* ISO 3166-3
* Web 2.0
* Mind map of Web 2.0
* Web 2.0 buzz words
* Web 3.0
* IPv6 DNS
In this project topics included ISO 3166, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, Internet2 and IPv6, each of them has a significant degree of importance in the modern world, because through each of these tools have: First; with standard coding the names of countries with the objective globalized communication possible, this allows us to send and receive information through cyberspace get where you need to get, otherwise we would be sending information without a course specific. Second, through web applications, we have access to the required information in an efficient and friendly as with updates of Web 2.0 can even modify the pages that contain the information we require. Third, with the applications of the new version of Internet2 can reach unimaginable goal as it is a high-speed network, the advantage and / or disadvantage in their access is limited, as it is designed primarily for state universities States and the components that require both software and hardware are very particular, and fourth, with this particular component is ensuring that in the near future we do not run out of space for identifying computers that require it, because with the version of IPv6, ensuring that there is an amount that is considered inexhaustible as it is estimated that 340 sextrillones addresses are available.
International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization, or ISO (Greek iso, “equal”, and whose English name is interpreted as International Organization for Standardization), born after the Second World War (it was created on February 23, 1947), is the body responsible for promoting the development of international standards of manufacturing, commerce and communication for all industries except for the electrical and electronics. Its main function is to seek standardization of products and safety standards for businesses and organizations worldwide.
The ISO is a network of national standards institutes of 160 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), based in Geneva, Switzerland, is composed of governmental and non-governmental delegations subdivided into a number of sub committees to develop guidelines that will contribute to environmental improvement.
Standards developed by ISO are voluntary, understanding that ISO is a non-governmental and not dependent on any other international organization, therefore, has no authority to impose its standards on any country.
It is an international non-governmental organization composed of representatives of standardization bodies (ON) national, international producing industrial and commercial standards. These rules are known as ISO Standards and its purpose is to coordinate national standards, in line with the Final Act of the  World Trade Organization, in order to facilitate trade, facilitate the exchange of information and contribute common standards for the development and transfer of technologies.
As part of the ISO 3166 standard provides codes for the names of countries and other administrative units. It was first published in 1974 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO, from the Greek root meaning equal) and defines three different codes for each area:
Normalization derivative of this code are:br> ISO 3166-1 numeric three digit system, identical to that defined by the Statistics Division of the United Nations.
* ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code system of two letters.
* ISO 3166-1 alpha-3, three-letter code system.
It has many applications, the most notorious of the geographic TLDs Internet.
Normalizations derived from the latter code are:
* ISO 3166-2 codes relating to subdivisions such as states and provinces.
* ISO 3166-3, substitutes codes alpha-2 system that have become obsolete.
* ISO 4217 codes for currencies.
A country or territory is generally assigned a new code word if your name changes, while a new numerical code associated with a change of borders. Some codes are reserved in each area, for several reasons. ISO 3166-1 is not the only standard for country codes.
ISO 3166-1 (list of countries)
It is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. It is a geocode system created to encrypt the names of subdivisions of countries (local authorities), as well as dependent areas. The purpose of the standard is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and other similar objects. A short alphanumeric code can be used to clearly indicate a location in a more convenient and less ambiguous than the full toponym.
It is a standard that defines codes for country codes ISO 3166-1 obsolete, and is part of ISO 3166.
If after the year 1974 country
* Merged (eg East Germany and West Germany),
* They separated (eg Czechoslovakia), or
* Changed the main part of its name
Removed codes ISO 3166-1 and ISO 3166-3 were added.
ISO 3166-3 uses four-character alphabetic codes. The first two characters are deleted from ISO 3166-1, while the last two are the ISO 3166-1 code that replaces it, the country that is absorbed, or HH special code to indicate that no single code “successor “.
Codes 2 letter ISO 3166-1 obsolete
The following list of ISO 3166-1 country codes 2 letter is included for reference. The vast majority of these codes were deleted before the introduction of the Domain Name System, and therefore were never used as Internet domains. In the list, first the 2-letter code, followed by the 4-letter code ISO 3166-3. In addition, sample code for each year of substitution. When you spend five years from the date of substitution, the code can be replaced, as has happened with AI, CS, GE and SK.
The term Web 2.0 was coined by Tim O’Reilly in 2004 to describe a second generation in the history of the Web-based user communities and a range of special services, such as social networks, blogs, wikis or folksonomies, fostering collaboration and rapid exchange of information between users.
In general, when we mention the term Web 2.0 we mean a series of applications and websites that use collective intelligence to provide interactive, networked services giving users control of their data.
Thus, we can understand as 2.0 – “all those utilities and Internet services that are based on a database, which can be modified by users of the service, either in content (adding, changing or deleting information or associating data existing information), whether in the form of submission, or simultaneously in both content and form. “- (Ribes, 2007)
Mind map of Web 2.0
The infrastructure of the Web 2.0 is complex and evolving, but includes server software, content syndication, messaging protocols, standards-based browsers, and various customer applications.
One can say that web is built using Web 2.0 technology if characterized by the following techniques:
Web 2.0 buzz words
* CSS, valid XHTML markup semantically and Microformats
* Techniques nonintrusive rich applications (like AJAX)
* Java Web Start
* Syndication / aggregation of data in RSS / ATOM
* URLs with simple semantic meaning
* Support for a blog post
* JCC and RESTful APIs or XML
* Some aspects of social networks
* Mashup (web application hybrid)
* The site should not act as a “walled garden” information should be able to easily insert and remove
* Users should control their own information
* Based exclusively on the Web, Web 2.0 sites with more success can be used from a browser entirely.
The first and most important developments in Web 2.0 refers to the retransmission of the contents of a Web, using standard protocols that enable end users to use the web content in another context, either on another website, in a connector browser or a desktop application. Among the protocols that allow the RSS rebroadcast is (also known as RSS 1.1), and Atom, all based on XML. Specific protocols such as FOAF and XFN (both for social networking) extend the functionality of the sites and allow users to interact without centralized websites.
The bidirectional message protocols are one of the key elements of the infrastructure of the Web 2.0. The two most important methods are RESTful and SOAP. REST indicate a kind of call to a web service where the customer transfers the status of all transactions. SOAP and similar methods depend on the server to hold the state information. In both cases, the service is called from an API. Sometimes this API is customized according to the specific needs of the site, but the web services API standards (such as blogging) are also widespread. Generally the common language of these web services is XML, although there may be exceptions.
Recently, a hybrid form known as Ajax has evolved to improve the user experience in web based applications in the browser. This can be used on websites owned (as in) or open forms using a web services API, a seed of retransmission.
Web 1.0 Vrs. Web 2.0
Web 1.0 is mainly what is the static state, ie the data are in this can not change, are fixed and not vary, not updated.
According to Tim O’Reilly , Web 2.0 can be compared with the Web 1.0 as follows:
Parts: 1, 2, 3br> It is a neologism used to describe the evolution of the use and interaction in the network through different paths. This includes the transformation of the network in a database, a move towards making content accessible by multiple non-browser applications, the thrust of artificial intelligence technologies, semantic web, the Geospatial Web, or the Web 3D. It is often used by the market to promote improvements regarding Web 2.0. The term Web 3.0 first appeared in 2006 in an article by Jeffrey Zeldman, critic and associated Web 2.0 technologies such as AJAX. Currently there is considerable debate about what Web 3.0 means, and what is the correct definition.
The first step towards the “Web 3.0” is the birth of the “Data Web” as the format in which information is published on the Internet are different, such as XML, RDF and microformats, the recent growth of technology SPARQL, allows a standardized language and API for searching through databases on the network. The “Data Web” allows a new level of data integration and interoperable application, making the data as accessible and linkable as Web pages. The “Data Web” is the first step toward complete “Semantic Web”. In phase “Web Data”, the aim is mainly to make them accessible structured data using RDF. The scenario of the “Semantic Web” will expand its reach in both structured data and even what has traditionally been called semi-structured content (such as web pages, documents, etc.), Are available in the formats of RDF and semantic OWL.
Web 3.0 has also been used to describe the evolutionary path of the network leading to artificial intelligence. Some skeptics see it as an unattainable vision. However, companies like IBM and Google are implementing new technologies that harvest information surprising, as the fact of making predictions of songs that will be a success, based on information from the websites of music at the University. There is also a debate on whether the driving force behind Web 3.0 will be intelligent, or whether intelligence will come from a more organic, ie human intelligence systems, through collaborative services such as del.icio.us, Flickr and Digg, which extract the meaning and order of the existing network and how people interact with it.
Semantic Web and SAO
In relation to the direction of artificial intelligence, Web 3.0 could be the completion and extension of the concept of the “Semantic Web”. Academic research is aimed at developing programs that can reason based on logical descriptions and intelligent agents. Such applications can perform logical reasoning using rules that express logical relationships between concepts and data in the network. Sramana Mitra differs with the idea that the “Semantic Web” is the essence of the new generation of Internet and proposes a formula to encapsulate Web 3.
Evolution to 3D
Another possible path for the Web 3.0 is the direction in 3D vision, led by the Web 3D Consortium. This would involve the transformation of the Web into a series of 3D spaces, taking further the concept proposed by Second Life. This could open new ways to connect and collaborate, using three-dimensional spaces.
It should be noted that “Internet2” refers both to an organization as a network. As regards the organization Internet2 Consortium. As network is a collection of high-performance networks in the United States and in other countries, which allows websites attached to these networks interact in ways that are not possible using the traditional Internet. Internet2 networks has significant advantages for research and educational community. This will have been able to develop network applications that are not possible to use the Internet regularly.
The Internet2 project’s mission is “to facilitate and coordinate the development, deployment, operation and technology transfer services and advanced network applications to extend the leadership of the United States of America in the field of research and higher education and accelerate the availability of new services and applications on the Internet.
Internet2 was released on October 1, 1996 when 34 university researchers met to establish this project would not only help to research and education, but finally found a way to enter the global Internet business. Internet2 currently has a membership of over three hundred institutions, including leading universities in the United States, corporations, government research agencies and organizations nonprofit network.
The summary of Internet2 members and partners to July 2008 is shown below:
* 212 U.S. Member Universities
* 11 Corporate Partners
* 9 Corporate Sponsors
* 31 Corporate Members
* 45 Affiliate Members
* 31 Education and Educational Network Member
* 58 International Partners
Membership Categories and Requirements
The Internet2 membership categories are defined by the type of organization. This structure enables them to better address the unique requirements of each group member.
They are institutions of higher education in the United States who are leading efforts to develop new networks Internet2, capabilities and advanced applications. These members develop advanced network-based applications for research and education, and create a project team within the organization to support application development. They are required to establish advanced network connectivity between point to point and along the member institutions and other related development sites. The member universities should plan to join or form a regional integration organization, often called a Regional Optical Network GigaPOP or (Regional Optical Network, RON) to access to Internet2’s nationwide network. The member universities also require executive involvement in the overall project management of Internet2. In 2008, the annual fee for member universities is $ 32,000.
They are nonprofit organizations that are focused on research or education and have a strong interest in the mission and goals of Internet2. They are committed to promoting the development and deployment of advanced Internet applications and network services in a through research and education. Those nonprofit organizations wishing to apply for a State Collaboration Site must meet the same requirements of the member universities. Annual costs for 2008 are $ 12,500 for Affiliate Members and $ 32,000 for Affiliate Members with State Collaboration Site.
Members of Regional and Educational Network:
They are nonprofit organizations that are sub-state, state, or multi-state in scope and whose main mission to provide network infrastructure and services primarily to the research and education community in the relevant geographic area, including, but not limited to, access to the national network infrastructure and services of Internet2. For organizations to sign a connection agreement and connect directly to the Internet2 Network, membership is included in the payment of the connection. Organizations that do not connect directly to the Internet2 Network membership costs paid under this category. The annual cost to the members of the Regional and Educational Network in 2008 is $ 12,500.
They are committed to promoting the development and deployment of advanced network applications and services. The corporation Internet2 partners and sponsors make significant commitments to collaborate with universities in Internet2. There are three levels of corporate membership:
Internet2 Corporate Partner
Contribute goods and / or services in the amount of $ 1,000,000 or more to Internet2 Regular Affiliates or members for three years. Corporate partners are committed to providing leadership in the Internet2 community to play an active role in the development of advanced applications. Examples include the donation of equipment, services or personnel.
Internet2 Corporate Sponsors:
Contribute goods and / or services in the amount of $ 100,000 or more to Internet2 Regular Affiliates or members for three years. Corporate sponsors are committed to providing leadership in the Internet2 community to play an active role in the development of advanced applications. Examples include the donation of equipment, services or personnel in some cases.
Internet2 Corporate Members:
Not required to contribute goods and services. But many corporate members actively participate in the activities of Internet2. To get the most out of membership, corporations are encouraged to join with other Internet2 members as they strive towards the goal of technology transfer. Annual membership fees in 2008 for the latter three categories are:
Corporate Members with revenues exceeding $ 1 trillion: $ 32,000
Corporate Members with earnings below $ 1 trillion: $ 12,500
Corporate Members with State Collaboration Site: $ 32,000
Although no university or organization that is outside of the United States can be a member of Internet2, the consortium has partners and international networks. Mentioned as Internet2 does not allow universities or organizations outside the United States are members of the Consortium. The reason is because this project was conceived by American universities and its mission aimed specifically at these universities, therefore, felt that such an organization based in the United States could not effectively serve the institutions outside the United States. In addition there are a number of network research organizations in other countries, with similar projects Interent2, which can more efficiently serve local organizations. Anyway, Internet2 believes strong ties to advanced networking initiatives elsewhere in the world are crucial to ensure global interoperability of next-generation networking technologies and applications.
Internet2 in Latin America and the Caribbean
The Internet2 contact or partner for Latin America is the Latin American Cooperation of Advanced Networks (CLARA), which is an international non-profit, whose legal existence dates from December 23, 2004, when it was recognized as such by the law of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. CLARA’s vision is to be a Latin American collaboration system using advanced telecommunications networks for research, innovation and education.
To date RedCLARA are connected to the national research and education:
Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador
El Salvador Guatemala Mexico Panama Peru
In future goals RedCLARA connection are: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Nicaragua and Paraguay.
Internet2 Internet Vs. Advantages and Disadvantages
Internet2 current Internet will not replace nor is it intended to. Initially, Internet2 uses existing U.S. national networks. Ultimately, Internet2 uses other high-speed networks to connect to its members with each other and with other research organizations. Part of the mission of Internet2 is to ensure that both hardware and software technology based on open standards and can be used by others, including business networks and Internet service providers. Member institutions will continue to use existing Internet services for all network traffic that is not related to Internet2. Other organizations and individuals will continue to use Internet services that today provide commercial providers, such as email, World Wide Web and newsgroups. Internet2 will provide the means to show that the next generation of applications and advanced network engineering can be used to contribute to the progress of existing networks.
Among the advantages of Internet2 can mention the following:
* Third party application development much faster
* Potentiates the use of multimedia digital libraries
* Allows you to scan, process and share images quickly
* Provides quality and clarity for the use of videoconferencing as a means of communication in real time
* Store and allows sharing huge databases remotely
Internet2 disadvantages are:
* Not everyone has access to this network
* Requires sophisticated equipment and advanced networks to run
* Applications created for Internet2 can not work in the end-user computers like any other application.
* There are many infrastructure constraints that hamper standardization and wider dissemination of Internet2 in educational institutions and research organizations.
IPv6 is a new version of IP (Internet Prococol), designed to replace version 4 (IPv4), currently in use.
IPv6 (also known as IPng or “IP Next Generation”) is the new version of the popular IP network protocol, also called IPv4.
IPv6 is version 6 of the Internet Protocol (IP stands for, Internet Protocol), is attached to direct and route packets in the network, was designed in the 70’s with the goal of interconnecting networks.
Designed by Steve Deering of Xerox PARC and Craig Mudge, IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4, which limit the number of allowable network addresses is starting to restrict the growth of the Internet and its use, especially in China, India, and other countries Asian densely populated. But the new standard will improve the overall service, for example, provide for future cell phone and mobile devices with their own and permanent addresses. To date it is estimated that two-thirds of the offering IPv4 addresses are already assigned.
IPv4 allows 4,294,967,296 (232) different network addresses, an inadequate number to give an address to every person on earth, much less to each car, phone, PDA, etc.. Instead, IPv6 supports 340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456 (2128 or 340 sextillion) addresses-about 3.4 A-1020 (340 trillion) addresses per square inch (6.7 -1017 direcciones/mm2 trillion or 670) of the surface of Earth.
There are also many other interesting features that IPv6 provides, such as:
* Address Autoconfiguration (RFC2462)
* Anycast addresses (“one-to-many”)
* Support predefined multicast address
* IPsec (IP Security)
* Simplified header structure
* Mobile IP
* Mechanisms for IPv6 to IPv4 translation (and vice versa)
Proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in 1994 (when it was called “IP Next Generation” or IPng), IPv6 adoption by Internet is less, the network is still dominated by IPv4. The need to take the new protocol due to the lack of addresses has been partially alleviated by the use of NAT. But NAT breaks the original idea of the Internet where everyone can connect with everyone and makes it difficult or impossible to use some P2P applications, voice over IP and multi-user games. One possible factor influencing in favor of adoption of the new protocol could be the ability to offer new services, such as mobility, Quality of Service (QoS), privacy, etc..
Basics IPv6 addresses
There are several different types of IPv6 addresses: Unicast, Anycast and Multicast.
Such addresses are well known. A packet sent to a unicast address should reach the interface identified by that address.
Multicast addresses identify a group of interfaces. A packet sent to a multicast address reaches all interfaces that are grouped under that address.
Anycast addresses are syntactically indistinguishable from unicast addresses but serve to identify a set of interfaces. A packet destined for an anycast address reaches the interface “closest” (in terms of metrics of “routers”). Anycast addresses are only used in “routers”.
There are two types of DNS records for IPv6. The IETF has declared A6 records and CNAME records for use as experimental. AAAA records are so far the only standards.
Using AAAA records is straightforward. It associates the hostname with IPv6 address as follows: AAAA NOMBRE_DE_LA_MAQUINA MIDIRECCION_IPv6
Just as in IPv4 uses the records of type A. In case you can not manage your own DNS zone can order this configuration to your service provider. Current versions of BIND (versions 8.3 and 9) and the “port” dns / djbdns (with the corresponding IPv6 patch) support AAAA records.
Currently there are four ways to connect with other IPv6 hosts and networks:
* Join the 6bone experimental network called
* Obtain an IPv6 network through our Internet access provider. Check with your service provider for more information.
* Encapsulation of IPv6 over IPv4 (RFC3068)
* Using the “port” if available net/freenet6 of a dial-up modem.
We will explain how to connect to the 6bone since it seems to be the most used today.
First you should consult the website of 6bone to know the 6bone connection (physically) closest. You must write to the person responsible for that node and hopefully that person will respond with a set of instructions and steps to follow to connect with them and through them to the rest of the nodes that are part of IPv6 6bone . Normally this connection is established using GRE tunnels (gif).
The Gigapop (Gigabit Point of Presence) is an internet access point that supports at least a connection of one gigabit per second. They are responsible for routing traffic in high speed networks, and can give preference to traffic and must provide the security required by some applications.
A GigaPops connect the academic networks and other networks that have access to the broadband network, therefore, can be said to include the beginning and the end of the network.
The Gigapops be connected to other GigaPops to service and must work together to achieve the desired bandwidth and other objectives also lost packets GigaPOP both within and in its journey through the network must be very close to zero.
The word refers backbone connections to major Internet backbones. It consists of a large number of commercial routers, government, academic and other high capacity data are interconnected across countries, continents and oceans.
Part of the extreme resilience of the Internet is due to a high level of redundancy in the backbone and the fact that IP routing decisions are made and updated for use in real time.
The term also refers to backbone cabling subsystem backbone or vertical installation of local area network that follows the rules of structured cabling.
The Semantic Web (Semantic Web English) is based on the idea of adding semantic and ontological metadata to the World Wide Web. These extra-information describing the content, meaning and relationship-data must be provided in a formal way, so that it can be assessed automatically by processing machines. The aim is to improve Internet expanding interoperability between computer systems and reduce the necessary mediation of human operators.
The precursor of the idea, Tim Berners-Lee, from the beginning tried to include semantic information in its creation, the World Wide Web, but for various reasons was not possible.1 For this reason the concept of semantics introduced with the intention of recovering such omission.
Unicast is sending information from a single sender to a single receiver. Contrasts with multicast (send to certain specific recipients, more than one), broadcast (radiated or dissemination, where the recipients are all stations in the network) and anycast (the recipient is unique, any one unspecified).
The unicast method is currently in use on the Internet, and applies to both live broadcasts and on-demand. The multicast method can only be used in corporate environments, despite some isolated efforts to introduce it on the Internet, and is applicable only for live broadcasts.
The effect unicast transmission method on the network resources consumption is cumulative. Each user is connected to a multimedia transmission consumes many kilobits per second as the content encoding allows.
Anycast address is a form in which the destination information is routed to the “best” from the point of view of the network topology. In the Internet, an IP address may be announced from several different points. The intermediate routers route the packet to the nearest destination. For example 3ffe: b80: 1daf: 1 :: / 64 is an identifier of a 6bone anycast. A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to the next machine from the viewpoint of latency.
The origin of the term comes from the English and their similarity to unicast, broadcast and multicast:
* In unicast, each destination address corresponds to a single destination.
* In broadcast and multicast destination address is associated with many final destinations, and the information is sent to all final destinations.
* In anycast also an association of a destination address to multiple machines. The difference is that you select one of these machines to be the recipient of the information.
In Internet anycast is usually implemented using BGP, announcing the same IP range from different places. The result is that routers choose the nearest route from all ads that receive and route all information to the nearest destination.
Anycast protocols are often used with no connection-oriented (such as Internet UDP), since the connection-oriented protocols (like TCP) need to maintain state information and anycast communication, the target machine may vary without notice . For protocols that are required to complete the session use the same server can be used as GeoDNS systems. Thus, anycast is often used to provide high availability and load balancing without state management protocols, such as access to replicated data.
Multicast (multicast English) is sending information over a network to multiple destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy for sending messages over each link of the network only once, creating copies when the links are divided into destinations . Compared with multicast, shipments from one point to another over a network is called unicast (unicast English), and delivery to all nodes in a network is called wide dissemination (Spanish broadcast) (if multicast English- – as you can compare then)
Before submission, there should be a set of parameters. To receive it, you need to establish what is called “multicast group”. That group has an associated multicast Internet address. The current version of the internet protocol, known as IPv4, reservation of type D addresses for multicast. IP addresses are 32 bits, and Type D are those in which the 4 most significant bits are ‘1110 ‘(188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206)