Games to enhance basic motor skills (walking) in Down syndrome children

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The family and the school plays a specific and fundamental to the preparation of the child from the earliest ages hence developed research is one of the priorities of the work related to the preparation of children with developmental delays more complex intellectual Space. This aimed to influence the training of parents and teachers preparing to take on this difficult but beautiful challenge. The presence of this link is essential, cooperation, continuity in the activities undertaken by the school, the training of basic motor skills (walking).

The results of this investigation reveal the limitations of the parents to carry forward to the training work terms about which were thrown by the methods of theoretical and empirical research which allowed us develops games which are articulated theoretical suggestions and practices, methods gives them, these effective educational styles, prepares for the biological and psychological changes that occur in these children, teach them in mutual reflection conditions as address diversity in some homes there. These are given the opportunity to become active members, dynamic and systematic training in the process of basic motor skills, which will prepare them for when they are not present can help themselves in the daily actions demonstrating self validsimo.

Keywords: motor skills, intrinsic, amniocentesis, carinicas, alfafecto, estriol, gonadotropin, cromosomita, trisomy, translocation, mosaicism.


Always has been written about the game, a very comfortable, others have derisively labeled in different ways: from unproductive, inefficient, time well spent opposite opinions that determine an activity as necessary as air, positions that may conceal limitations and their children’s lives. In the time domain of nuclear energy and the conquest of space, it is still imperative to human development, the realization of the game is an expression of culture and social relations.

“Everything is set and nothing is set” is a statement of the town Assomou Koffy Findimanou, Ivory Coast, the researcher expressed B.Comoe-knoe. Enclose this panoramic a great teaching and a reason to take the game in all its dimensions. You can play with the most dissimilar objects (a stick, a shovel, a pen) with words, gestures, movements, etc. It all depends on the limits of the game, needs and impulses ludic character development activity.

The games have become an inherent human form. By essentially differs from work, sports, work activity, the study, but can live with all these activities. “You do, like” it’s a very clever way of making the most complex and difficult tasks. ”

It is so powerful that JJ play Roussean recognized that “when children are persuaded that the games involved are simply games, suffer without complaint, even laughing, which never otherwise suffer without shedding torrents of tears.” So the game is the ideal means of which the child has to know the world will go into complex system of social relations and achieve their own development, in terms of intelligence, emotions, human culture and physical qualities. It has come to raise a child who does not play is sick, although children in a state of health not good, also plays.

UNESCO has declared the right of children to play, as part of a wake up call and meet duty of care to children.

Cuba is a paradigm in the field of early childhood education. However, this by the game achieved intrinsic part of the design of the educational process, so that you lose options provide a happier life for children, based on their needs, teachers do not always take advantage of potentially provide the in terms of learning games, educational work, culture, values, knowledge and socialization, among other advantages of this activity and enrichment of the educational process.

Since 1959 in Cuba for the first time in its history education acquires a universal character where each of the Cubans were whatever their situation had already had his chance, about our Commander in Chief Fidel Castro Ruz said “Our education : has a universal character was created, has been constituted for the benefit of all children in the country, we have to reach everyone, we have to educate them all, we have to show everyone what he can teach. To each and every one of them!Contemporary society is undergoing substantial economic and political change, social, scientific and technological and provided that the current educational objectives redouble their efforts to develop multifaceted men in a way, physically and intellectually beautiful, they are able to move from one place to another without tripping and elegance according to their physical and motor development.

By achieving physical strengthening and forming attitudes and habits of the student right moves, it contributes to one of the general objectives of the school, which is the formation of a healthy child suitable for incorporation into the new society.

This allowed us to determine the scientific problem:

How to develop gross motor skills in children carrying the DS that will reside in North Sagua People’s Council.

OBJECTIVE: To design a set of games designed to develop basic motor skills (walking) in children carrying the syndrome.

Theoretical methods:

Review summary: Facilitated discover trends and regularities of the phenomenon

Logical History: As a way to understand the course and the different stages through which has passed the basic motor skills in children suffering from Down syndrome.

Documentary analysis: To check whether parents have had some training aimed at developing basic motor skills through physical education program.

Empirical methods

Interview: A physical education members, parents and staff physician for the roads used to support the preparation of the family in the development of basic motor skills

Survey: A family to know their level of preparation.

A physical education teachers, parents and medical staff to verify the level of information they have about how to develop gross motor skills in children suffering from Down syndrome.

Note: A physical education classes and in the classroom to learn the use they make of each class of physical equation and in the classroom to observe posture. A continuing activities of the educational process, developed by classroom teachers, the actions they take children inside and outside the classroom.

Field testing: This is was validated in practice the different activities proposed, their feasibility.

STATISTICAL METHODS: For analysis, interpretation and processing of the results of the information obtained.


Down Syndrome. Causes. Features

SYNDROME: Groups of diseases that occur together.

DOWN SYNDROME: It received its name from the English physician Langdon Down who first discovered. Initially known as Mongolian idiocy. Then they established as mongolismos Misnomers and mongoloid children to highlight the external similarity (oblique position of the eyes) between patients and the representative of the Mongolian nationality.

It is a congenital disorder caused by an alteration of chromosome 21, which may be accompanied by mild mental retardation, moderate or severe.

To detect chromosomal abnormalities prenatally can use amniocentesis and carinicas villus. Some blood disorders can suggest maternal gestation of a child with Down syndrome: low alfafecto protein and abnormal gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol cryonics humana.La chromosomal abnormality that causes most cases of Down syndrome is Trisomy the pair 21, the presence of three copies of this chromosome, therefore patients have 47 chromosomes instead of 46 (normal figure of the human genome in all cells). This anomaly is the result of fertilization of an egg pathological 24 chromosomes for normal sperm 23 chromosomes but also the anomaly is generated by sperm. In a cell germinates, the pair of chromosomes 21 holds together and becomes one of the eggs or sperm from them. The rarest type of Down syndrome translocation produced by genetic material from one part of chromosome 21 is attached to another chromosome 21. Some patients have chromosomal abnormalities in some cells from your body, not at all in this case are said to have mosaicism.

Social Value Game

As seen, there is a great diversity of theoretical positions about the game. No clutch, if we enter its internal dynamics, one can discover its annexes and most essential relationships, as are her voluntary social essence (by its nature, content and demonstrations) and therefore its influence on the formation of personality.

In other characteristic elements of the game can note the following:

Evolves with age and psychological development, is part of the social culture, economic and political life of peoples, is a form of socialization and human exchange, is a developer of personality space. During play the child creates his own fantasy, so that auto and auto related claims. So we can say that game is an activity deeply rooted in society.

A community implements its dynamic games is more prone to the happiness of its members, who deny this possibility. When assessing the game, it is stated that by the same, as implemented learning social rules, but with the timeliness with no real demands of society. So the game is a form and space through d which are tested or experience, are assumed and confirmed social standards.

Through play airs skills and general knowledge, as well as elements of technique and technology. Without the knowledge due to the first game the child can not learn anything in school would be hopelessly separated from natural and social environment. Playing the child begins in adult behavior in the role will have to play later: develop their physical, verbal, intellectual and ability to communicate. Moreover, the game is an element of communication, even beyond verbal language, it opens the dialogue between individuals of different linguistic origin.

In general, since these addresses the social, the game is an expression of the culture of society, reflects the essential characteristics of the society in which it was created: Activity-Socioeconomic, sociopolitical relationships, encourages socialization, sharing and communication between players, facilitating their integration into the system of social relations.

Psychological value of the game

This is one of the most difficult to determine, the interiority of its manifestations and has been slow to point out by researchers. But psychological science today has sufficient data to assess the use of play in the formation of the school, and youth and adults in general. There is even talk of a playful for the elderly, as discussed in Latin American Gaming and Society Symposium, held in April 2003 in Havana.

It recognizes the value of play in stimulating cognitive processes, such as sensation and perception and thinking, affective-motivational process in personal resources as important as self-esteem and self-worth, and in the formation of personality in general .

From the psychological point of view, one can summarize the game aspects of personality development, pointing out the areas that this activity is relevant. Promotes stimulation of individual possibilities, so that favors self-esteem. Promotes unity of affective and cognitive in each of the models used. Develops processes cualitivos as perseverance in achieving objectives. Promotes observation skills. It stimulates thought processes of logic, analysis and synthesis, imagination and memory.

It is a space of relationships to encourage self-regulation, the concentration and distribution of attention. It is a space-stress relationships for children and teachers, because you can achieve the same results or higher, but in a playful environment: Pleasant and developed.

Psychological value GAME:

In the context of educational game is one of the most controversial elements that have generated the considerations regarding the development of the game personality. It has so many supporters and opponents, as well as numerous teachers who recognize the value of play, but in their educational practice is inconsistent with such approaches, as noted below.

It is true that the game has not always been seen with all its windows and a necessary part of the education of children. There are few who have spoken to consider the game as a non serious, limiting the quality of formative influence on children. He has been accused of damaging, unproductive, which is inserted into occupations that limit children’s formations, why not educate them responsibility, accountability, and will govern in fulfilling her social duties.

Recognition teaching the game as developer activity, not current but for a long time, many thinkers like Plato and Socrates have spoken about it. Many foreign authors who have spoken for educational use both spontaneous play Cuban educators. Everyone recognizes the value of play for the education of the new generations.

It defends the teaching position about using the game, in the formation of the necessary vocation, collectivist of new generations, and today are governed as conditions for the survival of humanity. That is considering that the game is a natural context for their development, as an interesting and important school children wanting.

On the other hand, we see the use of the game after the formation of behaviors needed in sports. The game features activities to foster the conditions that arise in the school, specific forms of conduct which subsequently become controlling, different types of behavior in the social field.

The game is consistent with such aspirations is participation, delivery, reflection, search, autoanalicis, exchange, communication. It is an excellent way when we try to give an active character in the teaching process, to include games in teaching activity, to include games in teaching activities, we enable students players, learning, production, exchange, rich in knowledge and social relations.

Usually the child is manifested in the game over his age, above his usual behavior. It’s like the child in the game jump to insert your actual state in the afterlife, in new relationships rightful living.

Methodologically the game is, from its nature and dynamics, an educational resource and therefore the formation of the personality. The game can be considered as a method, a method and as a way to organize this process. Therefore has three dimensions: instructional, educational, and developer. And the game by its structure and dynamics didactic concept responds to that.

Physical education is also an integral part of training and multifunctional organic personality addresses the development of individual physical performance capabilities based on the improvement of motor skills to knowledge acquisition and development so that this in d conditions meet all the tasks assigned to it by society from the standpoint of school, society, work and important contribution made by the physical development of the children to their emotional and mental balance and their need for movement of children of these ages.

It is important to perform the repetitions needed to help build the habits and develop gross motor skills and physical abilities. Proper demonstration and a simple explanation of the games and get the children to receive the image of the movement as an integrated whole without separating it shares competence. Also is unstable and does not stay long in the same activity.

Physical rehabilitation of ischemic heart deformities

The heart is without doubt one of the vital organs of the human system. Hence the importance of preserving their health and increase their ability to work, but is now one of the causes of death in humans as reflected in pathology fatal ischemic heart disease and in particular myocardial infarction.

Cardiac rehabilitation programs established for years in the United States, had good success Newman (1959), Morris (1958) and Kellerman (19759 latter had apparently started in Israel, too, with good early dates results. truth is that cardiac rehabilitation was putting in place very slowly, as it existed on diverse criteria cardiologists and physicians in general, both its necessity and benefits, such as protocols used by cardiologists who were supporters of his application, causing controversy in this field, as well as took place only an exercise program of physical exercises i also be added if other projects (psychological, diabetes, etc.), and also on the issue of physical exercises to and protocol to use.

Cardiac rehabilitation should apply early and be continuous, clinicians should take this into account from the initial contact with patient and will pass the virus to other members of the rehabilitation team. The cardiovascular rehabilitation has traced two objectives: first to raise the quality of life for patients through the improvement of a number of indicators that will allow patients a quick return to work, social and family as the second goal restored the patient’s prognosis , this was demonstrated in the late eighties and early nineties, through a series of methodological studies Oldriege analysis (1988) and Oconnon (1991) enabling the cardiac rehabilitation be more serious all over the medical and paramedical staff.

One of the key aspects to be taken into account cardiac rehabilitation programs is adequate control of risk factors, as currently there are significant scientific evidence of correct secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery results in decreased morbidity This complete process. Such programs also involve measures that will point to delay progression and prevent artereoclorosis events in patients with clinical manifestations of coronoriopatas alteroescleorticas.

Bronchial Asthma and exercise

From the early years of the last century, Cuba has been incorporated exercise as a means of non-pharmacological therapy that undoubtedly contribute effectively with other therapeutic behaviors to improve the health of people suffering from illness.

It is recognized that breathing is an automatic function or essentially automatic, as it begins to breathe at birth and you pursue alone throughout life, so says an old proverb: “To breathe is to live”, but can also be changed at will . While it is impossible to decide how fast you can beat our hearts, anyone at will can change the rate and depth of breathing, is the only biological rhythm susceptible to the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the fight or flight response or the relaxation response. Teach perceive the pattern of breathing and being able to modify it so that instead of producing tension, produces relaxation is a skill to develop games for students carrying Down syndrome.

The ventilation of the lungs can increase or decrease the signals arriving from different receivers respiratory center, it also constantly pulses are directed from the bark of the major cerebral hemispheres. Muscular work is always related to the increase of gas exchange, because the energy is extracted during the process of oxidation of nutrient substances. The breathing changes markedly manifest, even during physical loads carried by small muscle groups.

Game Proposal

Game No. (Game for flat feet)

Title: I’m a Giant:

Objective: Increase the longitudinal arch.

Walk with your toes to develop the strength of the muscles of the legs and feet

Facilitator: Family physical education and recreation technicians

Media to be used: Scores of different colors field, illustrated sheet with a soldier, marching music audio and paraprofessionals.

Methodological design:

For the realization of this game need to be done in the morning hours. The professor next to personal health and take the initial pulse if the learner is in optimal ways to carry the game. After the form against the scattered field and will explain and demonstrate the game from different points of view then placed in rows to make the game competitive so this game should be done barefoot.

Must have field delimited by aids colors at a distance of 2 meters means. After the teacher using a paraprofessional performs the action of walking and standing tiptoe action to be carried out where help these children each paraprofessional. First make a distance of 2 meters. You must show to teachers along with the help of teaching assistants walk on tiptoe and assimilating fence as the game should gradually increase the distance. By the time the student must make the walk on tiptoes is necessary in the first attempt by the teacher to make the. After the student must follow the same route. During the making of the game they must perform breathing exercises. You need to finish the game after the final pulse was taken and compared to the first and then finished the juices relaxation exercises to stabilize pressing the same can be done for a march around the field narrating a country walk and executing the action of breathing for these children which is applied to asthmatic children.


The application was performed in the experimental group. The validation of the proposal takes elements of participatory action research to the extent that it applies the experience, values its practical effectiveness in educational process.

The application was developed by employing the method of field experimentation. The author of this applied research schools of family education, staff education teachers considering health issues in her planned material.

From the observation was recorded transformations that occurred in the school then provides the results.

Conclusions of the proposed games

In this game proposal addresses issues of great importance and interest to teachers of physical education and recreation such as parents. Down syndrome. Features strengths and weaknesses. The shortcomings in the development of basic motor skills. The different levels of failure in the development of basic motor skills. Play to develop gross motor skills. Also included are tips on how families and teachers of physical recreation. They are topical, whose knowledge by factors that interact with children put them in a position to develop this sublime quality profession of love, are not rigid are developing dynamically, can be enriched in the half to put in practice. Tight ties as necessary between the family and the school. Benefits everyone to meet the social care to prepare these students for independent adult life. Linking teachers with family, community. Deepen your diagnosis, is sensitized to these, makes your parents work toward more humanistic, optimistic.

ANALYSIS initial diagnosis of basic motor skills.

The aim of this diagnosis is just check where the main difficulties in gross motor skills in the race, jumps, throws and catches of pelotas.Para diagnose the same two errors per basic motor skills which are measured in three attempts for each nio.Para the first ability was observed in first and second attempt committed the first error provided that no more than 97% which is simply not carried facing forward during the tour and 100% no runs with the ball of the foot. For the second ability falls 97% with legs bent and 100% does not fall with support from heel to toe. For the third skill to 100% does not make the release of the ball starting from the waist that similarly to catch the ball at chest height. As we have seen in this analysis of basic motor skills of children carriers of Down syndrome in our sample is between 97 to 100% commit errors which will give us the opportunity to influence the proposed games.


Even the first skill on the first try and the second is committed four errors from 7 to 57% children what makes us know that 43% runs and with the view to the front. Also 71% of the committed the second mistake is that we are not supported by the ball of the foot. For the second ability between first and second attempt for 71% of children do not fall even with bent legs which shows that 39% if it falls with legs bent. Similarly in behavior for the second error that 71% falls even with support from heel to toe which means that 39% supported and falls as expected. For the third ability is more than we launch from the waist up, 71% of children do not perform as expected skill but 39% if. Similarly behaves diagnosed for the second error.

As we have seen there is a discrete difference from the initial diagnosis of these basic motor skills that behave between 97% and 100% and after 6 months of diagnosis will be assessed during the activity behave between 71% and 85 % making it validates the proposal for the development of gross motor skills in children carriers of Down syndrome.


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