Psychology, Reference and Education No Comments


1. Background of the memory.

2. Implicit and explicit memory.

3. Information processing multiple memories.

4. Attention associated memory.

6. Bibliography.

1. Background of the memory.

Learning is defined in terms of relatively permanent changes due to past experience, and memory is a crucial part of the learning process, without it, the experience would be lost and the individual could not benefit from past experience. Unless, somehow, prior learning recordings can not be used at a later date and therefore would not be in a position to benefit from past experience. However, it is very difficult to try to define learning and memory independently of one another, since both represent two sides of the same coin: a) learning depends on memory for permanence and, conversely, B ) memory would not “content” but learning to take place.

Therefore, the memory can be defined as the retention of learning or experience, in the words of Blakemore (1988), “In the broadest sense, learning is the acquisition of knowledge and memory is storing an internal representation of such knowledge. There is another interesting parallel between the two brothers topics of learning and memory, namely, that both had a prominent representation in the early days of psychology as a science. William James (1890), one of the first of the psychology, was certainly the first to make a formal distinction between primary and secondary memory, which correspond, respectively shaped, short term memory to long-term, this distinction lies in the center of the very influential model of multiple storage Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). Overall, it is considered that Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) is the pioneer in the experimental study of memory, having himself used to study basic phenomena such as learning curves and curves forgetting and inventing nonsense syllables for that purpose.

For much of the first half of the twentieth century, the memory was not a respectable topic for experimental psychologists, reflecting the dominance of behaviorism. However, some conductictas, particularly in the U.S., studied the “verbal behavior” using the paired associate learning, in which they represent unrelated word pairs, where the first member of the pair represents the “stimulus” and the second “response”. In this approach associationist made the study of “memory” had a strong position within the behavioral framework and it is seen more clearly in the theory of interference is one of the main theories of forgetting.

Since the cognitive revolution in the 1950s, memory has become an integral theme within the information-processing approach, whose core is the analogy with the computer.

2. Implicit and explicit memory.

* Implicit memory and implicit learning

* For Reber, implicit learning is an induction process for acquiring complex and abstract information about any environment, regardless of the consciousness of the subjects on the procurement process or the information acquired. This, of course, does not imply lack of attention. Various experimental paradigms support the thesis that people unconsciously abstracted environmental regularities and use this to control behavior. For Reber thus implicit learning would have three attributes: operates independently of consciousness, produces abstract tacit knowledge represents the environment and can be used to implicitly solve problems and make decisions to new stimuli.

For implicit memory, for it means the expression of knowledge acquired in a previous episode, through a test that no conscious or explicit references to such learning episode. Studies of repetition priming and memory dissociations support the thesis of the existence of an implicit or unconscious memory.

* Explicit memory.

It’s the kind of memory that is conscious and can be expressed directly. Some students like to express their explicit memory in their own words in examinations of topics. Others prefer to choose from a list of answers in multiple-choice exams.


The memory can take different forms. However, all are ways to recover or locate the information that is stored, also represents different ways to measure the memory within the laboratory.

* Recognition: Sensory is a way to remember where something or someone looks familiar without necessarily can name or identify him somehow. Or can recognize objects or faces that have been present in a test situation when the goal reagents are there along with other reagents distractors (which originally were not present), is the type of memory involved in multiple-choice tests, the answers among which you have to choose one can be considered as signs of recovery.

* Remembrance is the most rigorous and general recall includes active within the memory stores. When recalls, play something learned long ago and often the signs of recovery have disappeared or are very slim. This is the type of memory involved in testing for a while.

* Relearning is the most sensitive of all, even if something seems to have “forgotten” at all, it may be easier to learn a second time than it was originally.

In experiments usually this is expressed as:

Thrift Score = Origniales-Essays Learning Essays / Essays Original X 100/1

* Reconstructive memory: It is the type of memory involved when information is passed from one person to another, often by word of mouth as spreading rumors or gossip. It is not only simple reproduction of the past but interpreting it in light of their own beliefs, schemas, and other expectations, and therefore often involves a distortion of objective truth.

* Collusion: Refers to the type of memory error often committed under high motivation or excitement, if you are unable to remember certain topic, you can make something that seems appropriate.

* Reintegration is reminiscent of past experiences based on a few signs that may be memories, particular scents, melodies, in fact almost anything that can serve as a reminder.

* Memory signal dependent: refers to the similarity or difference between the state or the context in which the original learning occurred and in which he is remembered.

* Imagery: is the base of many kinds of stratagems mnemonics (memory aids) and there is much evidence that can remember verbal material better if you can “hook” with a visual image.

3. Information processing multiple memories.

* Sensory memory.

* Although most of the research has focused on theorizing MCP and MLP, a logical place to begin is in sensory memoryand because it provides an accurate account of the environment as experienced sensory system, ie preserved a “complete copy” of the stimulus for a brief period after exposure, forget any information they do not pay attention or further processed. Therefore it is clear that sensory memory is related closely with the record and is likely to be more accurate and useful to consider it as part of the process of perception and as a prerequisite for the storage itself.

According to Lloyd et al is likely that less than a hundredth of all sensory information every second impact on the human sense and awareness scope, of this, only one-twentieth makes it to something that resembles a stable storage.

Clearly, if the memory capacity is limited found in sensory memory, the ability to retain information about the world would be extremely limited, as is precarious. However, in accordance with memory patterns such as multiple storage model Atkinson and Shiffrin, some sensory memory information is passed to the MCP successfully, allowing information to be stored for long enough like to use, and for this reason it is often called working memory.

Information can be maintained MCP 15 to 30 seconds but may extend through or repetition test. It has an acoustic coding.

* Short Term Memory

* Long-term memory.

It is generally believed that the MLP has unlimited capacity. It can be seen as a repository of all things in memory that are not used at the moment but that can potentially recover. Retrieves the past and use that information to deal with this, in a sense, the MLP can live simultaneously in the past and in the present. The information can be maintained from a few minutes to several years (which, in fact, can cover the entire life of the individual).

Your coding is Semantic Visual and Acoustic.

4. Attention associated memory.

It calls attention to the process by which we noticed significant stimuli and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Without it, our minds would surely be submerged in a sea of hectic and confusing stimuli. In traffic, night clubs, meetings and even a walk in the woods, our senses are overwhelmed with more information than our minds can handle turn. We deal in such situations because selectively attend to important information.

As we know, irrelevant stimuli can interfere with the relevant stimuli. It’s hard to concentrate on reading, when students are whispering about something interesting. However, sometimes irrelevant stimuli can be ignored.

Anxiety and memory.

Most of us have had panic one time or another, during an examination, the panic is especially likely when the stakes are high. Suddenly we were overwhelmed by the fear of failure. All that we could not remember in the exam will begin to return frequently to mind after this, when you have calmed down again.

Holmes argues that anxiety itself does not prevent recovery. Anxiety causes strange thoughts, such as “I will not be able to face my father” or “this is not fair because I worked a lot.” Holmes argues that these thoughts are hindering the recovery of the answers to the test questions. Hedl and Bartlett found that anxiety reduces recognition memory for sentences even when the need for recovery is minimized. It is important, therefore, control your level of anxiety directly.

Decision and memory.

Buckhout says that two witnesses to the same memories could decide things quite different and developed a test to identify a good witness. He based his test on signal detection theory, which makes it possible to measure the decision factors and a separate memory. To take the test, presented a film representation of a crime and then presented and twenty twenty-two certain false statements about the incident. Witnesses scored with a hit if they say “yes” to a true statement with an error and scored when they say “yes” to a false statement. The percentage of trial and error is used to calculate the measure of the sensitivity of the witness. If witnesses say “yes” to most true and false allegations, then obviously not sensitive to the accuracy of the statements and your score is 0 If on the other hand, witnesses almost always say “yes” to statements certain and almost never say “yes to false statements is that they are very sensitive and get a high score. This theory attempts to explain perceptual judgments of people by analyzing their sensitivity to sensory stimuli, as well as the criteria used to decisions.


Oblivion can be understood as a failure to transfer information from STM to LTM, impaired footprint, displacement, interference, such as loss of information once the transfer has occurred, damage from misuse, preventing the consolidation, or as failure to retrieve information from LTM (interference, motivated forgetting, forgetting dependent signals) or changes in regards to LP.

As regards the theory of deterioration, it appears that the passage of time itself is not important, but rather what happens between learning and remembering. This is the focus of interference theory.

Oblivion dependent signals jointly referred to oblivion under the state and context. The psychological and physiological states represent internal signals and environmental or contextual variables represent signals or external routes to retrieve stored information.

Oblivion motivated by repression is based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and has stimulated much research and debate. Experimental evidence is not strong support for the concept, but clinical evidence about psychogenic amnesia, PTSD, etc., does provide a source of support.

5. Memory disorders.

The most common disorders are amnesia memory:

Anterograde amnesia: inability to assimilate new information.

Retrograde Amnesia: Inability to recall previously stored facts.

Often the fault memory is not total, but partial, evidenced difficulty remembering, not impossible to do so.

Amnesia is common plots are accompanied ie complete the memory gaps with fictitious or false memories. Intrusions may also occur, ie false memories into real memories.

The amnesia in young individuals is usually caused by head injuries in older people could accompany the dementia syndrome whose most common form is Alzheimer’s disease also occurs in Huntington’s disease.

How to improve memory

We are not born with good or bad memory, so we can learn to improve it using various strategies. Moreover we know that when we have a lot of stress or are worried about various problems, our memory is affected and tend to remember worse.

Then what we do is learn how to implement a number of strategies:

1-In the coding phase, the most important thing is to pay attention to information that comes to us and we want to retain.

We may, among other things:

-Not attend to several things at once, it will not do any good.

-Do not worry too much about the problems, as difficult to record information.

-Perform attention exercises, train her. We for example,

-Read the paper, look at names and memorable.

-Strike out all uppercase letters in a text;

-Exercise of puzzles, in which the target words.

Anyway, simple tasks that help us keep our attention then to put it in our daily work.

2-In the holding phase, various mechanisms can be used, such as:

-Association: associate is information that comes with one that is more familiar to us, for example, to associate the name of a person with someone you know, a phone number with a known date, age, number of floors, etc..

-Categorization: what we have to do is arrange things according to a criterion, using the common characteristics of objects. For example, remember the shopping list, grouping by categories fruits, meats, dairy, cleaning, etc..

-Verbalization-Repeat: in this case, to perform the action, repeat aloud what we are doing.

-Display: It is “mentally see” what we want to remember. For example, to find out how many doors there at home, we go home and mentally “see” the doors of every room, if we recall an object, we imagine, we see mentally with all its details, or imagine a face with eyes , nose, etc. to remember it later.

3-In phase of memory, what we try to do is recall the information that we have recorded in the previous stages. We find references and evidence we have collected in the registration phase and retention, we must rethink, return to the last place where we’ve been, etc.. But this is very important to note the following:

-The tension and stress we suffer, we produce all kinds of changes, both psychological and organic. Likewise, memory disorders occur, because they hinder the registration phase. Therefore, we must learn to be more relaxed. We can learn to relax.

‘Things we forget for several reasons, including lack of use, interference between old and new, at some stage failures of memory, etc.. However, we must bear in mind that forgetting is also necessary. We could not maintain throughout life everything that comes through our senses. What we have to try to remember what is important and forget what is useless.

Once we know the stages of memory and aspects that may be influencing our performance, we will surely ask what specifically do in those situations where we have little everyday forgetfulness, and that greatly affect our daily wellbeing , as a challenge to our memory.

6. Bibliography.

* Habib, M, Neurological Basis of Behavior, Masson ed., Barcelona 1994

* Richard Gross, Psychology the science of mind and behavior, The Manual Moderno, Mexico 1998, 285-329 p.

* Stephen Worchel, Wayne Shebilske, Psychology: Fundamentals and Applications, Pearson Education, Fifth ed., Spain 1998, pp. 211-250.

* Hispanic Encyclopedia, Volume 12, pages 113-234, Mexico 1992.