Praise and worship – An exegetical study of Psalm 100

Home » News and Society » Praise and worship – An exegetical study of Psalm 100
News and Society, Religion No Comments

* The text chosen

* Textual Notes

* Literary Analysis

* Gender and social scenario

* Point of View

* Grammatical analysis

* Study of keywords

* Historical Context

* Relationship between the Psalter and Ancient Near East

* Text Theology

* Bibliography


Praise and worship has always occupied an important place of worship in our churches. We can not say we are “worshiping in spirit and in truth” unless they clearly understand that this meets the objective in our relationship with God.

For this reason, we must first go back to the past. More or less at the time of praise and worship were really part of living of a nation “Israel”.

It is precisely through this study, where we understand How was the praise of the people of Israel What were the reasons why they did What was the use of Psalm 100 in the praise of God

It is the purpose of this job, answer the questions above. With the sole purpose of being able to understand more closely the type of worship that we give to our creator.


The wording used


`# R, a’h’-lK ‘hw” hyl; W [yrIh’ hdAtl. Ramz> mi 1

`Hn” n “r> Bi wyn” p’l. Wabo hx’m. Fib. Hw “hy>-ta, WDB. [I 2

Aty [ir> m;! Acow> AM [; Wnx.n: a] al {w> Wnf ‘[‘-AWH ~ yhil {a / AWH hw” hy>-Yki W [D> 3

Amv. WKR] B Al-WdAh hL’hit. Wyt’rocex Bi] hdAtB. w and r ‘[‘ v. Wabo 4

Atn” Wma / rdow “rDo-d [, w> ADs.x; ~ lA [l. hA’hy> LO-Yki 5

Jerusalem Bible

1. Psalm for Thanksgiving.

Praise the Lord, all the earth;

2. Serve the Lord with gladness,

draw near to the shouts of joy!

3. Know that the Lord is God

we have done and the weeds are,

his people and his flock of His pasture.

4. Enter his gates with


into his courts with praise,

thankful unto him, and bless his name!

5. For Yahweh is good,

His love forever;

from age to age their loyalty.

New International Version

1. Shout for joy to the LORD,

inhabitants of the whole earth;

2. Worship the Lord with gladness.

Introduce yourself to the in song

of joy.

3. Recognize that LORD is God;

he made us, and we are his.

We are his people, sheep of his pasture.

4. Enter his gates with thanksgiving;

come into his courts with praise,

give thanks to him and praise his name.

5. For the Lord is good and his

love is eternal;

His faithfulness endures forever.

The New American

1. Shout for joy to the LORD,

all land.

2. Serve the LORD with gladness:

come before Him with joyful songs.

3. Know that he, the Lord, is God

He made us, and not we


people are the sheep of his pasture.

4. Enter his gates with


and into His courts with praise.

Thankful unto him, and bless his name.

5. For the LORD is good;

His mercy endures forever

and his faithfulness to all


Pilgrim’s Bible

1. Cheers to the Lord, all the earth,

2. Serve the Lord with gladness

Come to his cheering presence

3. Know that the Lord is God,

He made us and not we ourselves,

His people and the sheep of his fold.

4. Enter his gates with thanksgiving,

His courts with praise,

Give thanks to Him, bless His name;

5. “The Lord is good, His mercy is

eternal loyalty from age to age. ”

Personal Translation

1. Psalm of praise. Shout! the Lord all the earth.

2. Serve! the Lord with gladness. Come! his presence

with cheer.

3. Know! May the Lord God, he made us and not we,

we are his people, the sheep of his pasture.

4. Come! His gates with thanksgiving and his courts with praise.

Recognize! Bendiced! name.

5. Because the Lord is good, for his mercy eternity

and from generation to generation, their fidelity.

Textual Observations

In Psalm 100, we find a case of textual corruption. Verse 3 of the BHS suggests a literal translation as follows:

“Know! That the Lord God, he made us and not we, are his people and the sheep of his pasture.” The problem of textual corruption, is found in the {w> conjunction more negative particle, which is correctly translated “not”.

The critical apparatus of this verse, we mentioned that in many medieval manuscripts of the Hebrew Old Testament (MSS), the Greek translation of the Old Testament of Aquila (V) and reading various Hebrew manuscripts of the Cairo Geniza as in Qer ( Q) is not that way. But as Wnx.n: a] wl {w> which is translated, “and we are theirs.”

Apparently, this translation has much choice in the current versions of Spanish language. Since many of the above mentioned versions so translated. H. Kraus says that another reason why this translation is used, is because it fits in the context of the psalm. Unlike the other, that “it would be strange and difficult to correct reading, considering what follows.”

On the other hand, in the Septuagint (LXX), the Sumerian, Syriac and Ketiv Masoretic Text (TM) appears as Wnx.n: a] to {w> “and not us.”

Therefore it is important to mention that the Masoretic tradition has fifteen passages that {is written, but read as {wl. Apparently-l {was forgotten by the scribes, giving reason to be written later as negative.

This is the reason why modern translations vary according to the judgment of the translators. Everyone can use it more to your liking you think or believe is more consistent with the text.

Conclusion: These are the reasons why you will always find this variant in the different versions used. The author of this exegesis prefer to use the translation of TM “and not”.

On the other hand, to review and compare the versions cited in this paper, some observations can be found:

1. Almost all versions is not taken into account within the hemistich of verse 1 “psalm of praise or thanksgiving,” the Jerusalem Bible being the only one who does.

2. She herself makes a correct translation of imperative verbs that exist in the Hebrew text. While the other does not occur in this way.

3. In the New International Version found that verse 4 has an addition that is not in the original manuscript (“praise”).

4. Thus giving the reason for preferring a personal translation adheres more to the Hebrew text (ver. p. 4).


Literary Analysis


The issue is an invitation by the Psalmist, to acknowledge God as our “Creator, Redeemer and King.” The same is carried out before the presence of the people.

Literary Structure

The literary structure of the book of Psalms is unique in the Hebrew Bible, the Psalter being “the only poetry anthology in the scriptures.”

The author of exegesis, has the same structure as the psalm suggests. As for belonging to the genre of the songs have a call to worship, a body and a conclusion or theme, the same as esquematizaran below.

A. Call to Worship:

1. Psalm of praise.

Shout! the Lord all the earth.

2. Serve! the Lord with gladness.

Come! before him with cheer.

B. Body or subject:

3. Know! May the Lord God, he made us and not we,

we are his people, the sheep of his pasture.

A. ‘ Call to Worship:

4. Come! His gates with thanksgiving and his courts with praise.

Recognize! Bless! name.

B. ‘ Body or subject:

5. Because the Lord is good, for his mercy eternity

and from generation to generation, their fidelity.

As can be seen, there is a parallel between hemistiquios synthetic paragraph A, B and A ‘, B’. VanGemeren mentions that there is “a naturally split into two parts: v.1-3 and v.4-5. Every one of which consists of a call to give thanks to God and a reason for thanksgiving.”

A. Called to give thanks (v. 1-2)

B. Conclusion of the Convention (v.3)

A. Called to give thanks (v. 4)

B. signing the agreement (v.5)

Apparently, not mentioned very clearly the conclusion of the psalm. However, one could assume that also in verse 5. (Cf. Ps 105:43).

Among the symbols that exist in Hebrew poetry, the metaphor is one of the most common. Finding in verse 3 of them: Know! May the Lord God, he made us and not we, are his people and the sheep of his pasture. Implying, the care and the type of relationship God has with the people of Israel.

Call 100: 1-2

1. Psalm of praise. Shout! the Lord all the earth.

2. Serve! Lord with gladness. Come! his presence

with cheer.

These verses present a call to worship from the psalmist made for Cheering! Serve! and login! in the presence of God, recognizing that is unique and creative. Extending this way, the whole earth (cf. Ps 98: 1, 2, 4).

Body or subject 100:3

3. Know! the Lord God, he made us;

not we, the people, the sheep of his pasture.

Here is the reason why God should be praised. The verb W [D> which comes from the root [dy means “to know, know.” Presents the attitude of the people before God. R. Davidson says that is the recognition and confession that favors in this act.

Called 100:4

4. Come! His gates with thanksgiving and his courts with praise.

Recognize! Bendiced! name.

This time, the call is made only to this community. It is in front of the temple doors. Thus finding a parallel between the first imperative verbs called and the second.

vv. 1-2 “1 ……. Shout! Jehovah … 2. Serve! ….. Come to Jehovah! Before him ……” v. 4 “Come! Through its doors …. Recognize! Bless! His name ….”.

Body or subject 100:5

5. Because good is the Lord, your mercy eternity

and forever from generation to generation, their fidelity.

This is the second reason why the name should be praised God. As found in synthetic parallelism with verse 3, complements even the reason for the praise. In the opinion of the author, here is also the conclusion of the hymn.

Gender and social scenario

Within the Psalter, we can find different types of genres. Herman Gunkel observe five basic literary forms within the Psalter:

1. Lamentations individual requests (Ps. 3:5-7, 13, 17, 22, 25-28, 31, 35, 36, 38-40, 43, 51, 54-57, 59, 61, 69-71, 86 , 88, 102, 108, 109, 120-130, 139-143).

2. Common Lamentations (Ps. 12, 44, 58, 60, 74, 79, 80, 83, 85, 90, 126).

3. Songs of thanksgiving (Ps. 23, 30, 32, 34, 40: 2-11, 66, 92, 107, 116, 138, 139, 146).

4. Or hymns of praise (Ps. 8, 19, 29, 33, 104, 105, 113, 114, 117, 135, 136, 145-150).

5. Royal psalms (Ps. 2, 20, 21, 45, 72, 89, 101, 110, 144).

As mentioned earlier, Psalm 100 belongs to the genre of the songs, this is the reason why it will look more closely at this genre.

“The general characteristic of the Psalter is the hymn.” Often considered by many writers as the “doxology” of other psalms. Within the Hebrew hymn can be found in three broad elements:

a) A call to worship, in which a leader encourages the congregation to praise the Lord.

b) A description of the works or attributes of God, which is usually part of the body of the hymn and gives the reason for his praise. These are expressed through: participles Hebrews, who discovered God’s activity, and the “why” to introduce the reasons for praise.

c) A conclusion that invokes a renewed praise and obedience.

Hymns are a very important group, which can distinguish different subtypes:

1. The subtype better documented in the Bible is the imperative hymn, which begins with an imperative verb plural, inviting the faithful to worship and celebrate the Lord. “The Psalms are about 200 times, repeating the beginning of the other sections and end of the poem.” Its origin could be Egyptian distant and oldest Bible shows seems to be the song of Miriam (Ex. 15, 21). (Ps. 47, 81, 96, 98, 100, 105, 107, 134, 136, 148, 150, Isa. 42: 10.13).

2. The second subtype, which uses participles. Which was very knowledgeable in Mesopotamia and Egypt. (Psalm 65:7, 68:7, 103:3-6, 104: 2-5, 145: 14-16, 20, 146: 6-9).

3. Individual Hymns (Psalm 8: 2, 77:12, 89:2, 104:35).

The hymns were used and developed in the basic life situations (Sitz im Leben): the victorious battles, thanks for the harvest, alleviation of drought and plague, the commemoration of the Exodus, festivals and occasions: seasonal festivals, marriage, management and dedication. From there we can release some smaller categories:

a) The songs of victory (Ps. 68).

b) Processional Hymns (Psalms 14, 24, 64: 25-28, 84, 87, 132).

c) Songs of Zion (Sal.46, 48, 76).

d) Psalms of enthronement King Lord (Psalm 47, 93, 96-99).

Conclusion: Psalm 100 belongs to the genre of the hymns. Found within the imperatives hymns subtype, which is built on seven verbs: Shout (v.1), serve (v.2a), come (V.2b), know (v.3), come (v.4a) , recognize (v.4b), bless (4b). Dividing irregularly, at the beginning and end, the triple mention of Jehovah v.1, v. 2, v. 5.

Where the psalmist extends a call to the congregation to praise God. According to Robert G. H and William D. R, was used in temple and served as a doxology of Psalms 93, 95-99 where he praises the Lord as King. Its structure is related to the Psalms 95-99. James L. M. says: “It is an introductory hymn of 2 ways: liturgical and theological”


In this Psalm we can quickly identify God as the center of worship. It paints a truly impressive. It shows a group of people heading to the temple. With the sole purpose of proclaiming that he is our creator, pastor, true and eternal God (praise and thanksgiving).

As Psalm 100 is a hymn, would become a community singing and liturgical excellence. Sung by an open community that invites all men to partake of God’s praise. “Possibly originally was sung responsively. When the procession reached the gates of the temple, the Levitical choir sing verses 1-3a, whose call the people respond to the following two phrases of v. 3b. Resuming his choir Singing with v.4 and possibly conclude all together singing the liturgical phrase v.5 and widespread “Apparently the” temple was the center of religious and national life. entire life revolved around the temple that was the room of God . God lived in this sacred place, and there had his throne. antropofrmica Taking an idea of God, they believed that the ear of God was there to listen when their praises rang in the sanctuary, and said that God’s heart rejoiced to listen. Worship services usually began with a processional hymn at the foot of Mount Moriah, on which the temple was built. While the worshipers climbed the hill, the choir burst forth to sing ”

The salmo100 is very short. Possibly only a fragment of a longer psalm, which served as an opening hymn.

Its use was perhaps not only in public worship, but for family and individual use



Psalm 100 is comprised of ten sentences:

hdAtl. Ramz> mi 1

Praise Psalm

`# R, a’h’-lK ‘hw” hyl; W [yrIh’ 2

Lord all the earth Shout!

hx’m. fib. hw “hy>-ta, WDB. [i 3

joy with the Lord Serve!

`Hn” n “r> Bi wyn” p’l. WAB 4

scream with joy of his presence to Enter!

Wnx.n: a] al {w> Wnf ‘[‘-AWH ~ yhil {a / AWH hw “hy>-Yki W [D> 5

not us and we did it, the Lord God to Know!

Aty [ir> m;! Acow> AM [; 6

his sheep meadow and its people are

hL’hit. wyt’rocex Bi] hdAtB. w and r ‘[‘ v. Wabo 7

hymns with their courts by, praises with their doors by! Come!

Amv. WKR] B Al-WdAh 8

his name! Bless! ! Recognize!

ADs.x; ~ lA [l. hA’hy> LO-Yki 9

eternity for his mercy, the Lord is good because

Atn” Wma / rdow “rDo-d [, w> 10

. Their loyalty, and from generation to generation

Of which can be read:

1. Between the second, third and fourth sentence, you can see that the emphasis is on the person of the Lord. Here we want to highlight the Lord as the main character of the praise.

2. The fifth and sixth sentence, wishes to emphasize the omnipotence of God and the kind of relationship that this has with Israel.

3. The seventh and eighth sentence, wants to emphasize the same as the second, third and fourth. Only that this time presenting local environment.

4. These last two, want to complement the occasion of praise of the fifth and sixth sentence.

Study of keywords

Inside this exegesis believe that keywords would be:

hdAt, “praise”

Basic definition:

It is a singular feminine noun, from the verb hd: y: Hiphil, which means: praise, thanksgiving, thanksgiving song, choir, confession and thanksgiving offering.


Its root is the verb hd: y: is related to the Aramaic and Arabic.

Uses in the Old Testament

1. The noun hdAt appears 32 times in the whole OT (12x in Psalms).

2. According to Jenni, the noun hd :/ T 13 texts presented in the special sense of “sacrifice of praise” and 8 passages the meaning of “song of praise”. In Psalm 100:1, 4 hd :/ T is presented in “sacrifice of praise” or mostly known as “Thanksgiving”, which has the same relationship Lv. 7: 12-15, 22: 29. Psalm Psalms 107:22, 116:17 show this context.

3. The thanksgiving offering was accompanied by an individual song of thanksgiving that was both a testament to the congregation (Ps. 107:22, 116:17, Jon 2:9 [10]).

4. In the Old Testament, the verb hd: y: Hiphil, mainly refers to recognition. This occurs mainly in the Psalms, together with the prayers of thanksgiving 1Chron Cf. Dan 29:13 and 2:23.

5. In the case of Psalm 100 hd :/ T is a title that indicates an introductory hymn for the service of thanksgiving. Cf Jer. 33: 11. .

6. Hunkel mentions that the song of thanksgiving was in contact with the offering of thanksgiving. “Where the Psalm 100 is a poem sung by presenting the offering of thanksgiving and having the form of a hymn.”

A / B, “enter”

Definition: A verb, whose translation appears as “in, come.”

Etymology corresponds with most Semitic languages. Although with slightly different meanings. In Akkadian means “come” while the Ugaritic has the same meaning as the Hebrew.

Uses in the Old Testament:

1. It is one of the most common Hebrew verbs in the Bible. “Ranked fourth among the most frequent verbs OT and first among verbs of motion” with an occurrence of:

-1.997 Qal times. (70x in Psalms).

Hiphil -549 times. (8x in Psalm).

-24 Times hophal (1x in Sal).

Grabbing a total of 2, 570 times throughout the AT

2. When referring to “enter” usually follows the subject (Gen. 15:12-17, 28: 11; Ex. 17: 12, 22:25; Lv. 22:7, Deuteronomy 16:6, 23:12 , 24: 13,15; Jos. 8: 29, 10:27; Thu. 19:14 etc). He also finds much to do when a man cohabits with a woman (Gen. 6:4, 16: 2.4, 19. 31, 29: 21, 23, 30: 30: 3, 4.16; Deut. 21: 13; 22: 13, 25: 5; Thu. 16: 1, 2 Sam.3: 7; Psalm 51: 2; Prov. 6:29). When A / B uses the prepositional phrase “for days”, it is to connote the elderly (Gen 24:1; Jos.13: 1; 23:1-2, 1 Kings. 1:1).

3. “A / B is also applied very often to go from man to God. This is specific as to go to the sanctuary, ie also the priest of God and man (priest).” “It goes to the temple of YHWH and enters to worship him, but mostly to offer sacrifice”




The Hebrew name for the entire collection of Psalms was “the book of praises” (sefer Tehillim) or just “praise” (Tehillim). In the Greek manuscripts (LXX), the book is known as “psalterion” (a collection of songs). On the other hand, follows the Septuagint Vulgate: “liber Psalmorun” and precisely we derive the term in Spanish.

Authorship and date of composition

The book of the Psalms (Psalter) is a literary inspired by several authors. In the titles of the Psalms are mentioned, either as authors or musicians compilers: Moses (Psalm 90), David (73veces), Solomon (Ps. 72, 127), and the unions and priests associated with David: the Sons of Korah (Ps. 42-49, 84-87), Asaph (Ps. 50, 73-83), Heman (Ps. 88), and Ethan (Ps. 89). “The entire collection in its original form was probably compiled by Ezra, Nehemiah and some of the scribes immediately following.” Holf Paul says so too.

Archer date these psalms as follows: Moses (Ps. 90) 1405 AC, AC 1020-975 Davidic Psalms, Asaph, strictly the same period, Solomon (127) 950 AC, Korah and previous ezratas into exile. And others a late date that goes back to Exile (Psalm 126, 137 and the last).

The nature of psalms 100 and their traditional language does not help much. However, the present form of the psalm and its position in the Psalter probably represents the post-exilic period. His original composition may have been much earlier, or it may be part of a psalm longer an earlier date (as is perhaps Ps. 93), or may be a free composition derived from traditional language and made for some purpose liturgical the

post-exilic period. Possibly the tabernacle for the holidays.

Division of the Psalter

The Psalter was divided into five books. “Perhaps in keeping with the books of the Torah.” The LXX contains 150 Psalms, while the Talmud (Sabbath 16) 147.

1. Book I: 1-41

2. Book II: 42-72

3. Book III: 73-89

4. Book IV: 90-106

5. Book V: 107-150.

Psalm 100 is in Book IV, within the Psalms or hymns of praise (8, 19, 29, 33, 46-48, 76, 84, 87, 93, 96-100, 103-106, 113, 114 , 117, 122, 135, 136, 145-150). Where “the emphasis is on the worship of the people of God in thanksgiving and praise in a way adapted to use in the temple.”

Relationship between the Psalter and Ancient Near East

“Among the most remarkable archaeological finds in recent years, which have contributed to a better understanding of the psalms come from Ras Samra, in northern Syria, Ugarit place called in ancient times. During excavations started in 1929 at this location , has unearthed hundreds of clay tablets that used cuneiform. This scripture unknown until the time of its discovery, has been deciphered thanks, mostly, to the skilled efforts of prof. Hans Bauer and P. Dhorme. ”

“The greatest contribution that he has made Ugaritic Psalms is in terms of vocabulary and phraseology. Many formerly obscure passages that had lost the meaning of words and could only suponrselo are now clear and meaningful thanks a Ugaritic equivalents study. ”

Furthermore, in Egyptian literature can enter a possible link to the songs of thanksgiving and some categories of Hebrew songs. While in Ugaritic poetry, rich in myths and poor psalmodic lyric and did not find any analogy with the Psalms.

However, having been developed in a geographically and culturally close to the Hebrew, can be very useful to explain allusions and mystical figures, used by the psalms as pure rhetorical elements. In addition, the language and idioms in the Bible quite a few similarities.

In Mesopotamian literature, Sumerian, Akkadian, found a varied artistic production. It can be said that all genres are represented, including those of religious poetry are what interest us.

We found it very interesting and important conclusions made by Jorge Castilian concerning this subject. This is the reason why we included in this investigation.

1) You can not really speak of a direct influence of this literature on Hebrew.

2) The Mesopotamian literature is permeated with magic intimately, concepts and practices absent in the psalms, which divides the two literatures on what would be most important to your composition.

3) Also for his views strictly religious, biblical monotheism is far from polytheism and Akkadian naturalism, so essential in the two literatures conceptions differ completely.

4) However, it is an important point: the language, style, rhetoric etc.. are the reasons why Mesopotamian literature deserves study. Because surely penetrates the Semitic mind.



In the theology of the Psalms, we find that one of the most punctual that develops in the Psalter, is praise.

However, the creation of Israel as God’s people, is a major issue throughout the Hebrew poetry. It is manifested by the mercy of God.


Paul Beauchamp says: “Praise is a particularly beautiful expression of happiness. Whoever does not understand the praise, do not understand the Bible at all. It is impossible to love God without praise, praise God impossible without loving him.”

Indeed, praise to God is a truly wonderful topic within the life of the people of Israel. The AT gives clear evidence that the Israelites were very clear this issue. You can not imagine the people God without the manifestation of this event in his life.

G. Klingbeil mentions “the music was used as a mnemonic (as referred to in Deuteronomy 31:19, where the story of the Exodus was to be taught to the Israelites through the composition of a song) as a means of worship in the temple (1 Chr 6: 31.) “The Hebrew psalms sung repeatedly to tax in mind the teachings and doctrine of the God of their country. It was considered a vital part divine art, a work dedicated men appointed and consecrated. ”

Therefore, praise is deeply rooted in the recognition of the sovereignty and mercy of God. Precisely this is the invitation we have from the Psalmist.

God’s creation as a people

Interestingly, the verb hf [meaning “make, create” which is used to express the creative action of God in Psalm 100 does not denote this. But is presented as the “creation of the people Israel” in connection with the exodus often. Examples of this usage is found in Gen. 12: 2; Ex. 32: 10, Num 14: 12; Deut. 9:14; 32:6,15; Isa. 43:7, 44:2, Eze. 37:19, Psalms 95:6.

“The existence of Israel as the people of Jehovah is due solely to free act, creator of the election. Consequently, the choice was an event creator remains. The beginning and the foundation of Israel rests solely on the initiative and activities of Jehovah. Israel repeated this constantly in the divine service. Just as you see the people of God himself. ”

“When the psalms speak of Israel as a people is always to recognize the incomparable uniqueness of God’s people. Because Israel was” God’s people “by word and work of Yahweh”

Mercy of God

In Psalm 100, “God’s mercy is expressed by the term dsx which appears 127 times in the Psalter as a designation of the perfection of Yahweh (245 times in the entire Old Testament). Dsx translates as: empathy, kindness Thanks, clemency. Undoubtedly, the issue of “mercy of Yahweh” reaches its peak, in the Old Testament, the Psalms. ”

“The demonstration of God’s mercy, and is directed primarily manifest to Israel (Ps. 98:3; 118: 2, 136: 1). But the king (Ps. 18, 51, 21, 8)” ” When it occurs in the hdAt (Ps. 100:1,4) is cause for great joy. ”

“The mercy of the Lord is dsx liberating, saving, conferred on Israel and the poor in Israel, helper and healer.’s Seen as an action that changes the fate, redemptive action, which always arises new perfection of mercy and grace Yahweh “.


Archer, L. Gleason. Critical Review of An Introduction to the Old Testament

Grand Rapids, MI: Evangelical Spokesman Publications, 1981.

Bratcher, Robert G. and William D. Reyburn. A Handbook on Psalms (New York:

United Bible Societies, 1991

Beauchamp, Paul. Psalms night and day. Madrid: Ediciones Christianity, 1981.

Jerusalem Bible. Bilbao: The Descle S.A Brouwer, 1984.

Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice. Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible. Barcelona:

Editorial Herder, 1993.

Botterwck, J. and H. Ringgren. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament

Volume I. Madrid: Ediciones Christianity, 1973.

O. Correa P, German. Prophets and Psalmists. Bogota: Universidad Santo Toms,


Dillard, Tremper Longman III B.y Raymond. An Introduction to the Old Testament

Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1994.

Jenni, E. and C. Westermann, eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Manual

Testament, Volume I. Madrid: Ediciones Christianity, 1978.

Klingbeil, Gerald. “A theology of sacred music.” Theologka Vol 12, No. 2

(1997): 193-194.

Gaebelein, Frank E., ed. The Exposito’s Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids:

Zondervan Publishing House, 1991.

Davidson, Robert. The vitality of worship, a commentary on the book of Psalms.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1998.

Kraus, Hans-Joachim. Theology of the Psalms. Salamanca: Ediciones Follow me,


Kraus, Hans-Joachim. The Psalms II. Salamanca, Spain: Ediciones Follow me,


Holf, Paul. Poetic Books. Florida: Zondervan, 1998.

Horn, H. Siegfried. Dictionary Seventh-day Adventist Bible Buenos

Aires: Sudamericana Association Publishing House, 1995.

J. Day, Psalms. Englad: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992.

K. Elliger and W. Rudolph, Eds., Stuttgartensia Hebrew Bible. Stuttgart:

Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1984.

The New American. Aneheim, California: Foundation Publications, Inc.,


The Holy Bible. New International Version. Miami: Bible Society

International, 1999.

Lasor, W. S., D. A. Hubbard and F. W. Bush. Panorama of the Old Testament.

Post, shape and background of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids:

Evangelical Spokesman Publications, 1987.

Martinez, M. Jos. Selected psalms. Introduction to the Psalter and anthology.

Barcelona: Editorial Clie, 1992.

Mays, James Luther. Psalms, Interpretation and Bible commentary for teachig

preaching. Louisville, Kentucky: John Knox Press, 1994.

Nichol, D. Francis Edition, SDA Bible Commentary, vol 3. California:

Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1984.

Nunes, Lia. “Brief Avalio Contemporanea da Msica Sacra” Theological Review

Vol 5 No 1 (2001): 39.

Purkiser, W. T. Exploring the Old Testament. Kansas City: Publishing House

Publications, 1981.

Rinaldi, John, ed. The legacy of centuries. Barcelona: Ediciones Eler, 1958.

Schkel, Luis Alonso. Pilgrim Bible. Bilbao: Messenger Ediciones, SA,


Shkel, Luis Alonso. Psalms II (Psalms 73-150) translation, introduction and

comment. Spain: Editorial Verbo Divino, 1993.

Tate, E. Marvin. “Psalms 51-100” Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas:

Word Book, Publisher, 1990

The Zondervan Corporation, New International Dictionary of Old Testament

Theology and Exegesis. version 2.6 (Zondervan Reference Software, 1981 –


Young, J. Eward. A translation of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: TELL,