Football: Physical Preparation at age infant – youth

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1. Specific features to consider

2. The construction of the athlete

3. What is Physical Fitness

4. Main objectives and means to be used for physical training

5. Energy systems and their relation to fuel, the duration and intensity

6. Physical preparedness plans and work factors

7. Benefits of a test

8. Consulted bibliography

1. Specific features to consider

a) Use of age-appropriate activities of the individual:

Based on the principle that the child is not a small adult. We adopt this philosophy of work from the first moments in which the player joins the ranks of our team.

Their physiological, anatomical, psychological not resemble adult capacities and therefore deserve special care, both in terms of quality and quantity of repetitions you can perform in a training session.

Among other things, training volume and intensity of it must be adapted to the individual characteristics of each of the team members, based on the heterogeneity of capabilities that can be found at these ages.

Sport behavior fall within the field of ontogenetic activities invented by human culture) and are much more difficult to perform than the phylogenetic or daily activities, and thus require much training.

b) Allow a maturity consistent with the evolving capacities of the Central Nervous System:

Basing the work on criteria of biological maturation and chronological order to facilitate success in motor tasks.

We must consider

Sports movements

Considered acts

They turn out to be complex psychophysical character structures, and are the result of:

A constant process of interaction between the individual and the environment that surrounds

c) Adequate training coordination capacities, within the context of sport-driving, given its importance in team sports:

Conditional Capabilities

Mostly certain morphological form (such as hypertrophy of muscle fibers) and energy metabolism form)

Coordination capacities

Coordination capacities depend mainly directors and regulatory processes of the CNS and peripheral.

Let’s focus on our case coordinative-motor skills, always closely related to fitness.

Our interest will be focused on those coordination capacities that determine the coordination tasks following:

Quick Fixes in time

Exact solutions

Solutions adapted to the environment

Consider general coordination abilities thus:

Capabilities combination


Differentiation capacity

Ability to balance


Adaptability and change

Specific coordination capacities:

Product or result of the expression of specific partial motor actions, the result of a high level of overall coordination capacity in combination with specific skills.

Possible to achieve optimal driving techniques.

General ability specific coordinative + Dexterity = Sensitivity to the ball

d) Knowledge of the learning process and motor development:

Stages of motor learning teaching:

Three and the call as follows:

Development of global coordination

Development fine coordination

Stabilization fine coordination and development of variable movement availability

Factors influencing the learning process engine:

1) Patient characteristics

Trigger level – Previous experience – transfer

2) The task characteristics

There are three types of mechanisms and strongly interrelated successive execution of a motor action:

Perceptual mechanism

What is it

Sight, hearing, touch and technical Gestures


Decision mechanism

What to do

Tactical thinking.

Decision making.


Implementation Mechanism

How to do it

Main characteristics of motor maturation in children 10 to 14 years

a) Stage Pre-pubertal (10-12 years) – Sport initiation

* Because the growth is slower than in the previous stage, and muscles develop, greatly improves coordination, both general and specific dynamics (eye-hand, eye-foot, eye-head). Also improves strength.

* They respond better to the efforts of resistance because the circulatory and respiratory achieve better conditions. Recovery after exercise is relatively quick.


Suitable for sports, including training, matches and competitions

Their motor is capable of much more than pose coaches

In summary:

An ideal stopover for sports initiation. Not to be missed.

The young man is in the maturation stage more conducive to the development of sports skills.

Suitable for teaching and learning the skills of individual game and tactics game set.

If the work of flexibility, coordination, agility, balance and relaxation.

If also, but with caution, the work of strength, endurance and speed.

Yes to multiple training (multiple sports) and not, for now, to specialization, but can be determined sport whose championship will participate.

b) pubertal stage (13-14 years) – Facing sports

We present functional imbalances and appears a brake on development of coordinations

Muscles, growing along rather than across, have difficulty moving the bony levers

Resistance is lower relative to growth, the surge of the heart chamber. Fatigue easily.

Postural defects are common


Suitable for sports, including training, matches and competitions.

Their motor yields less than expected according to the stage reached in the previous


We are in the ideal stage to put the emphasis on technical training, especially in the tactical

Physical preparation of low and medium intensity

Yes to job flexibility, coordination, balance, agility and relaxation

Yes the work force and resistance to low and medium loads and wide ranges of recovery. The introduction to the weights but caution is indicated

Yes the speed work, but with wide ranges of recovery

No power to work

Yes to multiple training (multiple sports) and specialization

At the end of this stage should be defined the sports specialty and individual position.

2. The construction of the athlete

At the beginning of the construction of the athlete technical training is the key for his strong motivation. Practically only builds and facilitates the acquisition, development and improvement of the skills of individual game and the basic tactics of the game together, develop perceptual-motor qualities.

A physical training through technical training.

In the construction of three types sportsman training impact, which can be schematized as follows:

Technical Training

Physical Training

Construction of the athlete

Invisible Training

Technical training has, as its main objective, the acquisition, development and improvement of the skills and abilities of the individual game and the tactics of the game altogether.

Physical training has as main goal, the development and improvement of all perceptual qualities – inherent to the individual motor. The perceptual qualities – are driving schools that generate organic movement. In practice bind the individual game skills and game tactics together to produce sporting performance.

The Invisible training has as main goal, the development and improvement of all attitudes of the athlete they are, on the one hand, the cognitive (memory, intelligence, quick trial, etc.) Directing skills, tactics and perceptive qualities – motor and on the other hand, volitional qualities (the character) that affect cognitive greater or lesser degree.

Qualities perceptual – motor

The perceptual qualities (sensory organs) are responsible for providing relevant information to the nervous system and to establish the necessary relationship between all organ systems.

To date have been classified and named by scientists as follows:

Exterioceptivas: sight, hearing and touch

Proprioceptive: muscle spindles, tendon and joint receptors receptors

Interoceptive: relate glands and other organs with athletic performance

Relaxation (decontraction): Relaxation is the smallest state of muscle tension. The return of the muscle fiber to its lowest tone possible after contraction

Elasticity – Flexibility: Elasticity is the ability to regain its shape at rest, immediately ceases force that deforms or stretches. The flexibility is the ability to displace the bone segments which are part of the joints, or of a series of joints as in the case of the spine

Coordination: The ability to use the properties of the locomotor system smoothly under the direction of the nervous system. Makes effective to the other factors of fitness, such as strength, endurance, speed and flexibility, giving an application in sport performance. It is considered also as the ability to synchronize the actions of the muscles producing the movement, they intervene at the right time, at the right speed and intensity.

Balance: Is the power to take a position or make a move against the force of gravity and to maintain body control in difficult circumstances

Strength: The ability of the muscle to develop tension against an outside force.

Basically we can group the types of force into four main groups:

Maximum Strength: The maximum stress that a muscle develops muscle against maximal resistance. So is the maximum load that a muscle can lift. It is of an intensity of 100% and their movements are slow.

Quick Strength or Power: The way to overcome resistance or load is not high (between 60% and 80%), with high speed.

Resistance Strength: The strength of a muscle or muscle group to manage fatigue, Durantes a repeated contractions.

Explosive Strength: The ability of a muscle to beat a light load (about 30%) at the maximum speed.

Resistance: is the most important factor in fitness. It allows the quality psychophysiological oppose fatigue effectively prolonging activity. With it we can withstand fatigue syndrome and prolonged efforts can even intense efforts with oxygen debt.

Resistance can be grouped into two groups:

Endurance: Corresponds to a soft and medium intensity. Characterized in that it is performed with a heart rate that ranges from 120 to 140 beats per minute. It is a kind of effort where there is a balance between oxygen consumption and contribution. Ie is performed under aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen). That is why it is the ability that allows us to carry out a balancing exercise oxygen (there is a balance between the need and the supply of oxygen to the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles materials and transport products Waste formed during exercise).

Anaerobic Resistance: The resistance that allows support for as long as possible oxygen debt produced by the high work rate. It can be of two types:

Anaerobic alactic: occurs in maximum efforts and do not produce lactic acid buildup. They are forces which exceed the 180 p / m. The duration of such efforts is 5 “to 7” thanks to the ATP and 15 “and 20” with the intervention of creatine phosphate. The recovery ranged from 2 ‘to 3’. The heart rate of 120 w / m is considered as the recovery level of ATP-FC. Exercise interruption is caused by the exhaustion of ATP and central nervous system fatigue.

Anaerobic Lactic: After completing this exercise class is a strong accumulation of lactic acid, and corresponds to efforts submaximal intensity. Reach heart rates above 160 p / m, sometimes surpassing 200 p / m. Energy once spent the ATP-FC,

obtained from the degradation of sugars, glucose and fat which terminate in the formation of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. The duration of this strain ranges from 30 “to 1”. Necessary to recover 4 ‘to 5’. Fatigue is caused by insufficient oxygen consumption by the accumulation of lactic acid and by the gradual decrease of reservations alkaline.

Speed: This is another quality determinants in athletic performance, being

Present in all sporting events: running, jumping, lifting, hitting, intercept, attack, defend, ie is the “star” of the physical qualities. Speed is the distance traveled in the shortest time possible.

We consider six types of speeds, they are:

Reaction speed: the ability to react to a stimulus, giving a motor response. Ranges from 0 to 5-6 meters.

Execution speed: is the ability to play a movement or a sporting gesture in the shortest possible time. Just move a body part or all in small displacements. An example is the karate chops or boxing.

Speed Acceleration: the ability to increase in rate. This increase is greater the greater the force acting on the body in motion. Ranging from 5-6 meters to 25 or so.

Drive speed is the ability to travel a distance in the shortest possible time and is the result of perfect coordination of the amplitude and frequency. It ranges from 25 to 50


Maximum speed: is the maximum speed capability. Is the length of time which manifests the most of all the speed parameters. Ranging from 40 meters to 75 meters.

Resistance speed: the ability to withstand high speed or the ability to maintain a high speed or distance as long as possible. Ranging from 75 meters up.

3. What is Physical Fitness

It is the application of a set of physical exercises designed rationally to develop and refine the perceptual qualities – the player drive for greater athletic performance.

It is a complex problem that demands more rational judgment relied on the principles approved by the Research for sport.

Objectives of Physical Fitness

The goals will always come first even if the ultimate achievable.

Objectives are important because they help to clarify what the coach and / or trainer want from their students. It helps in such concrete and useful aspects as:

know what the most appropriate content for the physical preparation and their proper distribution

determine the most appropriate methodological technique for teaching – learning

establish a motivating and challenging assessment for their athletes, while letting you know how he handles the whole process of training and how those evolve.

The clear objectives linked to the training athlete doing consciously act for their benefit. Furthermore, there can be no proper assessment without clear objectives, it is impossible to judge the effectiveness of an action without knowing the effect or intended result.

Classes Objectives:

In sports teaching there are three classes of objectives:

General: These refer to the maximum values are treated to achieve by the institution, the coach, the PF and athlete. This characteristic makes it useful as a permanent reference.

Specific (short-term): present time limit. Closely related to the contents. Are fairly evaluated.

Terminal phase (medium term): Present time limit. Closely related to the general objectives and content.

They are fairly evaluated. Down to the end of each of the three phases of the construction of the athlete.

General objectives of physical preparation:

The overall objectives of the specific physical preparation into three:

Help, psychological and technical training, to build the athlete.

Help, technical training and psychological, to develop and refine the perceptual-motor qualities. In practice, this is the most important objective. The physical training exercises and your organization will be directed to develop and perfect those qualities.

Help, psychological and technical training, to achieve a sporty tuning. This objective will guide in the annual cycle times as needed to get the way sports and tuning.


Planning is forecasting and accuracy goals we intend to achieve and the means used to achieve it.

The era of improvisation must be left behind and be replaced by planning, periodization and programming, representing the order versus disorder, logic and empiricism versus research, forecasting against improvisation.

The plan covers the entire process, from initiation to completion with sport sport specialization. It sets out the stages of the process and managed general outlines of the research.

It’s a mental project (research) and then turned to a role that takes place before training begins, to set targets to be achieved and the means to be used.

Planning is based primarily on the characteristics of the child and maturation times of cognitive, affective and motor, and its connection with the acquisition, development and improvement of the perceptual-motor qualities.


It covers only one year process. It handled annual training periods:

Preparatory: It begins with two weeks of anatomical adaptation, in which and, after coming from a transitional period without practice, it starts very gently, being the first week of recreational activities that involve not only football, other sports recreational practices and not exceeding 60 minutes of practice. The second week will continue with the same activities (trying to practice every sport possible) but lengthening the duration of training to 90 minutes maximum. The only physical attribute that works besides intentionally and multilateral activity, is flexibility. Once the anatomical adaptation completes the preparatory period as follows.

1) Perform test of the physical qualities of first grade (including flexibility)

2) doing aerobic endurance (the first session will be physical and physical-technical post)

3) Parallel to aerobic work, perform work with pure strength exercises involving the support of own bodyweight (exercises that do not involve the joints mainly)

4) Work aerobic power based on speed runs to 3/4

5) Completing this period, the speed starts to work (the first session will be physical and physical-technical post)

Pre-competitive: In this period the works are virtually 100% of physical-technical exercises (recreating all possible situations of sport) and technical exercises.

Competitive sport is maintained so far achieved. The physical works are mixed with technical works (in their way as possible).

Post-competition: It calls this period that ends the league championship and before the transition period. Work is continued for about two weeks to keep the body calm state undergoes training during the competitive year. The activities are practically the same as the anatomical adaptation period, but with a twist: the duration of the training session is reversed, as we spent the first week with durations of 90 minutes per practice to the second week with durations of 60 minutes each.

Transition: Named after this period, it is scheduled for physical activity and planned to move to a rest period.


Programming consists of all the system operationally sort of learning activities in order to achieve pre-determined objectives. It is a pre-teaching process and anticipating all the technicians and coaches will be making in this field.

It is a unitary process, where all process components mutually interact.

With the program aims to achieve greater specificity and operationalization of the planning done by means of a harmonic structure throughout the instructional process, looking for the most appropriate techniques for maximum effectiveness.

It is a long and complex process, and continuous adaptation thanks to continuous feedback:

objectives to be achieved




Programming originates training plans that fall within the three periods of the annual cycle. The training plan is therefore cell periodization and planning. Determines training exercises, and practice becomes the training session.

Basic elements of a training plan:

The main elements of a training plan, whether technical, physical or technical-physical, are:

– The objectives to be achieved

– The number of repetitions of each exercise

– The number of sets of each exercise

– The interval between exercises and sets

– The action during the interval

– The duration

These elements have two well defined characteristics:

They operate very closely linked

They are very flexible to accommodate the different levels of athletes, weather conditions and the type of training4. Main objectives and means to be used for physical training

a) 10 – 11 – 12 years

Type of training:

Technical and physical (in the same session). 80% or more of the exercises will be technical.

Weekly sessions:

Three, plus a party

Duration of each session:

60 to 75 minutes

Physical preparation:

Develop and refine the perceptual qualities through technical training

Emphasize the development and improvement of coordination (general and specific dynamics) through technical training

Develop strength, muscle endurance lumbo-abdominal, chest and upper limbs with the physical exercises to be included in the technical training. To develop muscular endurance of the leg muscles sufficient technical training, always accompanied with some physical exercises to prevent decompensation of antagonistic muscles.

Developing resilience through technical training. You get:

– With sequential movement exercises and decreasing intervals between exercises

– In game situations (tactical) or encounters within sessions.

Develop flexibility with physical exercises that are included in the heating and cool-down. We should take at least 10 to 15 minutes per session to maintain flexibility.

the development of other motor qualities such as relaxation, speed, agility, balance and power, is achieved with technical training.

The physical training exercises will be hands-free and medicine ball and charges represent low to medium intensity (60% – 70%).


The annual cycles are divided into three periods: preparatory, specific and temporary, serving primarily to the duration of the championship and its main parties

Training plans:

For each period establishing training plans 5-6 weeks


It is based on a fitness test focused on the dominant driving qualities

Registration fitness serve to evaluate subjective / objective skills and tuning. We also used to start-up evaluation.

b) 13 – 14 years

Type of training:

Technical and physical, technical or physical (when time does not permit separation)

Weekly sessions:

Three or four plus one party

Duration of each session:

75 to 90 minutes

Physical preparation:

Emphasize the development and improvement of coordination (general and specific dynamics) through technical training.

Developing resistance force of the flexors, extensors, rotators and fixing joints mainly involved in athletic movements. This means that now is work the muscles of the legs and pelvis.

Developing resilience through technical training. You get:

– Sequential exercise movements and decreasing intervals between exercises

– With game situations (tactical) or encounters within sessions

Them, even more important, to flexibility with exercises that are included in the warm and the cool down.

The development of other motor qualities will be achieved both in the technical sessions and in physical meetings.

No power to work

Fitness exercises that are done with benches, trellises and other equipment loads represent low and medium intensity.

The introduction to the weights should be initiated and continued but with caution.


The annual cycles are divided into three periods: preparatory, competitive and transition, dealing first with the duration of the championship and the major parties.

Training plans:

For each period establishing training plans 5-6 weeks.


It is based on a fitness test focused on the dominant driving qualities

Registration fitness serve to evaluate subjective / objective skills and tuning. We also used to start-up evaluation.

5. Energy systems and their relation to fuel, the duration and intensity

Alactic Anaerobic System:

Fuel: mitochondrial ATP. More: creatine phosphate and glycogen, which resistetizan ATP. It requires no oxygen provided by blood.

Approximate effort: Up to 10 seconds

Intensity: High

Anaerobic Lactic System:

Fuel: resynthesis of ATP by transformation of glycogen and glucose in the presence of acidic hydrogen ions muscle. Abundant lactic acid in the blood. Requires oxygen provided by blood.

Approximate effort: From 10 to 90 seconds

Intensity: Maximum prolonged

Mixed: lactic anaerobic-aerobic:

Fuel: resynthesis of ATP by transformation of glycogen and glucose in the presence of acidic hydrogen ions muscle. Much of glycogen and glucose are converted into acetyl CoA and then carbon dioxide and water in the Krebs cycle. Decreases lactic acid in the blood. Increases oxygen supply.

Approximate effort: from 1’30 “to 4 ‘

Effort intensity: maximum threshold

Aerobic System:

Fuel: resynthesis of ATP by transformation of glycogen, glucose and fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA and then carbon dioxide and water in the Krebs cycle. This system depends on a constant supply of oxygen in the blood.

Approximate effort: More than 4 minutes

Intensity of effort: submaximal

Ratio Football demands certain factors of the physical

Define the four basic soccer positions: goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders and forwards.

Overall analysis is basically a sport with very frequent aerobic anaerobic conditions (whether alactic as lactic), the latter can be seen more in football today.

Studied their offensive and defensive situations, it is noted that:

On offense:

The forwards have to be very fast

The midfielders are the most miles walking in a game.

Defenders support the attack and move less

The goalkeeper is the main weapon to the reaction rate

On the defensive:

Defenders make the shortest path but have to be very alert in the attacks and be very fast in those situations. They also have the problem of shocks (load loyal)

The midfielders make the longest journey

Strikers make a similar path to defenses

The porter is basically a problem of reaction rate

According to these demands may be valid the following scheme:


Predominant muscle fiber type: fast twitch

Primary energy system sued: Anaerobic-alactic

Main quality to improve: Strength-power and reaction speed.

Means for fitness: reaction rate exercises, exercises for strength-power of the lower limbs (primarily) and technical exercises.


Predominant type of muscle fiber: slow twitch, but very close to the quick

Primary energy system sued: The aerobic and often the mixed

Principal improve quality: Endurance and strength

Means physical preparation: Technical exercises geared to speed, aerobic interval work, strength-power exercises of the lower limbs (primarily) and then, parties, too, are responsible for improving the energy system mixed.


Predominant type of muscle fiber: slow twitch

Primary energy system sued: The aerobic and often the mixed

Principal improve quality: Endurance, mixed (anaerobic-aerobic lactic)

Means physical preparation: Technical exercises primarily targeted speed, aerobic work intervals and then the party is responsible for improving the energy system mixed.


Predominant muscle fiber type: fast twitch and slow close

Primary energy system sued: Mixed lactic anaerobic – aerobic

Principal improve quality: mixed Resistance, strength power and speed

Means for fitness: technical training geared to speed, endurance work mixed at intervals work force – power and speed work.

6. Physical preparedness plans and work factors

You can train a muscle in three different aspects: strength, speed and endurance, actually extend throughout the body and is effective in the modern fitness, which focuses primarily on improving plans these three qualities.

Based in the importance of sports performance and physical preparation, you could classify motor qualities into two groups:

First grade

Speed (agility)

Elasticity – flexibility


Relaxation – decontraction

Second grade

Strength (power)



Technical training develops and improves the qualities of the second degree, beyond what would you physical preparation, with the exception of the elasticity flexibility. Special consideration of elasticity flexibility, is that this kind of exercises should always accompany the unit plans strength-power, endurance or speed (agility) to enable better development and improvement of these qualities and to avoid injury

You can also develop hybrid schemes where work two or three qualities of first grade, complete with flexibility exercises-elasticity and can be arranged in a circuit.

Whatever fitness plan, its implementation dynamics rests on the rational use of so-called “job factors” which, for strength and speed are shown in DIRTSA stands for strength and weight in PIRSA. Each letter is the initial one of the work factors.

A training plan will last long enough for the body adapts to stimuli consisting of training overload thereby increasing their performance, which usually happens around 5 weeks.

Classification of the main exercises used in physical preparation

All exercises fitness plan should have a reason to be there and meet a goal, whether tiny or large. So the best classification, which are used in the physical preparation, is serving the goals that can be achieved with them.

Therefore, the drill used in the physical preparation are:

a) For the development and improvement of the strength-power:

– Hands-free (individual, family, group, etc.).

– Medicine Ball

– With gym equipment

– With weights

– The multihop

b) For the development and improvement of resistance:

– Technical exercises of sport

– The continuous running

– Work at intervals

– The Fartlek

c) For the development and improvement of the speed (agility):

– Strength exercises

– The multihop (power)

– The amplitude of strides

– The frequency of strides

– The reaction rate

d) For the development and improvement of the elasticity flexibility:

– Hands-free

– With gym equipment

– With weights

Other qualities, the second grade, are developed and refined these exercises and technical training itself.

What is absent in technical training and who can meet the physical preparation, at this stage, is the following:

– Strength – strength of the flexor muscles of the legs. Should be placed on training exercises to correct this imbalance

– Strength – strength of pelvic muscles (anterior and posterior)

– Strength – strength of the chest muscles (anterior and posterior) and upper limb (flexor and extensor). You have to work these muscles do as requested in the technical training

– The elasticity – flexibility. Should be placed such exercises in the warm-up, the cool-down and in parts of the main part.

Parts of the work session and exercises

It consists of three parts: warm-up, main part and cool down, and are summarized as follows:

a) Warm-up: motion exercises are performed at each joint (between 10 and 15 times) to warm up all the joints and muscle groups that will participate in the main job. Then Drills technical adaptation ball while others make the blood run faster so that the temperature rises, such as those with displacement. Later Drills for ease joint and then, and finally, perform stretching exercises.

b) Main part of training: technical exercises will be conducted and / or technical – physical planned for the session, prepared by the technician.

c) Cool down: We perform exercises that promote ease of venous return to the heart and lungs, these exercises are favored when performed by a mixed aerobic trot and this for 8-10 minutes. Finally it should perform stretching exercises of the muscles involved on the job.

Physical Readiness Assessment

Ideal Evaluation: only occurs at high levels demanded international sporting and sophisticated equipment and are therefore very expensive. Certainly this type of evaluation can not even dream to grassroots sport.

The ideal assessment covers international athletes generally: cardiovascular endurance, flexibility of all muscle groups, strength – strength, biomechanical efficiency (performance art), dermal folds (for percent fat tissue muscle), percentage of muscle tissue and also the psychological attitude. All this information gives some great information as physical trainer to prepare training plans for each situation chords (athlete).

Possible Assessment: are purely motor tests to assess fitness. Among which the following are known:


– Cooper test (endurance)

– I – I test (maximal aerobic power)

– Race of 1000 meters (aerobic – anaerobic)

– Race 15 minutes (average duration aerobic endurance)

– Harvard Step (maximal aerobic capacity)


– Race to 20 meters, with foot output (reaction rate and displacement)

– Race with race thrown 30 meters (maximum travel speed)

– Race round 5 by 10 m. (Scrolling speed and agility)

– Race 5 meters (reaction rate)


– Jump and reach (power of the lower limbs)

– Sit-ups in a minute (strength of abdominal muscles)

– Espinales in a minute (strength of the spinal muscles)

– Long jump with feet together (explosive strength of the lower limbs)

– Triple jump (explosive strength of the lower limbs)

– Launch of medicine ball (explosive strength of upper limbs)


– Sitting trunk flexion (trunk and hamstring flexibility)

– Deep trunk flexion (flexibility of the trunk and extremities)

– “Splits” (flexibility of hips and legs)

7. Benefits of a test

They are many and we will, perhaps, the most important. They are:

For athletes:

They are a source of motivation, as they can measure and assess progress in concrete form of their fitness

They take real awareness of their strengths and weaknesses, thus improving practices in the weakest and strongest further increase

They begin to worry about the physical results and strive in every test ever

For the trainer and coach:

Select, along with other criteria, the most suitable players for each position.

Allows better judge the evolution of their athletes

Evaluate your planning-periodization-programming, their successes and failures and to view them, make the necessary modifications.

Auto assess their own work in the light of the results. The tests can diagnose faults in their work

Allows better judge the evolution of athletes

For the institution:

Check the value and work of coaches, physical trainers. The comparison (depending on the period) relay source is always hit and miss.

Requirements of a test engine

Whatever the test engine to use, you must meet the following internationally accepted:

Validity: A test is valid when it measures what is actually proposed. Ie each test or exercise used to measure has its own objective measurement. For example, “Abs in 1 ‘” aims to measure the strength – strength of the abdominal muscles. That is, the test is valid for a certain capacity or quality measure at the right time.

Reliability: refers essentially to the fact the measurement precision, regardless of the aspects to be measured. A test is reliable when applied twice gives the same as the problem studied without significant differences.

The reliability of a test is trying to control the distortion produced by applying various factors, although this is not always possible. Some distortion of these factors are:

The climate

The facilities (must always be the same)

The examinee’s mood due to personal situations (anxiety, fear)

Objectivity: that is, to measure what is intended by precise instruments and objectives: the time (stopwatch), the load (resistance), the distance (tape measure),

Repetition and precision. Objectivity ensures the reliability of the test.

Possibility: that the test can be successfully performed by 90% of students who have regularly followed the learning process and within a reasonable time.

Requirements for applying a test

Applying a test must meet the following requirements:

Explain the purpose of the test, the most advantageous execution of each test and rules to enforce. This will make the students feel motivated and allow them to review the implementation of this technique, it can achieve results closer to their capabilities.

Follow exactly the instructions and rules for each test, as the starting point for the test is reliable and valid

Always perform before each test warm-efficient.

8. Consulted bibliography

“Physical Fitness – Sports Initiation”

Augusto Pila Telena

Editorial Augusto E. Stack Telena

“Physical Fitness – Sports Orientation”

Augusto Pila Telena

Editorial Augusto E. Stack Telena

Bibliography Integrated Course Trainer of CEEF of Buenos Aires

“Assess in Physical Education”

Sunday Snchez Blzquez

Editorial Inde

“Physiological Aspects of Physical Preparation”

Carmelo Bosco

Editorial Paidotribo

“Physiology of Sport”

Richard W. Bowers / Edward L. Foxtrot

Editorial Medica Panamericana

Bibliography Integrated National Coaching Course – OSED

Bibliography Integrated Physical Education Career

Category: Physical Preparation