* OS: Windows
* MS-DOS Operating System
* Comparative table of the Windows operating system and MS-DOS
About a month ago the company Microsoft released its latest operating system that is used on over 100 million computers worldwide. I refer to version 6.2 which is offered in part by the problems presented by the previous version 6.0.
History repeats itself. Since version 1.0, this program called “operating system”, as the link between the hardware and the software that runs on any computer, has had some problems (better known as “bugs”) and its creator. Microsoft constantly been concerned to rectify the situation. So we all versions wing that we used in our computers, some very good as a true 3.3 and other failure as the 4.0. Microsoft scored a goal when he released version 5.0 of DOS functions offered for the first time over the previous and following with escalating consumer and commercial pressure, released the 6.0 that was the first to bring together a series of programs “utility “dela made by others within the MS-DOS box
The reader must remember that 99% of standard ele-compatible computers running IBM DOS operating system. If the machine is brand IBM PC-DOS box will tell if it’s a normal clone tell MS-DOS. Other manufacturers added a few features to this program and baptize like Acer Compaq DOS or DOS. In essence it is the same software used to be able to use the computer. To make a simple operation, is like gasoline for a car.
2. Windows OS
In recent years, Windows is no longer a novelty to become a widely accepted operating system that has managed to establish itself in the Computer. Today, there are all kinds of applications for Windows and all manufacturers who achieved some success in its day with applications for the DOS operating system and related applications designed for Windows.
With this operating system Microsoft has been proposed to overcome some of the limitations of MS-DOS. Part of the Windows 95 code being implemented in 16-bit and 32-bit part. One of the reasons why this has been done, has been to preserve compatibility. With Windows 95 can run both Windows 3.1 or 3.11, MS-DOS and obviously new applications specifically designed for this operating system.
Among the new features include the Windows 95 system files 32 bits, thanks to which we can use file names up to 256 characters (VFAT and CDFS), because this is a protected-mode operating system, disappears 640K barrier, we must remember that although most of Windows 3.1 is a protected mode system, this is running on an operating system that works in real mode.
The Windows 95 interface has also been improved. The first big change you’ll see when you start working is the disappearance from the Program Manager. Now we have a desktop style of Macintosh System 7 or NeXTStep.
Replaces the DOS operating system and its predecessor Windows 3.1.
One of the main functions of Windows 95 is to facilitate communication between the user and the computer, simplifying the use of software. Any communication between two parties, there must be ways for each of these parts can deliver the information. For communication between user and Windows 95 windows used for Windows to send information to the user and the controls for the user to send information to Windows. A window shows the user information of any kind, whether text or graphics, while a control is an element within a window that allows the user to perform, for example, a button to select something, a list of values, a menu with different options, a box to enter text, etc..
Program supports Windows 98 DOS and Windows programs. Each application program is designed to run on a specific operating system and only that. For example, a program for OS System Apple Macintosh computers can only run on those computers and not on a PC with Windows 98. For this reason, manufacturers often create versions of the same program for different operating systems (for example, there is the word processor Word for MS-DOS, Word for Windows and Word for Macintosh). However, there are operating systems that are capable of running programs created for other operating systems. For example, Windows 98 can run Windows applications and also applications for the DOS operating system.
Windows NT (New Technology) is a Microsoft operating system that provides full 32-bit architecture, aimed at workstations, network servers and computers with multiple processors, with Windows NT can run 70% of the programs designed for Windows but not otherwise. Windows 2000 comes in four versions: Professional, Server, Advanced Server and Datacenter Server. The main features and enhancements of Windows 2000 are among others:
Greater simplicity in the outward appearance of the Windows desktop.
Increased speed over previous versions and increased stability mainly by the resilience of its automatically 300 files.
Increased security because encryption 128-bit file so that can not be read by unauthorized persons.
Incorporation of ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface Interface or Advanced Configuration and Power).
The Active Directory or Active Directory, the new administrative structure, which contains the information of all the elements that form part of the company network.
Disappearing Primary and Secondary domain, resulting in overall domain controllers that contain a copy of the database in the current directory.
Adding Windows NT Server 4.0 Terminal Server Edition, which connection is made using a special software that can work as a terminal emulator, this service computers can run any application even forbid their ability.
The cluster, multiple servers working together, allow the continued service of the equipment, because if one server fails it passes its services and resources to another cluster server.
MS-DOS Operating System
Two is an acronym for Disk Operating System, operating system created by Microsoft, and have installed most PC computers.
It is a part of DOS operating system, a set of programs that can manipulate information in records, so we can work with ease, comfort and speed with these, to others, the DOS coordinates the operation of the microprocessor so that all work well within our computer.
Over time Microsoft has been improving the DOS, since its first version, the 1981. The versions that may exist, serve to correct errors found in the previous version or to improve certain parts of the program, if the variation is in the first figure, it means that major changes have been made, the result, for example, the performance of new microprocessors, largely to take advantage of its benefits.
Generally, the DOS is installed on computers. The main function of DOS, as mentioned above, is to manage the information that goes in comes out and saved on your computer.
Boot DOS is simple: you have to operate your computer by pressing the corresponding switch, with the only caveat that there is no diskette in the drive, if any, you have to remove it quickly. After a few seconds, after checking that the system is correct (memory, peripherals) as it appears you will see the MS-DOS prompt, usually represented by C: \>, this also called “prompt”, presented together with the blinking cursor , indicating that the system is ready to receive commands.
The MS-DOS is a single user and single-tasking operating system. By meeting the two conditions above the processor is in every moment is devoted exclusively to the execution of a process, so that the planning is simple processor and dedicated to the only active process that may exist at any given time.
To install MS-DOS simply run the installation program is located in the number one diskette MS-DOS. Can not run MS-DOS installation diskettes as these files are compressed. Install detects the hardware and software containing the PC and communicates this does not meet the minimum requirements or if there are features incompatible with MS-DOS.
Structure of MS-DOS.
The MS-DOS operating system has a tree structure where units exist within directories and turn them into files they have. The units are the floppy and hard drives. Directories are, within the units, folders where files are stored. The files are data sets and programs.
The DOS has a hundred commands that need to be executed three files:
The IBMBIOS.COM handles incoming and outgoing communications. The IBMDOS.COM is central computer services, is also known as kernel or nucleus. The load COMMAND.COM can run all commands.
Basic structure of the system.
The MS-DOS contains five key elements:
The ROM-BIOS. – Management programs in and out between the operating system and basic computer devices.
The IO.SYS. – These are a set of instructions for transferring input / output from peripheral to memory. Prepare the system startup and contains resident device drivers.
MSDOS.SYS. – Is MS-DOS kernel, containing instructions for controlling the diskettes. Is a program that handles files, directories, and memory settings.
DBLSPACE.BIN. – The kernel driver disk compressor used to increase the storage capacity of the disk, available from version 6 of MS-DOS. This driver handles all compression and decompression of files and may move from conventional memory to upper memory.
COMMAND.COM. – Is the shell, through which the user communicates with the computer through the prompt \>. Interprets commands typed and contains internal commands MS-DOS that are not displayed in the system directory.
The files IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS and DBLSPACE.BIN are hidden, ie, are not to list the directory, and loaded from the disk into the computer’s memory when you boot it.
In MS.DOS exists an order called HELP that lets you run a full-screen program that provides assistance to the user-level commands. This command provides a complete reference of the commands in MS-DOS.
FASTHELP command executes a program which offers personalized support for each order of MS-DOS. If given no parameters, displays an index of all the commands that can provide information.
If you run or FASTHELP HELP followed by the name of a command, it automatically enters the specific help for that command without the need to go through the index.
Table comparing the Windows operating system and MS-DOS
The most widely used OS with MS-DOS difference is this to be designed for 16-bit and the recent emergence of Microsoft’s Windows 95, 32-bit, multitasking capabilities, see endanger its supremacy as undisputed king of PC environment. Although the general belief is that the system was created by Microsoft Corporation, this is not true as the true creator of this system was Tim Paterson, an employee of Seattle Computer Products.
Since the appearance in 1981 of the IBM-PC 16-bit address bus, MS-DOS is the OS more widespread, as there are millions of micro PC’s distributed around the world, becoming a standard operating system for this types of computers, this first version worked on equipment consisting of 64 Kb of memory and two 5.25-inch floppy drives one side and with a capacity of 160 Kb, the computer’s CPU was a 8088 model 8 bits and with a speed of 4.7 Mhz. This operating system was patented by companies Microsoft Corporation and IBM, using two similar versions (one for each company) called MS-DOS and PC-DOS. A MS-DOS accompany some numbers indicating version. If the difference between two versions is the latter represents small variations. However, if the first number represents fundamental changes. The version number by 1.0 started in August 1981. In May 1982 they released version 1.1 with support for two-sided diskettes. Version 2.0 was created in March 1983 to manage the PC-XT, which incorporated 10 Mb hard drive, its main innovation support structure of directories and subdirectories.
Windows 95 and 98
Organization of Directories in MS-DOS operating system
Gavin Neira Omar Ortiz