Home » Language and Literature » Punctuation
Language and Literature No Comments

* Punctuation, Concept

* Function punctuation, how to use them

* Most used punctuation

* Conclusion

* Bibliography


The correct use of punctuation ensures adequate articulation of the meaning units that make up a sentence or a paragraph. So punctuation require a very precise job, if put in the wrong place, the words and phrases stop saying what the author meant. The more signs highlighting the structure of the content (theme, subtheme, idea, detail), be more consistent and accurate text. Here are some more detailing on this topic.


They are tools of Western writing emerged in order to make text more understandable. They are used mainly to indicate pauses.

Writing is a form of communication that involves a linear construction, since it is impossible to write it all at the same time, it is necessary to separate the ideas, prioritize them and put them in order. Punctuation marks indicate breaks mandatory sentence supremacy over another, and help us to interpret and clarify expressions.

The score varies writing style, but style differences that may arise not exempt anyone from complying with certain minimum standards and to avoid errors generally considered unacceptable. Hence the importance of knowing and applying the basic rules of punctuation.

It took at least fifteen centuries to produce the gradual separation of the letters of the text into words and phrases. In the early Middle Ages adopted the habit of forming sentences on separate lines, then appeared the comma and point; subsequently adopted initial capitalization, parentheses, the spacing between paragraphs, reaching diversity of signs have today. This development made possible the appearance score for silent reading to which we are now accustomed.

The history of writing in the West highlights a key fact: the reader is who benefits from the proper use of punctuation. When an author, writing a text, watch the score, does not make for a vain display of erudition but because it has an interest in your readers understand what it says. Misuse of the score indicates, the author told possibly not sure what you mean.

What role do the punctuation marks

Writing is a form of communication that involves a linear construction, since it is impossible to write it all at the same time, it is necessary to separate the ideas, prioritize them and put them in order. In this work, the punctuation marks are used to:

* Structure the text.

* Define the sentences and paragraphs.

* Emphasize main ideas.

* Sort the secondary ideas.

* Remove ambiguities.

A good score ensures adequate articulation of the meaning units that make up a sentence or a paragraph. So punctuation require a very precise job, if put in the wrong place, the words and phrases stop saying what the author meant. The more signs highlighting the structure of the content (theme, sub-theme, idea, detail), the more consistent and accurate is the text. The scoring rules are very broad, each person has a different style of expressing, and has a writing style. Punctuation marks depends on the text we wrote a report if the information should be expressed in a direct way as if a trial is more free because you can give opinion or defend an idea.

How to use punctuation

Some general recommendations worth keeping in mind when posting:

* Refrain from taking the pitch as a reference for scoring. Writing is a silent communication and commonly read texts silently. Not the same type to talk and it is not the same as reading a text that hearing a talk. The score, therefore, obeys the rules of construction of written speech, which are independent of oral communication.

* Please note that literary texts are not always a good model for the use of punctuation. The literary art grants to writers leeway allowed expressive sometimes transgress conventional rules of language. This freedom comes in handy when writing a poem or a story, but it is out of place in academic writing.

* Check the rating of your texts before printing or publishing them. Through UD revision. becomes the first reader of your own writing, it gives you a chance to see if it has been clearly expressed.

* Be polite to your potential reader: do not overwhelm with excessive signs or confuse it with its scarcity. Remember that the essential function of the score is to give the reader a good understanding of the texts.Name the most common punctuation:

The comma (,) marks a brief pause in a sentence. It is used in the following cases:

* To separate items in a list.

Eg: Tomorrow I have to finish organizing things for the trip, tickets, luggage, gifts and check the cars.

* To isolate the vocative.

Eg: “Eating in Mc Donadls, expensive and unhealthy”

* In the paragraphs that interrupt a sentence to clarify or expand what is said, or mention the author or work cited

Ex: My whole family, to living far away, going to the wedding ”

* To separate elements in a sentence grammatically equivalent.

Ex: The Super Bowl XLII was watched by: Americans, Europeans, Chinese, Russians, etc..

* In the headwaters of the letters you write comma between the place and date.

Eg Caracas, February 3, 2008.

The period (.): Mark a pause at the end of a sentence. After a point is always written uppercase. There are three types of points:

* Point and followed: separates statements that make up a paragraph.

Ex: I want to become every one of our vivid memories. With despair and anxiety ready to live them again.

* Full stop: separating different paragraphs with different contents.


I want to be like the wind to come through your window,

and supported in your bed

for your dreams slip,

and that upon waking in the morning, I wish you wrap

and then it was you who would like,

remind me to dream.

I would be, water and air that cools your skin,

your towel, your toothbrush, your tablecloth,

the art of your body, and brush.

You get wet in the morning coffee

and the reason to wake up your desire,

your nights, your days, your clothes, your pajamas.

I would be the night that caresses your hair,

the collar of your throat your ring finger,

the last of your cravings, and the first,

gluttony of your desires and your treasured delicacy,

looks at the mirror to see up close,

and the sound from the air to open up your door.

* Full stop: Used to the end of a text.

* Used after abbreviations.

Eg Mr. Ms. Dr.

* Never point is used in the titles and subtitles of books, articles, chapters, artwork.

Eg: “Anne Rice” “The Vampire Diaries”

The semicolon (;): indicates a pause than the comma and lower to the point. Used:

* To separate the elements of a list when it comes expressions that include commas.

Eg silence oddly enough, is mediocre shield it feels, is expressed, it is thought, because of the impossibility of strangeness.

* Before conjunctions or phrases like but more. Although, however, so therefore, when the periods are certain length.

Eg you left and there was silence, the emptiness, but came back and had filled the void of oblivion.

The colon (:): never leave a space between the two points, two points are used in the following cases.

* In front of an enumeration announced with a verb.

Eg Greater Caracas is composed of the municipalities: Libertador, Sucre, Baruta, Hatillo and Chacao.

* In quotes.

Eg and suddenly all shouted “How could the Patriots lose!

* After the formulas of greeting cards and documents

Example: Dear Daniel:

I hope that in Spain a bit cold this acceptable.

* In legal and administrative texts after the verb (decrees, edicts, certificates, etc.)



That D. Jose Martinez has run its course in English during the months of July and August.

An ellipsis (…) represent a break in the final sentence or imprecise. They are used in the following cases:

* At the end of a list when it has the same value as the word like.

Eg suddenly happened, there were no complaints: Warm air, turned on the moon, my scent and kill off the light …

* To express a moment of doubt.

Eg I do not really here … Maybe that’s why I have no girlfriend. or

* To leave a suspended sentence incomplete.

Eg in your body very quickly destroy my touch and my kisses, love me more I’m asking, no more witnesses speak …

* When omitted part of a quotation.

Example: The first lines of Quixote learned in school: “In a village of La Mancha, whose name I do not remember …”

The question marks (): Define interrogative sentences. In Spanish it is necessary to use the opening mark grammatical marks because we have a replacement. Never leave a space after the question mark before the opening or closing. Never write point behind the question marks. The question mark in parentheses show doubt or irony.

Example: Ms. Amanda is the mom () Of Susana.

Exclamation points (!): Exclamatory statements delimit or interjections. Never leave a space after the exclamation mark before the opening or closing. The exclamation point in parentheses indicates surprise or irony.

Eg Hugh Hefner has three girlfriends (!)

Parentheses () are used in the following cases:

* When stopping sense of a speech with an explanation, especially if it does not have much to do with this.

Eg Richard Patrick (brother of X-files and Terminator Robert Patrick) is his new band Army of Anyone.

* To collate data or precision (date, authors ..)

Ex: I was born in Caracas (Venezuela)

* To prevent the text option

Ex: looking guy (a) for administrative nods.

* In the transcription of texts to indicate the omission of part of the text, put three points in parentheses.

Eg currently uses a cream made of resins and vegetable oils (…) is really effective against pain and called “tiger” but not take anything taken from this animal (…), is prohibited the use of organs of this species for this purpose.

The square brackets ([]): incorporate additional information such as parentheses. They are used in the following cases:

* In a statement going to introduce brackets and accuracy.

Eg: Thomas Edward Patrick Brady, Jr. (August 3, 1977) is a professional football player who plays at quarterback in the New England Patriots of the NFL since 2000. During his childhood he was a great admirer of Joe Montana of the San Francisco 49ers (won with the New England Patriots three Super Bowls [Named MVP in two of them])

* When in a transcribed text editor wants an additional note to the text.

Ex: And Don Quixote with the pain of his, his eyes were open as a hare. [As Hare] A reference to the vulgar belief that hares sleep with your eyes open.

Quotation marks (“”) are used to:

* Play quotations.

Eg the song and said “what is not collected boot”

* To read the thoughts of the characters in the narrative texts

Ex: I was a bit quiet while she told me her things and could only think “my god when anger.”

* To indicate that a word or expression is improper, vulgar language or other special or ironic sense.

Ex: She just wants to be my “friend”

* To cite titles of articles, poems, pictures.

Ex: If you want to read the sadness starts reading “Poetic Anthology” by Jos ngel Buesa.

Dash or hyphen (-) is used in the following cases:

* To enclose explanations that interrupt the speech. Can be replaced by brackets.

Eg sip a bottle of Patron Silver tequila-young-all night.

* In a dialogue when not mentioned the name of the person or character.


* What do you want

* Sorry, we know it

A dash (-) is used:

* To separate (in some cases) the two elements that make up a compound word.

Eg is a theoretical-practical.

* To separate a word at the end of a line if it is not full.

The Umlaut or Cream () is used:

* To mark the pronunciation of the vowel u in the combinations gue, gui.

Eg penguin, shame, etc..

A slash (/) is used in the following cases:

* With value proposition in examples like:

Ex: 120 Km / h.

* Part of the abbreviations.

Ex: c / c (Current Account)

The paragraph sign (): This sign is used to:

* Followed by a number to indicate internal divisions within the chapters.

* In the references and citations of these same divisions.

The asterisk (*) is used to:

* Report a marginal note or footnote in a text. Sometimes these are enclosed in parentheses asterisks (*)

* Report of a word incorrectly.

Ex: I think * that will come tomorrow (correctly: I will come tomorrow).


We conclude, however, that one can see that beyond any accepted rule, punctuation also compose architecture of language and therefore the written thought. Here, just as in poetry for more than a century, there are no precise rules to regulate the proper use of signs in scripture, both narrative and poetic. In terms of principles and parameters, the punctuation would be part of the parameters of language and therefore are placed in a constant process of evolution and are variables that may depend on other factors.