* Classification of the soils in Venezuela
* Land tenure in Venezuela
* Land use in Venezuela
* Agricultural production systems
* Land reform
Agricultural activity is essential for the maintenance of any country, since it depends on the power of the people.
Venezuela has an area dedicated to various cultures around 1,800,000 hectares, with just 6,000 hectares more than in 1992. Of this total, slightly more than 310,000 hectares are devoted to irrigated production, corresponding to the state of Guarico more than 35%.
The cultivation of cereal spends about 45% of the total surface area of coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and snuff 24%, 14% to fruits, and just over 2% to the production of vegetables.
Venezuela still has not fulfilled its agricultural capabilities, especially those early in the century just gave fame to the country when its economy depended primarily on the production sector, particularly coffee, cocoa and fruit.
In the eighteenth century, Venezuela was a major producer of cocoa, to the point of being considered one of the finest products in the world. The abandonment of operations, replacing it with the coffee and the discovery of large oil reserves determined the collapse of these crops.
Fruit production is one that is undergoing further development, driven by large national and international demand, as well as increasing its industrial processing. Given the importance of production, highlights the banana and plantain, orange, watermelon and cantaloupe, pineapple, mango, avocado and papaya.
Agricultural Area: Within any set geographical areas suitable for the practice and development of agricultural activities and livestock constitute what is called a geographic area. From the point of view of their conformation, agricultural land includes both land used or suitable for grazing as those devoted to crops. Economic advantage when the agricultural land there are factors that can promote or restrict the development of farming in this sense have a special importance of climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, etc.), Soil (physical and chemical characteristics of soils), topography, existing vegetation, among others.
Known as the soil surface crust consists of minerals and organic particles produced by the combined action of wind and water processes of organic decay.
The soils are not always equal change from place to place for weather and environmental reasons, just as the soils change their structure, these changes are slow and gradual than those arising from natural disasters.
Physical factors: the large rocks under the action of frost, rain, wind, temperature variations and many other factors, they break, forming smaller and smaller rocks.
Chemical factors: the minerals of the rocks in contact with water or air, dissolve or oxidize, giving rise to substances with different properties of minerals primitive. Among the rocks on the ground, it was infiltrating the water and air. The water began to dissolve different materials, mixing, and oxygen from the air in turn, began making between both oxidation, a slow decomposition of rocks and formation of new compounds of small size and thickness. At this stage of weathering, the rocks undergo chemical changes.
Geological factors: Earthquakes, earthquakes, landslides and earthquakes are the main geological factors causing abrupt changes in topography, therefore the geological factor is of paramount importance in soil formation, it affects erosion and deposition of rock material.
Soil profile: The soils are not all equal to each other, because it varies the amount and quality of mineral and organic particles that compose them.
The analysis of the thickness and characteristics of the different layers that make up the lithosphere is called the soil profile. The typical profile of a soil composed of three main layers (soil, subsoil and rock) also called horizons.
Classification of soils in VenezuelaSandy soils, are composed mainly of sand. These soils do not hold water. They have very little organic matter and are not suitable for agriculture.
Clay soils: mainly consist of clay, very fine yellow grains, retain water to form puddles. When mixed with humus can be good for farming.
Calcareous soils: have an abundance of calcareous salts. They are white, are dry and barren and not good for agriculture.
Stony soils, formed by rocks of all sizes. Not hold water and are not good for cultivation.
Moist soil: its composition abounds in organic matter decomposing or decomposed (humus). Are dark, retain water and are not good for cultivation.
Economic Importance of Soil
The floors allow natural vegetation and crops were set to their roots, and thus seek the nutrients and moisture they need to live.
The man obtained from the soil not only most of the food but also fiber, wood and other raw materials.
Soils are also of vital importance for animals, many of them get their food solely from the soil.
In addition, serve, by the abundance of vegetation to soften the atmosphere and promote the existence of water currents.
In Venezuela, part of the economic output depends on the crop, especially in the smaller states and areas where the soil plays an important role for economic production of these sites.
Land Tenure in Venezuela
The land is the mode or modes of ownership that prevail among those who use the land in the agrarian structure of the current Venezuela distinguish the following forms of tenure:
* Owners: Are those people who legally possess the title to the land they work, which is why in addition, owners of property located therein. Owners can be: small landowners, large landowners (landlords, landowners).
* Tenants: Those producers who do not own the land they work, they have to pay rent or leasing fee for the use made of such land, payment can be cash or in kind, ie by providing part of their harvest.
* Sharecroppers and Mediator: Sharecroppers are those farmers who give the landowner a share of the crop they produced, the mediators are also tenants, only that is required to give the owner half his crop (hence the name).
* Customary tenure or occupiers: are producers who use public or private land without paying for such use, any amount to their owners, the customary tenure are often “invaders” of land, which used only temporarily.
Land use in Venezuela
In Venezuela for the year 2,000, the land use covering about 31,238,155 hectares, ie 34.1% of the national land area. According to the degree and form of exploitation, land use can be:
* Little intervened: By use of plant and animal extraction, with a predominance of unmodified natural vegetation.
* Extensive use or very extensive: Beef cattle (cattle, sheep, goats).
* Intensive use: Soil urbanized, mechanized crops, horticulture, pigs, poultry, etc.
In Venezuela, the land use has the following features that make the resulting spatial agricultural regions:
* The northern end. In this region there is a predominance of small farming units and medium (conuco and breeding of goats) production is devoted to consumption.
* The north half. This region is characterized by the existence of relations of production of semi-feudal type, which are expressed in the form of leases, sharecropping and party walls, as a form of tenure.
* The plain. Is a region dedicated to raising cattle in large estates, and in recent years are imposing models of commercial agriculture.
* Northern Guyana. This region has the same structure as the flat region.
* The periphery. Consists of the Sierra de Perija, southern Apure state, most of the state of Bolivar and Delta Amacuro and Amazonas states, in it, farming or livestock is scarce, at the same time, there are Indian tribes with relations of production underdeveloped.
In Venezuela there are basically two forms of agricultural production: the traditional or extensive and business.
* Depends only on the rainy season or drought
* The production unit is the conuco, which means it is for family consumption
* The extension is small conuco
* Production techniques are obsolete
* In the case of livestock, there is little the number of animals they have and can have several species in one place, thus hindering their optimum development
* Limits the family development and social mobility
* It feeds the public or private investment to boost production in the fields
* Uses appropriate machinery for planting and harvesting of the items
* It takes place in wide areas.
* Utilize technological advances
* The worker is an employee, the benefits granted by law
* They use chemical or biological pest control
* For livestock animals are kept in suitable locations for the purpose. The species are separated and vaccinated animals
* Harvest or sale of animals encourages reinvestment
The Agrarian Reform Law was enacted on March 5, 1960 under President Romulo Betancourt. The main goals of agrarian reform in Venezuela were:
* Equitable distribution of land.
* Successful organization of credit and comprehensive assistance to rural producers, so that the land constitutes for the man who works, based on their economic stability foundation of its progressive social welfare and guarantee of their freedom and dignity .
The enactment of agrarian reform in our country was of vital importance, since it meant that farmers have greater opportunities to acquire land, thus eliminating the leasing of the same. In addition, it sought to eliminate the hacienda system and the social stratum of landowners.
This reform was intended that farmers will return to the camps they had left, after the oil boom. His sought to implement a system of ownership, possession and use of land just based on the equitable distribution thereof.
This change in agricultural policies pursued that farmers could have access to credit so that he could work the land, in addition to comprehensive care that allows for economic stability, social welfare and ensuring their freedom and dignity.
Previously farming in Venezuela had a role in the national economy, but following the attachment of the oil industry has reduced its development.
Currently there are several species grown in Venezuela, standing crops of banana, banana, pineapple, watermelon, melon, orange, among others.
Previously the land was not equitable, it has tried to remedy by means of land reform that attempts to seek equity in the distribution of land, this as a way to encourage agricultural activities implemented after oil industry as the main country’s economic output.
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF VENEZUELA. II year Media Education and professional. Author: Miguel Castillo Alberto Lima