* Humanistic theories of personality.
* Personality Traits.
* The five major categories of personality
* Theories of personality and consistency.
* Personality Assessment.
People often speak of personality as if it were a product, like a brightly colored tie to give her life to an old chop. Not only that, sometimes speak as if personality traits consisted attractive and admirable: Effect, charm, honesty. But we see that personality is much more complex than indicated by the ordinary use of the term, and includes many positive and negative traits.
It is easy to talk about issues or personality traits without defining the term itself. And we do it often: I do not trust that man. It is not honest, or we can say: I love Anne has a good heart. But it is difficult to develop a broad definition of what is personality. A current concept that we use is: Pattern of feelings and thoughts related to the behavior that persists over time and situations. The above definition is quite long, but it warns that two important things, first: That personality refers to those aspects that distinguish one individual from another, and in this sense the personality characteristic of a person. The second aspect is: That personality persists over time and situations.
Students of psychology ah always tried to understand the different personalities. But it was not until a century ago scientists began systematic scientific observations and draw conclusions from them.
Some theorists emphasize the experiences of early childhood, others in the estate, and others attribute the role the environment.
Some analyzes only as people behave in different situations and consistent times and they downplay the concept of a unique personality and consents.
But we must realize that personality is unique to each individual, and is what characterizes us as separate and distinct entities.
The personality is but the pattern of thoughts, feelings and behavior of a person present and persists throughout life, through different situations.
Until today, Sigmund Freud, is the most influential theorist of personality, this opened a new direction for studying human behavior.
According to Freud, the foundation of human behavior has been looking at several unconscious instincts, also called Pulse, and saw two of them, the instincts and the unconscious instincts ratios., Also called, instincts of life and death instincts.
The instincts of life and death are part of what he called it, or ID. And the self, or ego.
The instincts of life:
In Freudian theory of personality, all the instincts involved in the survival of the individual and the species, including hunger, self-preservation and sex.
The death instincts:
In Freudian theory, is the group of instincts that produces aggression, destruction and death.
Is a series of unconscious impulses and desires constantly seeking expression.
The self, or ego:
It’s part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (it), it is now often used as synonymous with the ego.
Humanistic theories of personality.
We saw as Freud thought that personality was the result of the resolution of the conscious and the unconscious of the people besides development crises. Many of his followers changed their theories, one of them was, Alfred Adler, who appreciated a very different perspective of human nature from which Freud had.
Adler, wrote about the forces that help foster positive growth and encourage personal development. That’s why sometimes regarded as the first theoretical Adler humanistic personality.
The humanistic theory of personality emphasizes the fact that humans are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning.
He says that human existence is something more to fight for internal conflicts and existential crises.
Any personality theory that emphasizes the basic goodness of people and their struggle to attain higher levels of knowing and working group falls within the humanistic theory of personality.
Another theory is that the tendency to self-realization, according to Rogers, the urge of human beings to realize their self concepts or images that has formed of itself is important and promotes the development of personality.
Also, said the impetus for any agency to perform its biological potential and become what can be intrinsically. (Theory of realization).
They’re just persistent and internal provisions that make the individual think, feel and act, characteristically.
The trait theorists reject the idea of the existence of a few very defined personality types. They point out that people differ in several characteristics or traits, such as dependency, anxiety, aggressiveness and sociability. All these features but possess a greater or lesser degree than others.
Of course it is impossible to directly observe traits, sociability can not see the same way we see the long hair of a person, but if that person constantly attends festivals and different activities, we can conclude that the person has the trait of sociability .
The features can be described in cardinal, central and secondary.
They are relatively rare, are so general that all acts affecting a person. An example might be a person so selfish that virtually all his gestures reveal.
They are more common, but not always, are often observable behavior. Example, an aggressive person maybe not manifest this trait in all situations.
These are attributes that are a vital part of the person involved but in certain situations. An example might be, a person bother submissive and lose your temper.
The five major categories of personality
Talkative, bold, active, lively, energetic, positive, spontaneous, warm, energetic, enthusiastic, adventurous, communicative, honest, bold, loud, dominant, sociable.
Warm, friendly, cooperative, loose, flexible, fair, courteous, trusting, forgiving, helpful, friendly, affectionate, gentle, kind, compassionate, considerate, agreeable.
Organized, dependable, conscientious, responsible, hardworking, efficient, glider, capable, deliberate, careful, precise, practical, conscientious, serious, thrifty, reliable.
Undaunted, not envious, relaxed, aim, quiet, calm, serene, kind, stable, happy, secure, undisturbed, undemanding, steady, placid, peaceful.
Culture and intelligence:
Intelligent, perceptive, curious, imaginative, analytical, thoughtful, artistic, insightful, wise, witty, refined, creative, sophisticated, knowledgeable, intellectual, clever, versatile, original, deep worship.
Theories of personality and consistency.
All personality theories generally state that the behavior is consistent across time and situations. In this view, an aggressive person tends to be aggressive in a wide range of situations and continue to be aggressive from one day to another, or from one year to another. This aggressive behavior is constantly test the existence of an underlying personality trait of aggression, or a tendency toward it.
But some theorists, wonder if humans actually maintains a persistent and conscious behavior.
Intervenes in the acquisition inheritance of personality
Each time a body of research indicates that most if. Comparative studies of identical twins, who share the same genetic material, indicating that look much more than fraternal twins in personality characteristics as emotionality, sociability, and impulsivity. Therefore scientifically determined that genetically influenced inheritance acquiring a particular personality.
In some respects, measure personality, is very similar to the assessment of intelligence, in either case attempts to quantify something we can not see or touch, and in both cases, a good test is to be reliable and valid at a time.
In assessing the personality, not the best behavior we want, what we find is the typical behavior of the subject, ie, as they behave in ordinary situations.
In the intricate task of measuring personality psychologists rely on four basic tools: personal interviews, direct observation of behavior, objective tests and projective tests.
Every time a psychologist faces the difficult task of measuring an individual’s personality, take a challenge and that personality is something that they can not see or touch, but they know that is present in every person, and try to see as is the personality of a particular individual is not easy for them.
They must use all the skills necessary for them, and implement the techniques described above.
In the past research, we find the different concepts of personality, we realized how a human being can have different type of personality, this is what makes us different from others and it is that we are unique.
Also saw the different ways of measuring personality through different methods such as: The projective and objective test and interview and observation.
We found the various theories regarding the personality that exist are, the theory of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler’s theory, who even as a disciple of Sigmund Freud, conducted its own investigation and dissented against Freud’s theory, applying his own.
Advanced Psychological Studies, Raul Skirmish, contemporary issues, Madrid Spain, 1992.
Study skills on personality, Avila’s Marcos Cabral, Poster Editions, Lima Peru, 1970.
Research psychology its modern concepts, Jalon Corominas, Presentation at the equestrian center confluense University of Madrid, May 2003.
Supported by the students:
Dr. Manuel Corominas
Kelvin Antonio Diaz