The behavior of the cultivation of chickpea (Cicer aretinum) for the first time since the triumph of the Revolution grown in Pinar del Rio.
For this evaluation we used the national variety L-29, a yellow Quartzic Ferralitic leachate, located at the Experimental Station of INIFAT in Pinar del Rio.
The results were very encouraging for the development of this crop in this area of the country because of its ease of cultivation, the low incidence of pests and diseases introduced and their performance in the order of 1.9 t / ha, which is high performance.
Costs in the order of $ 404.25 per hectare and a gain of $ 2 395.75 in MN and
$ 2 097.60 in USD.
It recommends the introduction of other national varieties for evaluation and generalization of this crop in the country.
Were Evaluated the crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum) That the first time after the Revolution in Pinar del Rio province.
For this test the national Variety WAS Used L-29 in Lixiviated Yellow ironization quartzitic soil, stand in the Research Station of INIFAT in Pinar del Rio.
The results Obtained Were Positively Evaluated for development this crop in this region, Eichmann Because Adaptability Conditions for this, Few pest or disease damage “for high yield and in order to 1.9 t / ha.
Are the low costs $ 404.25 per hectare and Benefit of $ 2 395.75 national money and $ 2 097.60 USD. Other recommended the introduction the national Varieties for generalization in this Cuban region.
Exactly between the 9500 and 9000 a.n.e. appears the first manifestation of agriculture on the planet, with the pea plants in the group of the first farmers began to grow, (Del Moral et al, 1994)
For a while, interest in the chickpea decreased for several reasons, but in the early nineties, we see again a rising trend in consumption.
This coincides with the discovery of the importance of chickpeas on human health, whereas chickpea glutanos beta interferes with the absorption of cholesterol, help diabetics regulate their glucose levels and prevent the formation of diverticula, among others.
Chickpea, is second in importance as the world grain legume, as evidenced by the higher protein and biological value among the vegetables for human consumption.
The highest production of chickpea in India are obtained with a yield of 700 kg / ha. Countries with higher yields are Australia and Mexico with 1000 kg / ha.
Cuba has grown this crop with very good results, being proven the feasibility of its cultivation in the country. With the introduction of this crop in the country claim:
* Contributing to the biodiversity of the areas devoted to food production for human consumption.
* Improve soil fertility with the inclusion of legumes in the rotation.
* Reduce the importation of seed culinary and vegetable waste to livestock interests.
Materials and methods
The evaluation was conducted in a yellow quartzite Ferralitic leachate, whose characteristics are reflected in Table 1.
The trial was established on November 27, 1996 and the climatic conditions in which this culture developed in Table 2.
Was planted at a distance of 0.45 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants, at a depth of 7 cm. At the time of planting fertilizer was applied fully formulated. Irrigation was maintained throughout the crop cycle, according to the requirements thereof, with a standard part of 250 m3 / ha. Before the end of field crops were two manuals to keep the field free of undesirable plants.
Harvesting is done when the foliage of the plants exhibited a yellow-gold. Plants were cut and placed in rows to dry completely, turning regularly for 3 or 4 days. Threshing is done manually.
Assessments made the crop were:
* Phenological Phases
* Weight of 1000 seeds
* Diameter of grain
* Length of pods
* Costs of the crop.Results
For the first time this species of plant seed on the farm and the results are very encouraging for introduction throughout the country.
* Germination occurred after 3 days of sowing seeds.
* Flowering began at 32 days after germination the plants.
* The pods appeared at 82 days after germination.
* The harvest took place at 100 days.
These parameters match the reviewed literature (Mateo, 1961)
During the growing season showed no pests or diseases.
Yield (kg / ha.)
A yield of 1.9 t / ha, which is considered high if we consider that the average yields are in the order of 1.2 t / ha and the potential for above 2 t / ha. (Inst. Tech for growing chickpeas, 1996) These results suggest that it met the requirements of the crop in terms of optimum planting time (15 – 30 Nov.), irrigation management was efficient , though not a very demanding crop this, the seeds were good and there were no excess moisture that could cause fungal diseases.
In this grain-producing countries like India are reported yields of 700 kg / ha and in others as Mexico and Australia, over 1000 kg / ha (del Moral, et al, 1994).
Cuban varieties selected in the INIFAT for study, presented yields ranging between 0.9 and 2.5 t / ha.
Table 3 shows the behavior of yield components evaluated.
1000 grain weight (g)
This parameter ranged between 428.6 and 432.5 g, for an average of 0.4 g / grain. In this regard Mateo, 1961, reported that varieties native to the Mediterranean region weights of 1000 grains with values between 280 and 470 g, while those originating from South Asia, show this parameter in the order of 94 to 128 g.
Grain diameter (mm):
The diameter ranged between 10 and 14 mm, which places this variety among the small grain. In varieties native to the Mediterranean region, the diameter of the grains ranges between 8.4 and 12 mm, while those originating from Southeast Asia, with values ranging between 6.4 and 7.8 mm (Matthew, 1961)
Pod length (cm):
The pod length ranged between 2.2 and 2.5 cm. Mateo (1961), reports for the varieties native to the Mediterranean values between 2.2 and 2.7 cm, while for Asian varieties with values ranging between 1.7 and 1.8 cm.
The length of the pods on the Cuban varieties ranged between 2.0 and 2.5 cm.
In general, the cultivation costs were low, it’s not a demanding plant irrigation, plant protection and had no problems during your cycle. Table 4 shows that the cost per kg. chickpea produced was $ 1.44 with a gain of $ 2 395.75 / ha in MN and
$ 2 097.60 USD, with a total cost of $ 404.25.
After obtaining the above results we make the following conclusions:
* The chickpea is a crop of low cost and acceptable performance in these conditions studied.
* It is demanding to irrigation.
* No shows susceptibility to pests or diseases that abound in this time of year.
* It is a legume that is very sought after in the power of man and animals.
* Contribute to the improvement of the soil by nitrogen-fixing capacity.
For all the benefits offered by this crop recommend:
1 .- Play chickpea seed L-29 gained national and generalize this cultivar in the province in these soil conditions.
2 .- To introduce new varieties of the crop and evaluate them in other soil and climatic conditions.
* Del Moral, et al, (1994), chickpea cultivation, Sheet Disclosing, No 12, Spain.
* De Miguel Gordillo, E. (1991) The chickpea, an alternative to dry “, Ed Mundi
* Newspapers, Spain.
* Duke, J.A. (1981) Handbook of Legumes of World Economic importance. Plenum Press,
* INIFAT (1996) Technical Instructions for the cultivation of chickpea in Cuba, La Habana,
* Matthew, J.M. (1961) Grain Legumes, Ed Revolucionaria, La Habana, Cuba.
* Saxena, MC, Varma (1983) Faba Beans, Kabuli. Lentils and chickpeas in the 1980 s,