well with more strips of fabric, also a decorated chest and foot wrap.
Greek mummies wore masks more personal, with realistic features and artfully painted details.
Amulets and magical charms:
The ancient Egyptians wore amulets after his death, the same firm that had been in life. They believed that these charms had magical properties that protected the body from evil and brought good luck to them. Among the wrappings of the mummy were placed many different kinds of amulets often representing plants, animals or body parts. It was believed that the stone was the material that made the amulet he communicated more power. The priests used to recite invocations and prayers as sacred amulets were placed on the mummy.
4. Cultural and scientific achievements.
The Egyptians developed a complex writing system around the year 3000 BC, which determines the beginning of Egyptian history, based on signs representing ideas.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century Egyptian writing was deciphered by the French archaeologist Champollin, thanks to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, which contained one ordinance written in Greek, hieroglyphic and demotic. From the Greek inscription, Champollion was able to identify the meaning of the hieroglyphs, comparing the names on the three types of deeds.
The large number of hieroglyphs and restricted knowledge of its meaning, this system made it very difficult to operate in Egypt, so there was a simplification process that led, first, to the hieratic script, with representations of consonant sounds and ideas, which reduced the number of signs. This type of writing was known only to priests. Subsequently developing the demotic script, phonetic features, used by scribes in their daily administrative tasks. The Egyptians broke down his tongue in a syllabary and had an order “alphabet” which is sometimes broken down into lists. The ability to read and write in Egypt difference cultures and possibilities open to them in social organization. The illustrated noble class, or upper class scribes exercised as race officials, these armies could be chiefs or priests and pharaohs also higher administrative titles were literate. The literacy is the basis of social organization.
A scribe was instructed by another scribe and the sons of the leading families could start very young in the profession, (about 12 years) and were gradually rising in the administrative hierarchy. Learning is made by copying sentence or word, and not starting with isolated signs. Eventually wrote literary texts, such as medical and mathematical texts, rituals and some dead books.
Egyptian writing was linked, on the one hand, to mural painting and stone carving, and secondly, in making paper from the bark of the papyrus.
The representative of Egyptian art forms take on a definite toward early dynastic period. The level of functional and decorative art forms, was very high as the color drawings, the manufacture of stone vessels, ivory carving, furniture making and metalworking, architecture evolved and continued to develop with the domain of new materials and the introduction of new forms.
All had a function, was well as everyday objects or, usually reserved as objects within a religious context funeral.
In Egypt, the art was a major source of prestige.
Relief and painting:
The relief achieves its effect by modeling, light and shadows, while painting succeeds with lines and color. The relief can be raised or recessed. Best principal tombs and religious buildings were decorated with relief. The paint job on the graves when the rock was of poor quality that made it impossible relief, as in private homes or in the royal palaces built of adobe. Another type of representation (unusual) was inlaid.
The representation and writing were closely related. Hieroglyphs were painted.
The figures are diagrams being its main objective to provide information. Egyptians diagrams are one of the closest to the visual image. Allows playback objective and mathematically precise.
The typical way that the Egyptians painted object was to use a cluster of its most characteristic, which in turn communicated much of the information needed.
In the Egyptian language, color, skin, and nature are words that are related, so that a figure would not be complete without color. The color is uniform throughout the contours Figure mainly highlighted with black.
For the composition of a scene and / or whole wall, you needed to have all the elements on a neutral surface and a flat surface.
Some methods of composition “topographic”, are home plans and desert areas.
A figure the larger size, more is its importance. Therefore the pharaoh stands over his subjects, his car sometimes takes up half the space dedicated to the representation, while the rest is occupied by soldiers. The main figures show an ideal way, the majority has a youthful maturity, while women are all young and slender and subordinate figures are sometimes depicted bald, wrinkled and misshapen.
Sculpture in the round:
This sculpture is due to the affinity of the techniques used. Almost all large sculptures show a figure that looks straight, at right angles to the shoulders. It seems that it was a basic feature, not a style.
The main exceptions are as rigid geometry heads facing up (perhaps facing the sun) or looking down.
The works of sculpture started from square blocks, served with sides of main surface patterns and drawings. The reliefs were carved first and then painted.
The Egyptians dominated the harshest elements with the simplest tools. This was the main factor for its success, but does not disclose the outputs achieved mastery.
The tool was so common and used since the early dynasties that even words like art (Hemet), crafts, artisans and many others, were constituted by the sign of the bit image is designed to drill the rocks, but also had such to pierce beads on a string of pearls, and even to fire stone vases or other applications. With these small holes were used a kind of bows to spin at high speed in comfort:
The simple boat made of bundles of papyrus stalks tied together well, was the oldest boat sailed down the Nile Their uses were limited, but his replacement was easy and cheap. The word Sepy, “tie”, was later used to designate also building wooden boats. The older wooden boats and tall ships was imported. At least until the New Kingdom. The most notable feature of the Egyptian ships was the absence of keel.
The religious buildings are almost all architectural works, all symbolic values together with the strictly functional. The cosmos had ideal characteristics, purified and separated from the everyday world, and its relations with the underworld of mere analogy, not a direct representation.
It is said that the pyramids are constructed in the same way that they observed space.
The pyramids are the quintessential Egyptian monuments. Between the years 2630 and 1640. C. The Egyptian pharaohs built pyramids as tombs. Religious and architectural considerations played a role in the development of the pyramids, but all had one purpose, they vary in shape, size, interior design and other details. There are 2 types of pyramids: the stepped pyramid and proper. Its construction indicates the knowledge they had in geometry and mechanics. From the early step pyramids, which derived from the mastaba or tomb, went to erect the great pyramids. The most important of these is that of Cheops, which, according to Herodotus, 100,000 men worked for 100 years.
The hallways are very narrow and steep, in addition, enter the hall on the leaves. Besides the above, the air in the chambers is renewed little or nothing.
The Pyramid of Cheops
It is the largest and oldest pyramid between Khafre and the Miserino. Erected by the pharaoh Khufu nearly 5,000 years ago, is an imposing building whose original dimensions were 146 meters high and 230 meters wide, although, due to erosion and the dismantling of its coating, now measured 137 meters high and 230 meters wide. It has been estimated that the construction were used more than two and a half million stone blocks. The pyramid contains a number of passages and chambers, between which is which housed the mummy of Pharaoh.
At present no trace remains of the mummy and the treasures that could contain the pyramid, the pyramid is supposed to, like almost all the tombs of pharaohs, was desecrated and emptied of all its contents. In fact, the only representation that has preserved the pharaoh Cheops is a statuette of just five centimeters high, which contrasts with the construction giant Cheops bequeathed to humanity.
During this millennium, the siding was removed slowly with him to build other buildings, almost ten percent of the original stone blocks of the pyramid.
The Pyramid of Khafre
Is very close to the Pyramid of Chephren, which seems more than the previous one found on high ground. It was built by Pharaoh Khafre, Khufu’s son, on a plateau near the pyramid of Cheops. It is believed that Khafre would not exceed the height of the pyramid of his father out of respect for it, although, having built on high ground, the visual effect is that the pyramid of Khafre is greater than that of Cheops. The pyramid shows the image measures 136 meters high and 210 meters wide. It can be distinguished easily from the Cheops because preserved in the highest part of the lime coating which originally had.
The Pyramids of Miserino
It is the smallest of the three, with 66 meters high and 108 meters wide. Again, Mycerinus, son of Chephren, built a pyramid smaller than its parent, supposedly out of respect for him. The pyramid is covered Pink granite at the bottom, while the remaining coating is limestone. Next to the pyramid are three other smaller, which housed the mummies possibly wives or dignitaries.
The Sphinx is a lion’s body and a human head. It is believed that the face is that of Pharaoh Khafre, who had it built for watching his tomb. Throughout history, the Sphinx has been buried and dug partially repeatedly. At present, the body is badly damaged (collapsed a few years ago one of the shoulders) The face is preserved quite well, except for the nose, which has completely disappeared. The causes of the destruction of the nose are not clear, and it is argued that could be due to the target practice of the Mamelukes, to fire the cannons of Napoleon, erosion, to the willful destruction by not allowing Islam representations of man and beast in the same figure.
From the nineteenth dynasty Egyptian art lost its originality and creative power.
The Egyptians excelled in the field of various sciences: one was astronomy, mathematical knowledge was reflected in his architectural works, and the development of surveying (art of measuring land), in determining the value of pi and creating an ingenious multiplication table.
The official Egyptian Calendar:
It is the first solar calendar that has been reported. The ancient people measured the years by lunar calendars. The Babylonians, highly concerned about astronomy and mathematics had a calendar based on. lunar phases. Is between 29 days and 29 days 6 hours 20 hours, with the average lunar month 29 days 20 hours 44 minutes 2 seconds. A calendar with 29 months and 30 days to correspond better to the cycles of the moon. Should add 1 day to 1 month of 29 days every 30 months.
The Egyptian people was a primarily agricultural town, very aware of the flooding of the Nile, but as we will see the official schedule is not suitable for agricultural purposes.
The official calendar consisted of 365 days divided into 12 months of 30 days each, to which they added 5 more, known as epagmenos. These five days, Egyptian “heriu repenet” were dedicated to the birth of Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis, Nephthys, being the day on which the goddess Nut could give birth to their children, after the curse of RA The months were grouped into seasons, each of which consisted of 4 months. These were: the flood season (Achet), winter or germination (Peret) and summer or heat (Shemu), also known as Station deficiency due to lack of water in the Nile 4 months each stations in its Greek version were:
Shemu or harvest (summer): Months: Pajon, Paini, Epifi, Mesore
These months are added after the last day of Mesore, 5 days epagmenos. This calendar was inaccurate. It began with the dawn of Sotis helaco. Sotis was the name given to the star Sirius. Thus began the year when Sirius appeared on the horizon at the time of sunrise. This phenomenon, known as the heliacal rising of Sothis, occurred around the beginning of the annual flood, and roughly equivalent to 19 July or Julian year to 15 June of our calendar in the latitude of Memphis. But if we consider the Egyptian year of 365 days compared to 365.25 days Julian Fails of 1 day every 4 years, ie the beginning of the official year was delayed one day every four years. Sothic year, or year Alexandrian, the site does not match exactly, but it’s a few minutes more, so a Sothic period was 1460 years and 1461 sticos inaccurate This is a major error, 400 years after the official start and the site would be diverted 100 days and only every 1461 years coincide both earlier this year. Logically the Egyptians observed this shift would cause the mid-summer comenzase Peret season (winter). And this is where the problem arose agriculture. The Egyptians, or at least the priests knew this perfectly deviation, it is not difficult to observe .. But the official calendar is not corrected, but accumulated error.
It was they who calculated through a religious calendar based on astronomical observations, religious and dates flood. Why then did not change the civil calendar, adjusting to 365.25. Maybe the answer lies in the power that gave them the need to calculate only the absence of the date of the flood but also certain religious holidays, and an amendment to the civil calendar that losing them would mean “power”. It was a secret that the people should not know.
6. Home Calendar
The astronomer Theon of Alexandria, starting from dawn Sotis helaco of the year 139 Julian, which occurred on the 1st of the month of Thoth deduced that the 1st of the month of Thoth the years 1321, 2781 and 4241 BC phenomenon also occurred. This is the calculation that has been used to try to determine the start of the schedule. The year 1322 is too close; existed in 2781 as reflected by the calendar pyramid texts
We know that in 7 of the reign of Sesostris III (Dynasty XII), the heliacal rising of Sothis occurred on the 16th of the 8th month, which means a delay of 225 days compared to the astronomical calendar. This allows us to conclude that at least 900 years (225 by late April) had used the official calendar. You could say that the official schedule was employed for at least 1232 years ago. Based on these data we obtain a starting dates of reign in 1888 BC
Representation of dates:
The year was divided into three stations, each of which consisted of 4 months. These were: the flood season (Achet), winter (Peret) and summer (Sjemoe) Each month consisted of 30 days, and 12 months was added 5 extra days, known as the epagmenos. The year was counted from arrival to the throne of the last king. Dates not used in the hieroglyph
Representation of cardinal numbers
The Egyptians used for their calculations the decimal system. They had seven basic symbols representing units, tens, hundreds, etc.. The symbols used for numbering were:
Another method is to represent the number as a series of arithmetic operations (addition and multiplication) of lower values.
When the number to represent a noun is followed by the symbol of writing first for the name and then the number (in transcriptions are written the numbers 1 and 2 after the name and the rest before this) So to represent two pitchers would employ:
No special features found in geometry and all they give us are some data for calculating areas and volumes of basic geometric figures. The calculations, although not correct, if sufficiently approximate to meet the needs of everyday life. Furthermore there is no distinction between exact and approximate calculations. The value is 3.1605 (4 (8/9) ** 2) This is a very good approximation of the real value of 3.1415926 …, It is said that the Egyptians knew the value, but the truth is that although the approach is not bad, is a calculated value based on a very basic geometry. It should also be noted that the Egyptians did not use pi as a constant. We do not know how it came to this approach.
Calculation of volumes: V = h/12 [3/2 (D + d)] ** 2
Logically there in the papyri and formulation, but is explained with an example in which it is said “Divide 18 by 12, add 7 and 4 What we can say is that it was used as a constant pi, so we deducting known nor their relation to the perimeter or area of the circle.
Egypt was a civilization very complex, which further contributed to the development of their culture periods suffered invasions.
Its most important feature was undoubtedly the religion, in which they believed and sacredly respected.
Egypt’s entire life revolved around the Nile River, as explained by the Greek historian Herodotus Egypt is a gift of the Nile Without it, the country would be just a continuation of the desert.
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