“This generation has been responsible for the experiences of the struggle, fighting in the field of ideology … I got to know the great ideological battles after the triumph of the Revolution, he had to learn from the experiences of the revolutionary process he had to face Yankee imperialism, he had to cope with their blocks, their hostility, defamatory campaigns against the Revolution, and he had to face the tremendous problem of underdevelopment. ” (Fidel October 10, 1968)
SANTA CLARA-“Ten young officers, sergeants and soldiers of our Revolutionary Armed Forces, whose ages range from 21 to 27 years, died in a traffic accident occurred on Friday in the province of Villa Clara, and another 16 were seriously injured and less serious . The event originated in the Central Highway, 245 km from Cascajal Manacas and when a truck … veered off the road and trying to return to it, took the path through which flowed in the opposite direction a bus belonging to Military Unit against which crashed, turning. ” (1). In this way, the newspaper Granma, gave the news of the tragic accident occurred at 8 pm on April 18, 1986, where life lost Lt. Jorge Luis Moreira Roca.
In this paper we show that the young Jorge Luis Roca Moreira, a member of the younger generation of Cubans were born after the triumph of the revolution, was formed to be object and subject of the transformation that leads him to be considered, a fallen martyr in defense of the revolution.
We do it on the basis of historical documents, but above all, the views of family, teachers and people who lived with him and keep alive his image today, so that this young man was able to influence them.
Conditions that develop in childhood and primary education
On July 10, 1964, in main street, the 2nd corner easterly Calabazar de Sagua, born Jorge Luis Roca Moreira.
The son of a humble marriage of Romelio Pe~na Roca, tobacco profession and Enidia del Carmen Morales Moreira, food worker, who had three children, Romelio, Jorge Luis and Jamie, the younger sister.
The first of January 1959 the revolution triumphed and with it, develop great political, economic and social, of which Calabazar de Sagua, a town located north of the province of Villa Clara, a former city council and currently popular of Crossroads, is not immune to them.
The implementation of the first and second agrarian reform law greatly influenced structural changes in the land, to be intercepted dozens of farms. In January 1964 he unified all agricultural structures in the sugarcane farm “Puri,” served as Credit and Service Cooperatives and cooperatives were grouped in peasant associations.
All these changes in the structure of land ownership enabled the beginning of a process of increasing mechanization, particularly in the sugar industry, the fundamental basis of economic development of the municipality.
One of the first social actions taken by the revolution was the eradication of illiteracy estimated at 22% of the population. Throughout 1961, the year of education, hundreds of thousands of Cubans have learned to read and write. Private schools were closed and the government took all decisions concerning the education system.
In Calabazar, was teaching in remote areas, the number increased to tens of urban and rural classrooms, a night school for adults and junior high school. On December 18, 1961 was declared “territory free of illiteracy” thanks to the literacy campaign, which began on January 28, 1961, which involved hundreds of popular literacy and literate over 3000 people.
From 1962 began monitoring for all literate and subsequently overcome in the struggle to reach the 6th grade. Classrooms were created urban and rural workers, farmers and housewives, in workplaces, schools and all premises that was possible.The integration of the revolutionary organizations played an important political role, although these revolutionary organizations integrated ORI were a cyclical structure in the process of formation of the party, debugger work that began in the assembly of exemplary workers in the “Agency bank” on 13 May 1961, and then forming new nuclei were exemplary workers selected assemblies, which constituted the quarry for the creation of the United Party of Socialist Revolution (PURS) in 1963, then in 1965 completed the process with the adoption of PCC name.
In 1962 the events that led to the “October Crisis” played an important role and a moment of moral elevation and strengthening militant revolutionary principles, the settlement of rockets in the area of “Puri” permanent mobilisations brought to the beaches of “Pinion”, “Nazabal” and the construction of trenches in several areas of the municipality.
In the territory, were considered hot spots of Viana, by the rebels and the Mata for diversionary activity of Jehovah’s Witnesses and the Pentecostal church. The counter-response to these actions was the organization of bandits fighting units, the creation of the “Battalion 366″ operating in Sagua Pumpkins and strengthening the structure of the National Revolutionary Militia which lay in the local address of the old ” Veterans Center. ”
This is the socio-economic framework and policy developed its first years of life the little “Aly”, a nickname for “Romelito”, his older brother … “I put it Aly my brother, because Jorge Luis was very thin and “Romelito” Aly told him, Aly, eat, and then stuck. ” (Sister Jamie)
“… When” Rimelito was small in any way one could make him call his brother by name, but by Aly, and thus, that it was first playing with them, the family began to call it and “Aly” is was left. ” (Enidia, Mom)
The family consists of several cousins, made Aly was developed in a happy environment “… On the beach season I had with my two sons and spent two months together. There they got into the water and had to go to look, but drew one, left him on the shore and when he brought the other and the bank had gone to throw out the water, that was not to end … the evening was the same, gave us one of the tomorrow, they’d say to tell stories and things from one bed to another and not be silent, were brothers and cousins who wanted very much “(Ana Moreno Morales, aunt)
In September 1969, began his studies of preschool, with the cumulative record of the school # 885 327 “Antonio Maceo”, which at that time lay in the building of the old “City Hall”, located in central west # 25, south on the 3rd corner in Sagua Pumpkin. ”
In the first school year, was led by Rita Maria de Armas, brigade master Conrado Benitez, who as part of the new offerings of study for young people, the Revolutionary Government gave a grant to ‘Topes de Collantes “by 3 years and then decides to stand as a teacher in municipal education where accepted and began working in the school “Antonio Maceo” Pumpkin Sagua, in September 1969, with the students at the preschool group, which began its life student, Jorge Luis Roca Moreira.
“… It was a group that I still remember, because it encouraged me to study as an educator of child care centers and run in this teaching for 8 years. The child with a planillita learns to put his name, but mostly it works to learn how to create, love, love … A preschool child is instilled love of country, the heroes, the flag, are taught to behave correctly habits to eat at the table, the love of nature, its plants and its similar, that was what I did with Jorge Luis, which I remember as a very noble student, and her mother, always worried about him, brought them by the hand, and this support from their parents at the school was essential in education the child. ” (Rita Maria de Armas, teacher)
Preschool went to first-grade classroom, in the current local school “Antonio Maceo” with Jes’us Alvarez Jure.
The massive incorporation of school-age population to the classroom, the gradual decline in repetition, dropout and educational backwardness, the increased efficiency of the educational system and the increase in births that occurred since 1960, produced a remarkable growth enrollment in primary education since 1966.
This situation led to the necessary incorporation of the masses and their educational tasks intensive training, while teaching. Our teachers and teachers of all levels and types of education were formed on the necessary combination of teaching practice, on the theory that acquired in courses created for them.
In addition, on the boundary the river which divides the town of Pumpkin and bearing in mind the location of the school “Jose Marti” in the east and the “Antonio Maceo” in the west, at the end of the course 1970 -1971, was relocation of students by area of residence in these two schools.
At the beginning of the course from 1971 to 1972, Jorge Luis, enrolls the second grade at “Jose Marti”, located at 8th South, with the teacher Candida Rosa Pedraza Moya, 15-year-old from January to July 1970 he joined a pop masters course allowed him to begin work in this school from September this year … “I well remember Jorge Luis, because he was studious, diligent and with a prodigious memory, who learned the memory reads (Candida R. Pedraza, teacher).
Blanca Rosa Jimenez Alonso graduated from the Normal School, during 1973 -74 was the 4th grade teacher … “was responsible, compliant for all tasks, good friend and enthusiastic for the activities of the pioneers.” (Blanca Rosa, teacher)
… “It was not very good at math, including calculations, then my dad invented that the learned singing and spent the day” two times two is four, four and two are six “… my mom scolded him for this and went to the Rosa Blanca teacher … “no matter how they learn it, Enidia, it is important to know them.” (Jamie, sister)
On September 2, 1974, with registration number 188, Volume 1, page 10 of Graduate Enrollment and Registration, Jorge Luis starts the fifth grade, in group C and popular teacher Antonio Dominguez, who led a Relationship the family of Jorge Luis, which would last for the entire primary stage. … “He was very active, intelligent and wanted to be first in everything. There were many volunteers work at this stage and participated in all” (Antonio Dominguez, teacher)
From September 1975 promoting and implementing primary cycles, and under these new conditions, Jorge Luis, started the sixth grade … “He was a student with good academic standing, meets all the activities. For him the school was sacred … There was also a loving, playful, always laughing, always evil, but with respect … I had a rhyme that used to everything: I Chiquitico so. / I have a little heart here. / And this pretty face, / Give me a Quilito here. ” (Maria Julia Hidalgo Asea, teacher)
… “Jorge Luis was a mother, when the sixth-grade teacher moved the whole group was crying and laughing and halandoles ears at all” (Jorge Eduardo Rodriguez Zamora, student)
“I coached the women’s volleyball team in school” Jose Marti “, but had relations with the boys team, coached by Luis Garcia, who was champion of the games of one of the school years and in that team took Jorge Luis” (Ortelio Rodriguez Solar, teacher)
“We studied together for 4th through 6th grade, teachers loved him. Was monitor of many subjects and participated in several competitions. It was a responsible lad, we had a study circle at home, one night she was running and we said no going to school, but he quickly lit a lamp and said “that will not be anyone, we have to study, because these days are testing and must pass” … It was also very sociable, friendly and attractive, had a lot of young girls in love him, but he lost no time in telling them anything, I know well because we were childhood sweetheart and part of adolescence. “(Maira Rodriguez Miranda friend)
Was significant in this period in the town, the strengthening of party activity which was expressed in the gradual increase in labor militancy and mobilization. It is specially noted the strengthening of the political work of the Young Communist League, the direction of consolidating the organization at the municipal level and its relationship with the party and with student organizations, in which positive developed the field school days with secondary students and strengthened the Union of Pioneers of Cuba, which managed to incorporate 94% of children.
At Union Pioneers of Cuba, an organization which belongs Jorge Luis since joining the school, becomes an active participant in the emulation three stamps and a star, which became important during this time … “fulfilled all the activities pioneer, attended on time, participating in all events, parades and earned the stars (white, yellow, blue and red) that you put on the sleeve. That is his attitude Pioneers won a recommendation for incorporation to the plan preparation for entering the Union of Communist Youth. ” (Maria Julia, teacher)
Recognition as a student 1976
In this way, Jorge Luis, finished his studies as part of 231.0 primary school graduates during 1975-76 throughout the country.
The large initial goal of education, to incorporate into classrooms the school population, retain and promote them through 6th grade are met in a general sense for the school year 1975-1976. Hundreds of thousands of young people arrived to secondary education in all regions of the country. The national system of scholarships and the start of the work-study mode, in schools in the countryside, in the 65-66 school year, allowed the local students were winners and had the opportunity to continue their studies.
From the 72-73 school year tuition increase in the average level entered its highest stage. It was necessary to build hundreds of schools, the production of millions of books and teachers’ ratings intensive, so it is not a teenager no chance to study.
Career to become school teachers founded in 1964, continued the Pedagogical Detachment “Manuel Ascunce Domenech” with a 10th grade level and since the course was set 77-78 degree in education, income level Grade 12. The universality is achieved and made possible, in turn, a higher stage in the training of teachers in general, thanks to the response of the Youth, to this appeal.
The principle of linking work-study became universal in the period, with the expansion of middle-level schools in the country and the interest of young people to be in them, illustrating the efforts of these years that modern buildings, filled with young life camps.
Has nevertheless revenue grew faster than new schools, so it was necessary to make temporary buildings to meet the demand for high school tuition, which for the 1976-77 year would be more than seven thousand students.
In September 1976, Jorge Luis, he joined the Provisional ESBEC # 59, “The Stone”, in the municipality of Corralillo.
ESBEC provisional student ID # 59 “The Rock” 1976-1979
“… At the end of primary education, Jorge Luis had a good ladder, but could not reach the vocational scholarship for” Ernesto Che Guevara “and his desire was to enter a boarding school, convinced mom to go to” The Stone “I was the only option was to go into in these times” (Jamie, sister)
“… He went to” The Rock “because he could not go for vocational training, which was what I wanted,” because I go to a boarding school, “he said, where students could go from here, the municipality was for “The Stone”, which actually was not the best conditions, so I wanted more than once, out of that school, here in pumpkin, Neptali ESBU Martinez was a block from the house, but he refused and was beyond the three years, until he graduated from ninth grade (Enidia, Mom)
“… In 7th grade we parted, he went to a school in the area called” The Rock “, there were three high school courses. I stayed at the Martinez Neptali ESBU Sagua Pumpkin and being in it, I went to one school to the field in “Motembo. One day I say, that a boy I was looking and when I go” Aly “along with other comrades, had escaped from his school to go to me, I got so happy, was tremendous time and took me a few things to eat it as compliant as ever “(Maira Rodriguez, student)
In the school year 1979-1980, Jorge Luis enrolled in the Escambray IPUEC Manicaragua Martyrs, Villa Clara, in the 10th group I, standing in the sport, which had secured all the material conditions in this new type of school.
Their results are significant in History 99.3, 92.5 Biology, Physical Education 91 and the overall course grade point average of 88.6, which gives the silver seal in recognition of their academic effort.
Recognition as a student 1979-80
Began a new decade and with it continued U.S. aggression as part of its policy to destabilize the country and in collusion with foreign officials, stateless and antisocial elements, began occupying embassies in Cuba.
The 1ro.de April 1980, a group of individuals violently entered the Peruvian embassy, killing one of the custodians Cuban, Pedro Ortiz Cabrera. In response to this, the revolutionary government withdrew the custody provided to the embassy, which was used by many people to leave the country, mostly outcast items, vagrants and criminals to enter the premises of the embassy Peru and ask for asylum was denied the U.S. itself.
These events led you to be made large popular demonstrations in support of the revolutionary government repudiation of the assailants and the action of Peruvian and U.S. government on the island.
On April 19, the date commemorating the victory of Playa Giron, there was a militant demonstration in the capital, called as “combative people’s march” after Similarly, would the entire country on May 1, ” International Workers Day “and June 17,” Day of the peasant. ” It is in this great “combative people’s march” of May 17, 1980 to Jorge Luis, participates and which receives a certificate of appreciation for their participation.
Recognition: combative people’s march, 1980
At the end of the school year 1979-80, the direction of education in the municipality of Manicaragua, motivated by the large enrollment of high school, decided to transform the ESBEC “Juan Rius Rivera” in a high school in the field and all students belonged to the City of Crossroads are moved to the center.
In September 1980, age 16, Jorge Luis, enrolled in the IPUEC Juan Rius Rivera, located in the “Baga” Manicaragua municipality, Villa Clara.
It is notable for its love of sport and the systematic practice of volleyball and basketball, recognized by “Pepe” physical education teacher, who selected him as a student assistant, to teach students in lower grades.
Here grows another great hobbies, reading, which accompanied him throughout his life … “I read a lot at all hours and all that fell into the hands” (Mary, wife).
This school makes great friends … “When I got was a revolution at home, I filled her with friends, shared with everyone because it was very cheerful, many relationships, as black than white.” (Enidia, Mom)
… “It was very fucker, always playing … It came with a pair of pants to cook and made me remove what I had in the machine, because” First, I “. (Ana Moreno, aunt)
“Aly came on a bicycle when he came to school, came in with noise, telling thousands of nonsense … the day of his birthday gifts asked everyone, but we never forgot and when she came with her sister, sleeping on the floor television viewing hours. ” (Maria D. Morales, Grandmother)
… “I remember my brother with great affection, was his confidante in that the bride, always had more than one and under the mattress of my bed kept pictures of them … Now, after he met Mary, it was over, only had eyes for her, because it was the great love of his life. ” (Jamie, sister)
Maria Luisa Garcia-day meets in IPUEC Jorge Luis Rivera Juan River where they studied together and there he fell in love, but Mary’s mother would not accept the engagement, for this reason they decide to “go” and get married behind family, who accomplished the fact, choose to formalize the relationship. From this union was born the little Ellenit, 31 December 1982.
His daughter was his sun Ellenit
… “Jorge Luis was very noble, was the man I always dreamed that one can never match in my life. My hand was a gentleman and knew how to take hold in the depths of my heart. He was always very friendly, an example is that was not religious, but I was raised in a religious home, the girl, Ellenit, was baptized and he respected at all times our feelings. My family, which he first accepted, then jealous with her mother, who wanted always out for home. Aly earned everyone who was. ” (Mary, wife)
… “It always appeared with a gift for me, this custom gifts he left me forever, when I brought things to his daughter and I shared them brought to me too, was how to prove that he loved me” ( Jamie, sister)
On July 10, 1982, recorded in Volume 1, Page 5 Number 097 Registry and Qualifications of IPUEC Juan Rius Rivera, City of Manicaragua in Villa Clara, is awarded the title of Bachicha.
Bachelor Degree (July 1982)
Studies and military life
At the end of the school year 1979-80, the Ministry of Higher Education established in July 1976, 20.7 students had graduated and remained an enrollment of 200.2, resulting from a major achievement was the five years preceding the start Led Course (Distance Learning) in the fields of accounting, history and law. The prospect of rising the number of students in colleges and 300 000 approximately, the largest enrollment in its history, meant a great effort in construction, equipment and teacher training.
The improvement of the educational process entailed in the revision stage and developing plans and curricula, the establishment of a specialized structure that correspond to the present and prospective development of production and services, the rational use of the teaching period , the creation of the national network and improving its organization and structure aimed at strengthening the role of science-based management, pursue quality and efficiency of scientific research, expanding and regularizing Graduate courses, improve material technical base of institutions and continue to raise the level of planning income and expenditure.
It is also a time when the harassment against Cuba is officially incorporated the Republican Party platform in the U.S.. With the arrival of President Ronald W. Reagan, January 20, 1981, the American security council commissioned a group of specialists, the so-called Committee of Santa Fe, to prepare a policy document to go into our country. U.S. can not accept the existence of a socialist Cuba, the island must pay a high political price for his anti-imperialist and revolutionary establishing a counterrevolutionary radio sponsored by the U.S. government that openly calls for an internal rebellion on the island.
Faced with this escalation of aggression, the Cuban leadership draws the defense strategy based on the doctrine of war of all the people where each of the inhabitants of the country has a specific role to play in the fronts: military, economic and political-ideological .
In July 1982, finished high school, Jorge Luis, do not get college education, almost newly married with a child who is on the way and with the usual economic problems of this situation, heeds the call made by the leadership of the Armed Forces revolutionary, for the twelfth grade graduates to join its ranks and from there, specializing in the management of new technologies, the country had to purchase for your defense.
On September 1, 1982 he joined the School of Junior Officers “in the U / M 4152 Central Army”, located on the outskirts of Santa Clara, specializing in “Land Artillery Tactical Command” and where he graduated as junior officer, on July 15, 1983.
Certificate identifies him as a junior officer
It is located in the artillery unit 20-20, Limonar, Matanzas, where he serves as an officer in a reserve pool … “Jorge Luis studied at the School of Junior Officers of the Central Army, in a course of year ended in 1983 and we went together to the unity of Limonar 20-20, where I was in group 1 and Jorge Luis in the group booking … my relations with him were very good, even when charged and I left pass, he brought the money to the family, which he always had great concern. ” (Lorenzo Enrique Martinez Corrales, Lieutenant)
Several missions are accomplished in the central army unit in the two years he spent on it … “I counted more than once that he had participated in the evacuation for Hurricane Dennis in July 1985 and faced a difficult situation with an old man who refused to leave his house, whereupon he and fellow resolutely evacuated them almost by force, after a while of this, a rush of water, the dam Cidra, which had suffered damage, took the family home and the old man to see what came up and said “Thanks son, you have redeemed my life and my family.” (Enidia, Mom)
His official life the Revolutionary Armed Forces keeps him away from family and home. Cuba has always been threatened by imperialism and is essential to make sacrifices to keep the peace of the people. A telegram to the wife shows their dedication to the tasks of defense in 1985 “Mary, can not possibly go over the month by the international situation.”
In December 1985, after two years of effort, sacrifice and dedication to work and defend the country, Jorge Luis, was promoted to lieutenant, grade held on 18 April 1986 when die product of a tragic traffic accident .
LIEUTENANT GEORGE L. ROCA MOREIRA
The memory of Jorge Luis is alive in his family and all who knew him, especially his wife. … “Our relationship only lasted five years, but lived intensely, because they were fed with gifts, help with housework , attention to the girl who was its sun, and thus, always fill every moment of our lives, despite being as much time apart, because when we finished the “PRE”, went to the military course and then Matanzas work. I keep the memory of the call check at 12 and 40 minutes on the night of April 14, 1986, was the last time I heard his voice. ” (Mary, wife)
He was the man I always dreamed of
The life of Jorge Luis Roca Moreira, it serves so that new generations that are in our classrooms, may have a simple paradigm of a young man who was growing in social activities that the history of his time gave him, but I did and took responsibility to set an example.
* 1. DOR Documentation Center of CC-PCC, chronology of major events between 1959 to 1979.
* 2. Details of the martyrs and members of the ACRC in the municipality, provided by the organization.
* 3. Civil Registry Data Crossroads. Offered by your register: Juana M. Horta Rodriguez.
* 4. Documents and photos contributed by family members.
* 5. DOR-CC PCC 1977, methodological instructions for the celebration of historical dates. National and international.
* 6. Interviews with family members, teachers and friends of martyr Roca Jorge Luis Moreira.
* 7. Isidron del Valle, Aldo. Article: “10 people perished in traffic accident in Villa Clara Granma, Monday April 21, 1986.
* 8. Books about the martyrs of Villa Clara from before 1959 to 1979.
* 9. Granma newspaper, official organ of the Communist Party of Cuba, from April 21, 1986.
LIST OF FAMILY AND OTHERS INTERVIEWED.
* 1. Alonso Jimenez, Blanca Rosa, 4th grade teacher at the school “Jose Marti”.
* 2. Corrales Martinez, Enrique Lorenzo, attended school for junior officers of the Central Army 1982-1983 and was on the UM’s 2020 Limonar.
* 3. De Armas Moreno, Rita Mary, a teacher at the school “Antonio Maceo”.
* 4. Garcia Days, Maria Luisa, wife
* 5. Asea Hidalgo, Maria Julia, 6th grade teacher at the school “Jose Marti”.
* 6. Jimenez, Antonio, 5th grade teacher at the school “Jose Marti”.
* 7. Morales, Maria del Carmen “Nina” grandmother.
* 8. Moreira Morales, Enidia del Carmen, mother
* 9. Moreno Morales, Ana, aunt
* 10. Pedraza Moya, Candida Rosa, 2nd grade teacher at the school “Jose Marti”.
* 11. Roca Garcia, Ellenit, daughter
* 12. Moreira Roca, Jamie, sister.
* 13. Roca Pena, Rogelio, father.
* 14. Rodriguez Miranda, Maira, friend and student of the school “Jose Marti”.
* 15. Rguez Zamora, Jorge Eduardo, friend and student of the school “Jose Marti”.