Nutrition in pregnant

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* Summary

* Nutrition in Pregnancy

* Discussion Final

* Suggestions

* References

* Annex

“With patience a ruler is persuaded, as the soft tongue breaketh the bones until …”

Proverbs 25:15 v

* Summary

With the high rate of pregnant women have at their power well below basically this research will provide the appropriate information they need to be aware of how vital it is adequate food in terms of pregnant

Among the care that must be taken during pregnancy, one of the priority and perhaps the most important is the food. Do not try to eat more, or eat for two, as many women believe, but consider what are the nutritional needs that require metabolic changes in the mother and the proper growth and development of your baby. The mother should eat a variety of foods from all three groups, balanced and avoid excessive consumption of fatty foods, salt and carbohydrates and controlling much weight, as the health of your child and postpartum recovery depends very much on this. In this way provide a feed list pregnant comparing routine life with appropriate power parameters.

* Abstract

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Between you care to ter tem during a pregnancy that, um, maybe two cases seja priority or important and or da mais alimentao. No mais it comes to eating, eating ou dois, as muitas mulheres pensam is conta em eb no so quais Necessidades nutricionais as metabolic changes that you requerem da me adequado eo seu Crescimento and desenvolvimento of drinks. Mae foods deve two three groups varied, balanced and avoid food or hops is gordurosos consumption, salt, and control carboidrato seu muito or weight, ha that sade of seu filho and sua recuperao depois do muito disso delivery depends. Um Desta provide a list of gravid alimentao of daily life-as comparing parameters gives you alimentao com adequada.

* Introduction

Nutrition during pregnancy is controversial, often ignored by obstetricians or wrongly addressed. This may be caused by one party to insufficient knowledge of the subject and on the other, that the concepts are under review and not properly tested. This task has been undertaken by nutritionists which has also made it easier for institutions to ignore him obstetricians. It is also difficult for physicians to translate theory into practice, everyday and accessible. Nutritional advice for pregnant women have changed over time. Previously, women were encouraged to have modest increases in weight during pregnancy and consume diets. At other times, they were encouraged to “eat for two”, which contributed to excessive weight gain, with higher maternal and fetal pathology. Today we understand better the nutritional needs during pregnancy and the role of different specific nutrients at this stage of life.

The challenge for health professionals is to help establish healthy behaviors regarding diet and physical activity and prevent exposure to toxic substances throughout the life cycle and as a high priority during pregnancy, period of maximum vulnerability.

And our goal at this point is to compare food by pregnant women with the appropriate parameters of good nutrition. Seeing so food should not consume and consume. So also argue about the following questions:

What is the proper diet for pregnant women

What should I avoid eating, and that should make a greater amount

What is the average body weight should increase monthly

The purpose of this observation is to analyze the diets of pregnant women so that way you can learn the relationship between power on and proper. It is important because in this way we will discover whether pregnant women take due care in their power in their respective gestation period.

For the mother, poor nutrition leads to the development of anemia, hypotension, bleeding tendencies, a delayed delivery or postpartum prematurity and complicated one. It is therefore very important that women have a variety of foods that together provide a level of energy and nutrients necessary for maternal health and fetal growth and development.

To carry out this research we use the tools such as the Internet, specifically nutrition books to compare the appropriate parameters as to the power of a sedentary pregnant with a pregnant woman who has a professional diet.

The reason for this research is to discover the importance of pregnant women on prenatal care of their food, and if it matches the corresponding parameter. Taking medical consultations variables as a nutritionist, gynecologist, among others. Also as macronutrients and supplements, so watching them for a week with the three main meals including between meals (mid-morning snack).

This monograph presents in its first four chapters the theoretical framework and reference for then give way to the methodology and results. Thus, in the 1st chapter consists of a short clearance which is nutrition for pregnant women. In the 2nd chapter what really is the proper nutrition. In the 3rd chapter discusses the proper diet to the parameters of a pregnant woman and that measures should be taken. In the 4th chapter we tell some suggestions of care that a pregnant woman should have – methodological aspect. And in the 5th chapter we mention how we made the observation that pregnant women / mothers. – Variables.2. Nutrition in Pregnancy

During pregnancy, the mother requires more nutrients to meet the basic needs of both her and the baby that is forming. Women who eat poorly during this period, may have more complications than those who are well nourished.

Among the care that must be taken during pregnancy, one of the priority and perhaps the most important is the food. Overeating and eating poorly during this period, can cause many more complications and risks

Metabolic changes that occur in the mother and the growing baby in the mother’s body produces extra nutritional demands, which must be met by increasing the intake of some nutrients.

Do not try to eat more, or eat for two, as many women believe, but consider what are the nutritional needs that require metabolic changes in the mother and the proper growth and development of your baby.

The weight gain of the mother during pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, due to the weight of the baby, placenta and increased organ size of the mother, ie the uterus and breasts.

The weight of the mother, may be associated with diseases or conditions of the mother or baby, so pregnancy must have adequate control by the doctor and the mother must follow directions, since little increase may also be associated with the low birth weight and excessive, may be related to maternal conditions such as hypertension, thyroid problems, eclampsia or diabetes, which can cause serious complications during pregnancy.

The mother should eat a variety of foods from all three groups, balanced and avoid excessive consumption of fatty foods, salt and carbohydrates and controlling much weight, as the health of your child and postpartum recovery depends very much on this.

* Nutrition is the process by which the body absorbs and assimilates the substances necessary for the functioning of the body. This biological process is one of the most important determinants for the optimal functioning and health. It also deals with solving the energy needs of the body giving it the necessary carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins and all substances that the body requires to develop daily activities.

The Food and Nutrition Board of the American Medical Association in 1963, suggests that:

Nutrition is a science that studies food, nutrient interaction in relation to health and disease processes of digestion, absorption, utilization and excretion of food substances and also the economic, cultural, social and psychological issues with food and eating.

* The dietary education of mothers with the acquisition of basic knowledge about nutrition during pregnancy and lactation is one of the main topics of preventive medicine.

Gestation is a marked increase in the nutritional needs due to the formation of fetal and placental tissues, breast and uterine growth and refills as maternal weight and volume. Pregnancy requires women increased nutrient needs should be based on a proper supply of nutrients to ensure maternal and fetal growth that promotes breastfeeding and retaining a satisfactory nutritional status

* 2.1.2. Definition of nutrition in pregnant Through nutrition provides the body are plastic materials that are transformed and organized into living matter, energy materials are regulatory factors essential for the proper functioning of the body.

* 2.1.2. Features

* 2.1.3 Objectives

The primary purpose is to provide nutrients to the body energy to maintain life.

Promoting growth and replace losses.

Avoid the absence or decrease below a limit as this could cause a deficiency disease.

* 2.1. Nutrition

2.2. Parameters appropriate diet for a pregnant woman and consequences of low and increase weight.

* Traditionally the biggest concern has been aimed at preventing the events associated with nutritional deficit, but there is increasing awareness of the need to reduce excess associated events, including postpartum weight retention by the mother. The optimal weight gain in pregnant adult with average prepregnancy weight fluctuates in most studies between 11 and 16 kg, however, depends heavily on maternal height, being obviously lower in women of smaller stature. Weight gains of close to 16 kg in women with lower height less than 150 cm may increase the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion. Conversely, recommend values close to 11 kg in women with a size greater than 160 cm may increase the risk of intrauterine malnutrition. For these reasons, most authors recommended weight gains proportional to maternal height. This requires using some indicator of the weight / height (BMI, for example) to implement the proposal has consensus: it is that gestational weight gain is equivalent to 20% of ideal weight, corresponding to 4.6 points of BMI for a woman with an initial body mass index of 23 points.

* The preconception nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy affect perinatal outcomes. However in most studies is strongest association with anthropometry preconception that with the increase, forcing greater concern intergestational period. The main events associated with low birth weight or gestational weight gain are:

* 2.2.1. Problems associated with the low weight of the pregnant


* Severe malnutrition is associated with growth failure and amenorrhea hypothalamic function changes affecting the production of gonadotropin and prolactin increase, compromising ovulation.

The birth weight categories of “poor” (2500-3000 g) and the so-called “poor” (2001-3000 g) are those which accounts for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). It is expected for education and food interventions during pregnancy achieve major changes in other categories, such as low weight and very low birthweight (<2500 g and <1500 g), except in situations of great nutritional deprivation. The latter was recently observed in the study conducted in Gambia by Prentice et al. The relative risk of IUGR is 70% higher in pregnant women of low weight relative to normal-weight pregnant. A greater degree of maternal nutritional deficit greater the risk of intrauterine malnutrition. Birth weight less than 3000 g also impact negatively on growth and development early in life with greater risk of malnutrition and infant mortality. Finally increases the risk of some chronic diseases of adult degenerative no nutritional basis and fetal origins of adult disease today is substantive evidence.

Poverty, teen pregnancy in precarious social conditions, physical abuse, low educational level, digestive symptoms (nausea, severe vomiting), restrictive diets and eating behavior disorders are the main factors associated with insufficient gestational weight gain .

* 2.2.2. Intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight, severe maternal malnutrition or poor weight gain also produced a significant increase in mortality in utero during the first weeks postpartum.

* 2.2.3. Perinatal mortality increasing number of antecedents that confirm the different risks in the reproductive process associated with maternal obesity. The main ones are described below.

* 2.2.4. Problems associated with obesity in the pregnant woman is estimated that obesity alone or as part of the polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for infertility and anovulation (no ovulation) in women. A low weight, even in women with polycystic ovary (problem caused by the malfunction of hormones), in many cases induce ovulation and improve fertility, which is explained by a decrease in androgen levels.

* 2.2.5. Infertility. This problem affects 3-5% of all pregnancies and determines greater perinatal morbidity and mortality. Gestational diabetes is associated with a BMI (Body Mass Index) over 25 and also independently with excessive weight gain in the early stage of adulthood (over 5 kg between 18 and 25 years of age).

Preeclampsia and hypertension. The risk of hypertension and preeclampsia increases by 2-3 times up BMI over 25, especially in women with a BMI of 30 or more.

* 2.2.6. Gestational Diabetes. The risk of instrumental delivery increases in direct relation to birth weight from 4000 grams and in particular the 4500. Fetal macrosomia may be due to maternal obesity may be primary or secondary to gestational diabetes-induced obesity. In both cases the fetal macrosomia is secondary to hyperinsulinism determined by maternal hyperglycemia. The prevalence of caesarean section in women with a BMI over 30 increases by 60%, after controlling for the effect of other variables. The high birth weight is also associated with labor and prolonged labor, birth trauma and asphyxia. Recent studies show an increase in hospital days of obese mothers and obstetric spending five times.

* 2.2.7. Instrumental delivery (cesarean section or forceps). Obesity increases the risk of major congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. Epidemiological studies that have controlled for the effect of other risk factors indicate a relative risk 40% to about 60% higher with a BMI over 25. Case-control studies support these findings and suggest a risk of the same magnitude. It has been suggested that obese women require a larger quantity of folic acid.

* 2.2.8. Congenital malformations. Newborns have a risk of death 50% higher if the mother has a BMI over 25 and 2 to 4 times higher if higher than 30.

* 2.2.9. Perinatal mortality. Obesity in women increases by several times the risk of type 2 diabetes. In later ages also significantly increases the risk of ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, gallstones and gallbladder cancer among other diseases.

* 2.2.10. Risk of chronic noncommunicable diseases. The gestational weight gain is not the only variable that determines the outcome of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. However, it has the advantage that can be modulated through antenatal care. Weight gain should be defined specifically for each pregnant woman, primarily considering prepregnancy weight and nutritional status at the first prenatal visit. It is also important to consider maternal height (high gain greater height), age (higher gain in teenage mothers) and history of diseases or previous pregnancies. The 1990 recommendations of the Institute of Medicine of the U.S. express the values of weight increase in absolute terms, making it difficult to establish the proportionality to maternal height, as described below:

BMI before pregnancy or during the first trimester of pregnancy over 20. Pregnant women with low prepregnancy BMI should be referred for a complete dietary and nutritional assessment and monitoring of periodic weight gain at each prenatal visit. The risk of low birth weight can be reduced with an overall weight gain between 12.5 and 18.0 kg, equivalent to approximately 0.5 kg per week. The causes of low BMI should be identified early in pregnancy. Although nearly 20 BMI may reflect a normal condition, it is imperative to look for other causes that can benefit from an intervention.

Prepregnancy BMI between 20 and 24. A healthy weight woman has the lowest risk of obtaining a underweight RN or macrosomic. Women with pregestational weights in this range should gain between 11.5 and 16.0 kg in total, or about 0.4 kg per week, during the second and third quarter.

Prepregnancy BMI between 25 and 29. More often exhibit gestational diabetes, hypertension and fetal macrosomia, particularly if weight gain is high. Pregnant women with a BMI over 25 should be referred to nutritional and dietary assessment. The recommended weight gain of between 7.0 and 11.5 Kg in total or approximately 0.3 kg per week during the second and third trimester.

Prepregnancy BMI greater than 30. Women with a BMI over 30 should gain about 6-7 Kg (0.2 Kg / week) and should not be subjected to treatments to reduce weight because it increases the risk of intrauterine mortality.

* 02/02/11 weight gain as prepregnancy weight in the U.S. A balanced diet, according to the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines to cover all nutritional requirements, except for iron. Folic acid requirements are also difficult to cover with the usual diet, but would require the use of supplements to the extent that they meet the standards of fortification of bread flour. In middle-income sectors of education may be enough to bring food diet to the demands of this period. It would not be necessary in this case the use of supplements routinely. May instead be a useful measure in low income or when the diet is unvaried.

* 2.2.12. Fundamental Foods During pregnancy there is an increase of the needs of almost all nutrients that a woman of the same age, in a variable proportion ranging between 0 and 50%. There are several sources of information on the subject, which are not always consistent, creating confusion in the health team. The latest are the Institute of Medicine of the U.S., recently published (DRI 2001). (Table 1).


* Table 1. Recommended nutrient intake according to the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences and Food and Nutrition Program, U.S. (DRI 2001).

* 2.2.13. Nutrients and food supplements

* Nutrients Critical

Energy. The extra power requirement for a pregnant woman with normal nutritional status was seen about 300 kcal per day. Recent studies show that often decreases during pregnancy physical activity and energy expenditure by this factor. While there are adjustment mechanisms which determine a better utilization of the energy consumed. An expert committee in 1996 proposed an increase of only 110 Kcal the first trimester of pregnancy and 150-200 kcal during the last quarter, in women with normal nutritional status. The additional increase is then equivalent to less than half a loaf, much of the pregnancy. In women emaciated energy needs increase by 230 kcal in the second quarter and by 500 kcal for the third quarter.

Proteins. The additional requirement of protein is estimated at 10 grams per day, an amount that can be met with additional two cups of milk. According to dietary patterns represent proteins not critical and in general nutrient are properly covered in the feed.

Fats. Should provide no more than 30% of total calories. It is important to include essential fatty acids family “omega-6” present in vegetable oils (corn, grape seed) and family “omega-3” found mainly in soy oils, and foods such as fish , almonds and walnuts. These fatty acids are essential for the proper functioning of the uteroplacental system, the developing nervous system and retina of the fetus during pregnancy and child during breastfeeding.

Iron. Iron needs during pregnancy are duplicated and is virtually impossible to cover with dietary measures. This leads to the need to use supplements routinely, although the degree of actual compliance with this measure is low, so you should seek mechanisms to improve treatment adherence. The main sources of iron are meat, legumes, seeds, some vegetables, bread and fortified cereals. Purita Milk fortified with iron and zinc which currently distributes the National Complementary Food Program is insufficient to meet the needs of these minerals.

Calcium. Calcium needs in pregnancy are estimated at 1,000 mg per day. During the third quarter was a significant transfer of maternal calcium to the fetus, which if not obtained from the diet is mobilized from maternal bone tissue, which may have a negative effect later in the life of the woman. There is some evidence that calcium deficiency determines increased risk of hypertension and premature delivery. The use of fortified foods and / or supplements is an alternative to improve intake. The main sources of calcium are dairy products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt).

Zinc. It also features a low intake in pregnant women and its deficit has been associated with low birth weight and preterm birth. The main sources of zinc are seafood, meat, dairy, eggs, whole grains and fish.

Vitamin A. It is one of the few nutrients that requirement does not increase compared to adult women of childbearing age. There is evidence that high daily doses of vitamin A (above 10,000 IU) consumed the two weeks prior to pregnancy or in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect. Special care should be taken with retinoic acid preparations or derivatives thereof for cutaneous use since these have a power from 100 to 1000 times higher than retinol.

Folic Acid. Recent proposals have increased the recommended daily intake in women of childbearing age to 400 mg / day (more than double the previous figure) and 600 mg / day in pregnant women. The association between the nutrient and the defects of neural tube closure was extensively analyzed. Its use in high doses (4.0 mg / day) is especially important in women with a prior history of children with NTD (Neural Tube Defect) from 6 to 8 weeks before conception until the first trimester of pregnancy. The most common defects of the neural tube are spina bifida (a malformation of the spinal cord and spinal cord that is that they do not close completely), anencephaly (severe underdevelopment of the brain) and encephalocele (when brain tissue comes out of the skin through a hole in the skull). All these defects occur during the first 28 days of pregnancy, often before a woman knows she is pregnant.

Therefore it is very important not only women who are planning a pregnancy ingest adequate amounts of folic acid, but all those who are of childbearing age. Only 50% of pregnancies are unplanned. Therefore, any woman who could become pregnant should get enough folic acid.

It is very important ingesting adequate amounts of folic acid one month before conception and until at least the first three months of pregnancy to reduce the risk of the development of a fetus with neural tube defects. The fortification of bread with folic acid from the year 2000 is expected to help reduce the prevalence of this disease and possibly other malformations. The main sources of folic acid are liver, legumes, peanuts, spinach, raw beets and avocado.

A significant number of women have during pregnancy some special eating behaviors, nausea, vomiting, gastritis, heartburn, constipation and / or lower extremity cramps. Often these ailments can be treated with dietary modifications and / or adjustments to their lifestyles. However severe cases require specific pharmacological treatments and eventually hospitalization.

The “cravings” for certain foods, are frequently observed in pregnant women. This does not reflect any specific nutrient deficiency in the diet, as has been suggested. No arguments so that they are not “pleased”, as they do not affect the diet or replace other major food. Also frequent are “dislikes” or “rejection” by certain foods (alcohol, coffee, meat, etc.), Which are not necessarily harmful.

Pica is a disorder in aberrant appetite for products such as dirt or clay (geophagia), starch (amilofagia), chalk, ice, paper, toothpaste, or other material that is not normal food. Parallel consumption of this substance modifies the absorption of nutrients, so it is necessary to assess the nutritional status of pregnant and carry food education and if necessary, supplementation. It has been associated with micronutrient deficiencies (iron and zinc among others), but has not been adequately demonstrated. It can also occur in women with a mental disorder that affects eating behavior. Pica can determine malnutrition by displacing essential nutrients alimentacin.La prevalence of pica during pregnancy is generally underestimated and may affect a high percentage of pregnant women.

Many of these behaviors may be due to customs and traditions that pass from mother to daughter. Aim for the sink not replace foods high in essential nutrients.

Nausea and vomiting. The 50-80% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. This condition is strongly linked to hormonal changes and is not well-known causes.

Most of the time these disorders do not condition a disease as such but of concern and anxiety for the patient and their family environment and therefore require an approach rather educational and reassuring. States more severe (hyperemesis gravidarum) present risks of dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic and weight loss.

* 2.3.1. Pregnancies in special situations.

Adolescents constitute a risk group and usually require nutritional intervention in early stages of the smaller the period post menarche is nutritional risk because they have not completed their growth and nutrient and energy needs are greater. Teen pregnancy is associated with low birth weight as they retain some of the nutrients for their own needs at the expense of the fetus. The intake of iron, zinc, calcium, folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin A, usually under the recommendations. Adjustments should be made in the diet of adolescents favoring foods with high nutrient density foods that replace youth consumption as snacks. Nutrition should be monitored and used iron supplements if the diet does not provide the required amount or reserves are low. Dairy products and foods that provide calcium must be recommended especially because of the growth of the mother during pregnancy can occur. It should be considered that also requires a sufficient amount of calcium to the formation of the skeleton of the fetus. Be recommended a balanced diet based on foods with high nutrient density, regular schedules and snacks based on dairy products, fruits and vegetables to complete the daily requirement for pregnant teenagers. Proper nutritional management of pregnant teenager may protect against problems such as prematurity, cesarean section, low birth weight, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy. Because body image is important for teenagers to be recommended adequate weight gain, avoiding pregnancy obese finish.

* 2.3. Pregnant women (and non-nutritive substances consumed) This observation was made with pregnant cities of Asuncion and Villa Hayes respectively in the period of a week taking into account the three main meals and between meals (mid-morning and afternoon snack). Taking as the unit of analysis from eight pregnant eighteen to thirty-three years with different gestation periods.

Being a non-experimental research, but observatoria, descriptive because food was observed and then described by the researchers and finally because we used qualitative data collection endowed with qualities. And the observation is convenience sampling because we were watching pregnant people were coming as friends, neighbors, or neighborhood.


X1 daily diet

X2 essential nutrients

X3 gestation period

First Quarter

Second Quarter

Third Quarter

X4 Age

18-22 years

23-27 years

28-33 years

X5 status






X6 number of children


1-3 children

X7 medical consultations



Not always

* 2.4. Methodological Issues

* 2.4. Results

As a result of observations made in depth, we can conclude that:

2.4.1. Nutrition in pregnant women could notice that we observe rigidly followed the recommended diet, but not for the problem of fat or not wanting to lose the body you have, but for the priority is your child and even more so when it is the first.

2.4.2. We compared the intake of nutrients required by nutritionists for our pregnant observed value agrees with the same required by the latest study at the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Program in the U.S. But sometimes there can be a decay amounts of some supplements by deficiency of soil each country having what might require a little or less of certain nutrients.

2.4.3. The interesting thing is that 80% of pregnant women consume an excessive amount of meat which can cause a lot of fat when the fetus can cause either adult cardiac problems and obesity., And the amount of vitamins ingested by pregnant women is accessible.

We noted during the observation of pregnant 80% following a routine care with specialized nutritionist at dinner time consuming but not very heavy things covering the necessary amount of nutrients needed, but the other 20% of pregnant food consumed heavy and not very appropriate for the times, but also covered the same need of necessary nutrients that following a careful nutritionists. Such as pregnant women each ate a salad for dinner with a serving of beef liver while pregnant nutritionist had consumed a cheese sandwich with lettuce, lean ham, tomato, and a piece of white meat. Also in doctors observed that most revisions made during the gestation period.

We came to a conclusion that more pregnant by having or not having conditions go to a nutritionist, she knows how to take care of itself, what should or should not eat. Always maintain proper care of her pregnancy.

Because of this we obtained results at different observation instruments applied (08 observations, with which 06 went to a nutritionist) with very similar results show that qualitative are the qualities of food and medical consultations each pregnant while that in the descriptive results seem very different because their feeding routines varied.

Another result obtained was that in our society today, the / nutritionists are seen as / as favorably.

In addition, another result of the comments, favorable to nutrition, was that this is a profession that can help in several areas of the life of an individual, for the well being of your health.

Another striking factor is based on trust towards / nutritionist. Most pregnant observed agree to consider / as a professional nutritionist should be central between doctor visits.

3. Final Discussion

Before beginning this section, it must be mentioned that the instruments used in this research / observation, require a little time to objectively analyze each pregnant / pregnant.

As had limitations in the development of the work was the time factor, as this research is a practical work of a specific career field, and is therefore reduced possible dedication of each student to the research process because his time is shared between university, work obligations, personal and family. With that, there were some convenient.

In accordance with the objectives and results of our research, and favorably to the hypothesis presented, it was concluded that the observed pregnant according to your diet consistent with the nutritional parameter Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences and Nutrition Program and Nutrition in the U.S.

With this observation we get the answer to our research is: If pregnant really fed according to the required amounts of nutrients and supplements required by nutritionists

And really if fed properly regardless of their social class or level, what matters is whether the health of the baby and the mother are in perfect condition.

Nutrition is a young profession in Paraguay. This research despite the difficulties and limitations encountered, seems to show that there are indications of a favorable towards nutrition, but much remains to be done in terms of knowledge transfer and a more narrow, between professionals and people of Nutrition Assumption, and why not, the whole country.

4. Suggestions

* Avoid excessive alcohol intake in early pregnancy is associated with the birth of children with birth defects (fetal alcohol syndrome / SAF), intrauterine growth retardation, eye and joint abnormalities and mental retardation. Also described a higher rate of spontaneous abortions, placental abruption and prematurity. Alcohol intake later in pregnancy is associated with alterations of fetal growth and development but does not induce malformations.

* Also avoid caffeine because it crosses the placenta and can affect heart rate and respiration of the fetus. It is recommended that pregnant and nursing women consume no more caffeine than is contained in two cups of coffee. You should also limit consumption of tea and soft drinks that contain it. Problems with chemical and microbiological contamination affecting the mother, the embryo and fetus. Special concern should be in relation to exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury), arsenic, chlorinated byproducts generated body from water disinfection, pesticides that contaminate food and water and some microbiological agents, as toxoplasma and listeria that may be present in food.

* Going to the doctor every month to keep proper control in pregnancy.

* Eat properly and sufficiently because it helps increase blood volume necessary to meet the demands of pregnancy.

* It is recommended that you eat five to six times a day in small portions, avoid foods that are fatty or spicy foods, instead eat foods rich in fiber such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables.

* Good nutrition reduces the risk of pregnancy complications such


Infections, anemia and toxemia in the mother, premature birth;

The low birth weight, birth of a dead fetus, brain damage, and

Mental retardation in the baby.

* GIROLAMI, Daniel H. Fundamentals of nutritional assessment and body composition. Ateneo Editorial, April 2004, p.419-425

Picaso, Repullo-Human Nutrition Dietetics. Edition 2001 – p.170-172

LOPEZ, Maria Laura and Marta Beatriz Suarez, Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation. May 2003 – p.333-353.

KRAUSE, Marie Mendelson, Nutrition during pregnancy. Publisher McGraw Hill, March 2005 – p.181-212.

* 5. References

6. Annex

A. Data Collection Instrument

B. Sheets

C. Daily record for observed

D. Registration observation

We dedicate this work to God first, secondly our parents, because they are always here in the good times and bad, we educate, advise us, taught us values and ultimately lead correctly, especially Fanny Hugo devotes , to be with her, supporting her and especially fortifying.

Pregnant thank you for taking your patience and understanding. The teacher also by inculcating knowledge.