Process Analysis and Design

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* Computer systems analysis

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Computer systems analysis

Is a set or arrangement of procedures or programs so that together form a single unit. A set of facts, principles and rules classified and arranged in an orderly fashion showing a logical plan at the junction of the parties. A method, plan or classification procedure to do something. It is also a set or arrangement of elements for a predefined target in information processing. This is carried out taking into account certain principles:

* Must be presented and understood the information dominance of a problem.

* Define the functions to be performed by the Software.

* Represent the behavior of software as a result of external events.

* Divide in hierarchical models that represent the information, functions and behavior.

The process should start from the essential information to the detail of the implementation.

Analysis function may be to support business activities, or develop a product that can be sold for profit. To achieve this goal, a computer-based system makes use of six (6) elements:

* Software, which are computer programs, data structures and documentation giving effect to the logistics control methodology or program requirements.

* Hardware, electronic and electromechanical devices that provide computing power and features fast, accurate and effective (computers, sensors, machinery, pumps, readers, etc..), Which provides an external function within the systems.

* Staff are operators or direct users of the system tools.

* Data Base, a large collection of information organized and linked to the system to be accessed through the Software.

* Documentation, manuals, forms, and other descriptive information that describes or gives instructions on the use and operation of the program.

* Procedures or steps that define the specific use of each of the elements or components of the system and rules of operation and maintenance.

System Analysis is carried out taking into account the following objectives in mind:

* Identify the client’s needs.

* Assess client that concepts have the system to establish its viability.

* Perform technical and economic analysis.

* Assign functions to hardware, software, personal, database, and other elements of the system.

* Set the budget constraints and schedule.

* Create a system definition that forms the foundation of all engineering work.

In technical analysis, the analyst evaluates the technical principles of the system and also includes information about the performance, reliability, maintenance and productivity features.

To achieve these goals requires having a great knowledge and mastery of Hardware and Software, and Human Engineering (Management and Personnel Administration), and database management.

The EIS also been known by other names: IPSE (Integrated Project Support Environment), ISEE (Integrated Software Engineering Environment), Coalition of CASE tools, CASE tools, federal, or ISF (Integrated Software Factory).

The term EIS can be applied to systems of widely varying scope, from a range of a few tools running on the same system to a fully integrated environment able to manage and control all data, processes and activities of the life cycle of a software product. Thanks to the automation of activities (partial or total), an EIS can provide significant benefits to an organization: lower costs (higher productivity), improved management and higher quality end product. For example, automation of repetitive tasks – such as the execution of test cases not only improves productivity but also helps ensure the “completeness” and consistency of testing activities.

Typically, an EIS manages information related to:

a) The software development or maintenance (specifications, design data, source code, test data, project plans. b) The resources of the project (costs, computer resources, personnel, responsibilities and obligations. c) organizational aspects ( organizational policies, standards and methodologies used.An EIS supports human activities through a range of services that describes the capabilities of the environment. The services provide a correspondence between a selected set of processes relating to software life cycle, and using automation tools.

In an EIS, the process management services that contribute to effective support PS Geared providing the end user to define and use processes that can replace the invocation unruly, difficult to control, and tedious to individual tools. Garg and Jazayeri have considered that the support processes in an EIS is based on the following features:

* Define processes. Software engineers use the EIS to define a process with a view to its use in one or more projects.

* Process analysis. Within the EIS, a process model can be analyzed to verify its consistency, completeness and correctness.

* Presentation of processes. The EIS includes support for graphical display of the PS (flows of activities) and products (structured diagrams.) Process simulation. The EIS supports the use of simulations to assess the suitability of a resource consuming process before its actual realization.

* Process Automation. Once a process has been defined, the activities that do not require human intervention can be identified and automated by the EIS.

* Monitoring processes. The EIS oversees the execution of a process and records the history of the activities undertaken. This history of the process can then be used for future development of new processes or improving existing.

* Support process changes. The EIS allows an organization to change its process definitions without interrupting work.

* Open. The EIS provides tools for exchanging data and metadata with no tools or integrated with other EIS.

* Multiuser support. Usually the software engineering projects are carried out by groups of people with different roles, therefore, the EIS should serve all people working together in a process. Process Management. Software engineers use the EIS to carry out different stages of a process. The EIS should provide help in choosing the next steps on the model of the process and current status.

* UI-specific tasks. Based on the model of the process, the EIS can adapt the user interface to the needs of each task and to avoid an overload of information presented to the user.

System Design

System Design defines the process of applying certain techniques and principles in order to define a device, a process or system in sufficient detail to allow interpretation and physical implementation.

The System Design stage contains four steps:

* The design of the data: It transforms the domain model of information created during the analysis, data structures needed to implement the Software.

* Architectural Design: Define the relationship between each of the structural elements of the program.

* Interface Design: Describe how the software communicates with itself, with systems that operate with him and with operators and users who use it.

* The design of procedures: Transform structural elements of the program architecture. The importance of software design can be defined in one word Quality in design is where it promotes the quality of the project. Design is the only way to realize the exact customer requirements.

The design software is a modeling process and time. The design process is a set of repetitive steps that allow the designer to describe all aspects of system building. Throughout the design assesses the quality of project development with a set of technical reviews:

* The design must implement all the explicit requirements contained in the analysis model and must accumulate all the implicit requirements desired by the customer.

* Must be a guide that can read and understand those who build the code and those who try and maintain the software.

* The design must provide a complete idea of what the software, focusing on data domains, functional and behavior from the point of view of implementation.

To assess the quality of a design submission, we must establish technical criteria for good design as:

* A design must present a hierarchical organization that makes clever use of control among software components.

* The design must be modular, ie, it should be a logical partition of software elements to perform specific functions and subfunctions.

* A design must include data and procedural abstractions.

* Must produce modules that exhibit independent functioning.

* It should lead to interfaces that reduce the complexity of the connections between the modules and the external environment.

* You must produce a design using a method that could be repeated according to information obtained during software requirements analysis.

These criteria are not achieved by chance. The software design process requires good quality through the application of fundamental principles of Design, systematic methodology and a thorough review.

When you are designing a computer system to keep in mind that the design process includes design and planning something in mind and make a design or sketch.

Output design: In this case refers to output results and information generated by the system, for most users the output is the only reason for the development of a database system and evaluate its utility. But when performing a system, as analysts must do the following:

* Determine what information to present. Decide whether the information will be presented in a visual, verbal or printer and select the output medium.

* Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format.

* Decide how to distribute the output among the possible recipients.

Design Files: Includes decisions regarding the nature and content of the file itself, as if it were to be used to store details of transactions, historical data or reference information. Among the decisions taken during the design file, include the following:

* The data to be included in the format of records in the file.

* The length of each record, based on the characteristics of the data it contains.

* The sequence at the disposal of records within the file (storage structure can be sequential, indexed or relative).

Not all systems require the design of all files, since most of them can use the old system and only need to link the new system to the master file where the records.

Design Interactions Database.

Most information systems are already implemented in computing systems large or small, use a database that can span multiple applications, for this reason these systems use or database administrator, in this case the designer does not build database but consult your manager to agree on the use of this in the system.