Emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere and the magnitude of them, are the cause of many environmental problems today from the local to global scale, the city of Pinar del Rio and the community of Santa Lucia in the province of Pinar River are not foreign to this situation, being necessary to quantify and make an inventory of emissions in both areas, making this the goal of the research, auxiliary for the data it obtained from the Automated Information Management Pollutant (SAGIFC ), so this methodology was used as the CN 39: 1999, to group industries into categories ranging from I, with the highest rate of contamination, to V, with a low rate of contamination, the NC 242: 2005 for data capture technology in stationary sources and the rational methods of calculating emissions and other parameters that are not acquired routinely in industrial centers such as: peak flow velocity of the emitted gas and the gas mixture. Finally it shows the results of the concentrations of pollutants emitted by each industry.
Keywords: Emissions Inventory, Fuentes.
Population growth coupled with industrial and technological development experienced in the past two centuries, has posed a significant challenge to nature. The man using state resources to meet their growing needs, required mainly by consumption patterns, without considering the damage it has created the environment, leaving negative signs anywhere in the world, such as soil degradation and problems with water quality and air.
There is a breakthrough in technological processes for using natural resources, they have not, to purify the waste produced by him, leaving the leading role to the nature, thinking that is was capable of purifying waste water in itself, but Current evidence shows otherwise, considering the immediate need for targeted studies and results in the search for solutions that help reduce water pollution, land and air.
Emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere not only have global effects, such as climate change and the thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer, which severely affects the Antarctic and other regions (UNEP, 2002), but also regional level, as is the damage created in forests and aquatic ecosystems due to acid rain (as in northern Europe and more recently in China), reaching the local level, affecting the health of people or status of their belongings (such as the deterioration of the architectural monuments).
Cuba does not escape this problem, in the specific case of the province of Pinar del Rio, the growing population in the city of Pinar del Rio, together with industrial activity, which has poor technology to carry out the industrial process most cases, operating time, Lesnar to this the poor location of some of them (located in the town center), are causing deterioration in air quality, increased pollution to the atmosphere. In the case of the community of Santa Lucia, a situation critical health hygiene in terms of environmental conditions and the impossibility of total eradication, drove the development patterns determined from the early 80’s the gradual transfer of the settlement to the east, the area of the council popular La Sabana, where today lies the Micro-district Roberto Amaran, mainly due to the toxic fumes Sulfometales Plant. Given this scenario it is essential to have a diagnosis of the situation of air quality in the province of Pinar del Rio at the local level, resulting in making this project Territorial Health Scientific Technical “Assessment of climate and air quality the city of Pinar del Rio and the community of Santa Lucia its impact on health “, with the general goal of this work” emission inventories for stationary sources in the city of Pinar del Rio and the community of Santa Lucia. “The study area for the city of Pinar del Rio, is located approximately in the South Central portion of the province, occupying an area of 70 780 ha, bounded on the north (N) with the municipalities of Minas de Matahambre Vi~nales , south (S) with the Gulf of Batabano, East (E) with the municipality of Consolacion del Sur, and West (W) with those of San Luis and San Juan y Martinez (PCOTU, 1998). The city of Pinar del Rio, has the status of Municipal and Provincial head, its economic base is based mainly on services and for its main town, it is the main facilities at that level, having an important weight industry is currently about 153285 inhabitants settled on a total area of 3240 hectares, about 70% of the total population in the urban (city traditional West). The rest are in the east of the city and deals and neighborhoods in the periphery. (UMP, 2005). The Case of Santa Lucia village, located north of the Municipal head Matahambre Mines, 12 km, its center is located in a low plain. The area of new development was built under a development project, one of the first communities developed after the triumph of the revolution. It has an area of 4.44 km ^2, had its rise due to the rise and development company. Currently has a population of 10 122 inhabitants and a total of 3308 homes for a crowding index of 3.06 inhabitants per viv. The urban structure part two residential areas north of a main road consists mainly of the first homes were built and another to the east of this, formed by the area of new housing development.
Materials and Methods
Cuban Standard NC 242: 2005, provides technical data to be taken into account when conducting an inventory of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary sources. In the areas selected for the work we have identified a group of high-polluting sources and medium significance, either because the place where found and the type of pollutants they generate and the protection radius of each of them. In this way are grouped by categories according to the NC 93-02-202, 1987 (current NC 39: 1999). These categories, in a total of 5, are classified from I, with the highest rate of contamination, to V, with a low rate of contamination.
The location of the sources of the city of Pinar del Rio is shown in Figure 1 and Table 1 are classified by categories.
Fig 1. Outline of the polluting sources. Pinar del Rio City
Table 1. Industries by categories. Pinar del Rio City
In the case of the community of Santa Lucia is shown in Figure 2 the location of the pollution source and Table 2 shows the classification of the categories:
Fig 2. Outline of the pollution source. Community of Santa Lucia.
Table 2. Industry category. Santa Lucia Community
The data capture technology was based on the forms provided in the NC 242: 2005, using it as base to form the software SAGIFC, Rodriguez (2007), which calculates the emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources, from knowing the technological data sources, for it was necessary to implement SAGIFC equations for some parameters not routinely acquired from sources such as: maximum flow emitted gas output speed of the gas mixture and emission rate, this being the methodology used at work to estimate emissions, then shows the calculation procedures used:
Analysis of results
Table 3 shows the emissions inventory conducted in the major stationary sources in the city of Pinar del Rio in 2008, using the methods previously raised: Mass Balance and Emission Factors, it shows the different pollutants generated by each source, generally appreciated that the tile factories are the greatest rate of contamination present.
Table 3. Inventory of emissions from major stationary sources in the city of Pinar del Rio.
Table 4 shows the emissions inventory done for the community of Santa Lucia, in 2009, in this case is analyzed only Sulfometales plant, being the sole focus contaminant of concern in this area.
Table 4. Emissions Inventory Sulfometales Plant community of Santa Lucia.
In Figure 3 shows the percentages of carbon monoxide emissions (CO) for major stationary sources in the city of Pinar del Rio, where you can see that the factory “La Conchita” is the source of most issues with a value of 40%.
Fig 3. CO emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
In Figure 4 shows the emissions of volatile organic compounds other than methane (NMVOC) in the city of Pinar del Rio, generated by the tile factories, accounting for the Tejar “Fierro” the biggest issue with a value of 42%.
Fig 4. NMVOC emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
Figure 5 illustrates the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO3), in the city of Pinar del Rio, where the tile shops carry the most weight with 93%.
Fig 5. SO3 emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
In Figure 6, shows the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the city of Pinar del Rio, where tejares represent approximately 100% of emissions in the area.
Figure 6. SO2 emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
In Figure 7, shows the emissions of ammonia (NH3) in the city of Pinar del Rio, where the factory “La Conchita”, has the largest contribution with 40%.
Figure 7. NH3 emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
Figure 8 illustrates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), in the city of Pinar del Rio, accounting thereof to the tile factories, highlighting the tejares “Dolores and Iron”, with 37% of emissions each.
Figure 8. PM emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
In Figure 9, shows the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the city of Pinar del Rio, accounting thereof to the tile factories, highlighting the tejares “Dolores and Iron”, with 37% of emissions each.
Figure 9. NOx emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
Figure 10 shows the emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the city of Pinar del Rio, with the factory “La Conchita” the largest contributor with 40%.
Figure 10. NO2 emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
Figure 11 shows the emissions of nitrogen monoxide (NO), in the city of Pinar del Rio, with the factory “La Conchita” the most weight to 41%.
Figure 11. NO emissions in the city of Pinar del Rio.
Figure 12 shows the emissions from the plant community Sulfometales Santa Lucia, it was seen that the greatest contribution of these emissions for the CO, with 79% and then to NH3, with 13%.
Figure 12. Emissions of pollutants produced by the plant community Sulfometales Santa Lucia.
* 1. The application of the NC 242:2005, allowed to obtain the necessary data on stationary sources to determine emissions.
* 2. The implementation of the equations that calculate the emission rate SAGIFC software allowed us to obtain the concentrations and types of pollutants emitted by each source.
* 3. In the city of Pinar del Rio, the stationary source that emits more CO is the factory “La Conchita” value of 88.65 tons per year, helping herself to 40% of total emissions in the area, in the case of NMVOC’s greatest contribution was caused by the Tejar “Fierro”, with a value of 6112.26 tons / year, reaching 42% of total emissions, SO3 was also issued to a greater extent by tile factories, with a value of 222.28 ton / year, this being the 93% of total emissions, in the case of SO2 as well as the two pollutants was issued prior to a greater extent by tile shops, representing approximately 100% of emissions in the area, NH3 emissions were produced in greater amounts by the factory “La Conchita” with a value of 14.39 tons / year, constituting 40% of total emissions in the area, the MP in turn was given to a greater extent by tejares , highlighting particularly the tejares “Dolores and Iron”, with 37% of the total emissions each, in the case of NOx, also corresponded to the tejares “Dolores and Fierro” the greatest contribution with a value of 19448.10 tons / year, representing 37% of total emissions, NO2 was issued to a greater degree by the factory “La Conchita”, with a value of 1.62 ton / year, representing 40% of the total, NO also was issued more amount by the factory “La Conchita”, with a value of 1.06 ton / year, representing 41% of total emissions.
* 4. In the case of the plant community Sulfometales Santa Lucia substance concentration higher value when the CO be issued with a value of 32073.77 tons / year, representing 79% of total emissions from this industry, followed in second place by NH3, with a value of 5138.24 tons / year, contributing 13% of emissions and third shows the SO2 and SO3, with a 3% respectively, and emissions in less emissions of NO2 and NO.
* 5. If the city of Pinar del Rio, more polluting sources are the leading tejares 5 types of pollutants, followed by the factory “La Conchita”, topping 4 types of pollutants, constituting between 2 to 100% of different analytes.
* 1. Generalize the study in the province of Pinar del Rio, to thus achieve an inventory of all stationary sources.
* 2. Conduct modeling studies of air quality, with the aim of identifying industries that do not meet the air quality standard for this form to propose maximum allowable emissions (EMA), thus contributing to improving the quality of air in the areas under study.
* 1. UNEP. Global Environment Outlook GEO-3. Palgrave Macmillan. Spain. 2002.
* 2. PCOTU (1998): Central Land Use Plan and Urban. Municipal Directorate of Physical Planning. Pinar del Rio. Cuba.
* 3. PGU (2005): Urban General Plan. City of Pinar del Rio. Cuba. Group of authors.
* 4. CITMA (2005). NC Environmental Management Standards: International Standard 242-2005. Guide technological data for the inventory of emissions of air pollutants from stationary industrial sources. Havana, Cuba: CITMA.
* 5. NC Environmental Management Standards (1999): International Standard from 1939 to 1999. Hygienic requirements – health. CITMA – INN – MEP, La Habana, Cuba.
* 6. Rodriguez, D., (2007): Automated System Management Information Pollutant (SAGIFC). Master’s thesis in New Technologies for Education. University of Pinar del Rio. Cuba.
* 7. CPI (1995): Industrial Pollution Control, developed by the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).