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1. Introduction

2. Key Elements. Concepts

3. Electrical Symbols

4. Electrical installation of premises – Diagram stranded

5. Wiring a home

6. Conclusion

1. Introduction

The use of electric energy has been widespread as possible in the implementation of the illumination and countless household elements in the housing.

The electric drawing as such is easy and simple and consists of lines in the use of conventional symbols. It is sufficient to care for the unity and balance of the composition. Needless make scale drawings. What I enclosed some difficulty is knowledge of symbols, they are numerous and, as you’ll see, there absolute uniformity in their graphics.

2. Key Elements. Concepts

* Power:

The connection of an electrical installation consists of a line connecting the general network by installing electrification own housing.

* Classes:


  • Rush Air: Is going from the pole to the house, seen on tour, at a minimum height of 6 m for crossing the street.

    * Ground Running: So you call the part of the facility which is underground from the public network to the functional unit or box protection, installed in the housing.

    The normal rush a house is single phase, two-wire, one active (positive) and the other neutral, 120 volts.

    * Meter:

    The apparatus is designed to record the electrical energy consumed by the user.

    * Drivers:

    Drivers are transmitted or items that carry the electricity. It is used in the facility or circuits to connect the generator to the receiver

    * Classification of drivers:


  • Thread or wire: a driver is constituted by a single solid wire.

    * Cord: a conductor is constituted by several wires helically wound electrically bonded around one or several central wires.

    * Cable: a conductor is formed by one or several threads or strands electrically isolated from each other.

    Depending on the number of insulated conductors carrying a cable is called unipolar, if one takes; bipolar, if it takes two wires; pole, three, four-pole, five-pole, multipolar …

    The cables are channeled through tubes facilities to protect them from external agents such as shock, moisture, corrosion, etc..

    Normally used in the cable housing 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm diameter.

    * Switches, dimmers or switches

    Switches are devices designed to connect or interrupt a current flowing through a circuit. Are manually operated.

    * Switches:

    Switches are devices that interrupt a circuit to make contacts with other part of it through an internal mechanism that has two positions: on and off.

    * Junction boxes and referral:

    The junction boxes (boxes) are used to accommodate the various connections between the conductors of the installation. Boxes are rectangular or round shape, provided with lateral guides for joining them together.

    3. Electrical Symbols

    In electricity, in order to facilitate the design and installation of the graphical representation of the circuit, values, quantities and units, is by symbols.

    Electrical symbols are very important since they are as ABC technician and can allow long without written directions. Therefore, it is necessary to know these symbols or book or table where they can consult.

    The number of symbols is very large. To cite only the international standard by the ECJ (International Electrotechnical Commission) total so far 415 electrical symbols.

    This topic has been collected two series of the most commonly used.

    But before you see the symbols, it should give the definition of the main elements that refer to them.

    Fundamental Definitions:

    Met by defining the elements according to their affinity, in the following groups:

    * Generators

    * Elements of protection

    * Current Classes

    * Line and Connections

    * Receivers

    * Appliances drive

    * Measuring Instruments

    * Generators: Machines or items that produce electricity.

    * Battery: Power supply by direct conversion of chemical energy.

    Battery: Set of two or more elements connected to provide electrical energy.

    * Protection Elements: These are used to protect the system against excessive increases in the intensity of the current, or by overload or because they establish a contocircuito.

    * Fuse: A device that connects to the circuit, so that flow through them all current intensity, and melt, thus preventing it from being damaged installation.

    * Current Classes:

    * DC: The always flowing in the same direction and with a constant value. The produce dynamos, batteries and accumulators.

    * Alternating current: Current periodical whose average intensity is zero. It is produced by alternators.

    * Line: Set of conductors, insulators and accessories for the transport or distribution of electricity

    * Earth: conductive mass of the earth, and every driver attached to it.

    * Receivers: These are the devices that use electrical energy for use for various purposes.

    * Filament lamps (bulbs) lamp which produces light emissions, through a body heated to incandescence by the passage of an electric current.

    * Buzzer: electromagnetic device which produces an acoustic signal by the vibration of a metallic lamp to be attracted to the variable field of a coil with iron core.

    * Resistance: Device used to control the flow of current.

    * Drive devices:

    * Switch: A device used to open and powering, or too close an electrical circuit and will permanently.

    * Switch: A device designed to change the connections of various circuits.

    * Button: It is a special type of switch that closes the circuit only while maintaining pressure on the drive system, and to cease contact ceases such pressure.

    * Measuring Instruments:

    * Voltmeter: An instrument that measures the electromotive force and potential differences.

    * Ammeter: An instrument that measures the intensity of the electric current.

    * Wattmeter: An instrument that measures the strength of the electrical current in watts.

    Electrical Symbols Series

    * In the first series are recognized internationally standardized symbols.

    * In the second level educational symbols

    4. Electrical installation of premises – Diagram stranded

    According to the statement of the objective and the methodological strategies suggested by the official program should draw an electrical installation in a real situation. However, since this situation depends on the environments and the free choice of the teacher and student, we can only present some models that can serve as a guide to actual practice and real.

    The elements of a local electrical installation are:

    * Four bypass junction boxes and marked with the letters ABCD, two points of light or ceiling lamps of 100 W each.

    * A wall lamp 60 W

    * A switch

    * Two switches

    * Four power outlets

    * Lead wires forming the connections of the various electrical devices.

    Symbology electrical elements

    The designation is common for the two signs, when different, you specify:

    * Drivers: Derivation – three conductor

    * Lamp or light spot

    * Switch

    * Switch

    * Outlet

    * Socket with protective contact

    5. Wiring a home

    Analyzed and including wiring of premises complete with diagrams of all its components, we give an overview of the electrical system of a house in every room.

    Main data of housing that we will consider:

    * Environmental:

    * A dining

    * A kitchen

    * A room

    * A bathroom

    * A study

    A bedroom

    6. Conclusion

    This work has been undertaken in order to convey the power of a housing facility, which consists of overhead and underground. The airlines are the poles and underground are ranging below the earth.

    Another point raised was the electrical symbols used for the design and installation of electrical installations and facilities and real, are methodological strategies that involve drawing facilities in real circumstances.