* Theoretical framework
* The material or content
* The teacher as leader of learning
* The teacher as facilitator of learning
* Basic principles of teaching and learning in the critical school
* Analysis of results
* Sources of information
There is a relationship between the way of passing knowledge around traditional school test scores
To analyze whether a relationship exists between the way of passing knowledge around traditional school test scores, compared to the critical school and grades of students in the Bachelor of Laws from the generation 2007 – 2010, regarding of the Civil Law.
* 1. Identify the criteria of the traditional school.
* 2. Know the indicators of critical.
* 3. Investigate qualifications in Civil Law, the group a year ago, in January and February 2008.
* 4. State the qualifications in Civil Law, which currently holds the group in January and February 2009.
* 5. Make a table comparing the results obtained.
In approximately August 2007 two thousand seven, began the Masters in Higher Education. The reality is that the more I started obligation and burden, as something by choice and emotion, yet this and, over time, with each of the modules that we shared, I realized that it is not need to talk and talk and talk, for students to understand me, I have assumed that a good teacher is not the one who keeps talking about the 120 minutes it takes your time, I have confirmed that a good teacher, does not perform a monologue in Chair.
Statements do so because, within the first materials that were taken at the beginning of last year was “Teaching and Systematization of Education” course in which they left us to carry out a research work and eventually , I chose to do, with the central goal
“Determining the cognitive learning style, as the system of representation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) of students second semester of the Bachelor of Law, Campus Morelia, Michoacan.”
With the result that “The group of Second Semester of Civil, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, mostly acquired through knowledge representation system, auditory.”
However, this group belongs to the generation from 2007 to 2010. As in this research work is still my study population.
In that vein, I will say that if it is true that, with the results, I also noticed that there were some kinesthetic, my problem and commitment as a teacher, I escalated, aware that I, in the role that I have the performance responsibility not only to share knowledge, but to make each and every one of the students understand it and understand to be put into practice, which after all is what we look like one and only goal.
After that, what started to turn in my head was how would for all students to be more perceptive, or at least most, I questioned how they would have to make my classes, to do students understand, even the kinesthetic, the contents of my program.
Based on the foregoing, the moral duty of every day be better and, with the aim of the Piarists really learn something in my civil law matters, what I did was to change my way of giving and sharing content of my course .
So, now and after almost a year after the study was conducted in the area of “Curriculum and Teaching Systematization”, since it is delivered at the end of March 2008, after all the knowledge, experience and personal points of view, professors and colleagues, I have changed my way of “being” and “task” in my role as a teacher and now I listen more to my “clients” to realize their needs now in the classroom, I implemented some of the many things I learned in the Masters in Higher Education. The question that remains in the air is.> Really has served as something change
Has improved the situation of students in the Bachelor of Laws from the generation 2007 – 2010, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, on the Civil Law
Be true. “THE GOOD ENTERTAINER, A FEW WORDS
Students of law degree from the generation 2007 – 2010, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, on the Civil Law, a year ago were considered by me, as a group “problem” and therefore, a group that worried me as a teacher, pursuant to its low ratings they got.
Realizing that the group, most were hearing, 100%, with some being shared to be kinesthetic hearing, I had to change my way of sharing knowledge.
Statement that is poured in that sense, because before the Masters in Higher Education, and yet, in the first modules or months of this, my classes were 100%, according to the Traditional or Classical School. However, and the passage of time, I was just realizing that it was best for the students, because we consider their realities, say personal and group. So, I made a change, a sudden as much, because from that moment on, I tried to make my lessons more aimed at the School of Criticism and less traditional.
This, in order that they reach 3 students achieve three objectives of the race, which has to know are: conceptual, procedural and attitudinal. And not only the first, that under the parameters that had my chair, were the only ones made.
But as in the previous paragraph indicated, the Callable of this research is to identify whether the change in the way the teacher teaches and shares the Civil Law in the Bachelor of Law, has a direct impact to students, or , however as usual a year ago.
Therefore, I can say that is worth studying and researching this result, it is who first benefit will be those who have use of the voice that is so, given the fact that I can confirm that the exchange of the way knowledge sharing has been the result or not in generating study.
After all, I have to check or disprobar that: “The good animator, a few words.”
Moreover, this work is also important for the researcher Piarists, given the fact that they are the first concerned with how to teach the class, they are the “clients” of this and as a result, those who with numerical results and practical, establish whether the model of critical teaching is better for them than the traditional, or is indifferent to the process of teaching used.
As a third connected, this educational institution in question, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, since it will have graduated with the ideal profile of any degree in law; it will not only knowledge or theory as such, but understand and assimilate the procedure acquiring basic attitudes of a professional in this area.
For all the above and no less important, however, another benefit to this study is the same company, so by the fact that where you play as graduates in law is in society itself, and what is currently required world are sane professional, ethical, conscious of their being and doing, who can play their role in society and are trained.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATION VS CRITICAL EDUCATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
When school systems had hatched philosophical rather than scientific knowledge about how to learn. So the traditional school gives recipes of what to do without understanding the learning process. These recipes say that learning occurs because of stimulus – response and, when not responding, you have to slow the process or encourage exercise without understanding the internal process.
Today we know much more about learning: an internal process but also a social subject which relies heavily on the interactions. Is a procedure that works in fits and starts during which the subject is developing and internalizing items, constructing hypotheses and testing them. This is a fully active and constructive learning.
On the other hand, in the traditional definition of content is restricted mainly to the conceptual. The new school must teach concepts, but fundamentally, you must teach procedures for learning, to learn to think, learn to act and learn to learn. Hence the need to structure a transformation to move from an educational system based on academic knowledge to a knowledge of research and development, a stimulus-response learning a constructive learning, in a purely conceptual content logic to a logic content that incorporates the procedural and attitudinal.
The classical school is a product of modernity, fighting against the Middle Ages, rescued rational knowledge. Hence, our school is based on knowledge, books, teacher-centered to transmit “prior knowledge.”
In today’s world, with the critical school, the knowledge model is one focused on research and development, a knowledge that is valid from explaining reality and find solutions to problems.
Education today is not what it was. We need a school in which they learn to know, but also learn to make and solve problems. There is more education knowledge, school is just as settling the demands of society by teaching “things.” Today we need an education that competency, which is much more complex and goes beyond mere knowledge.
According to some authors, there are five basic skills that the new school of criticism to develop. These are:
o Communication. Much broader concept than mere literacy.
. Logic. Necessary to address the logical operations – mathematics.
o Resolution of problems. Including both blackboard as practical.
. IT. In the society of the future is equal to the current literacy.
Team work. To learn how to play different roles and leadership in teams.
The big difference this pose with respect to the traditional school is that competition comes not only from the adoption of a package of materials but the application of knowledge in practical circumstances. You need to understand that knowledge to solve problems can not be transmitted mechanically and they are a mix of technological knowledge and previous experience.
The concept of education that exists in a society, depends on the concept of man who each hold.
The traditional concept of man is regarded as a rational animal. Since the term “animal” is generic, shared with other beings, but what distinguishes him and makes him “man” is rational. And what you mean by rational intelligence, mind, intellect, ability to think, to understand. Therefore man is fundamentally. In what has to do with education, mind or intelligence.
The critical concept focuses on man as intelligent organism that operates in a social environment because the environment is nothing but the continuity of living abroad, where it acts wisely.
In the traditional view, if man is essentially smart would say then that society must transmit their cultural heritage that is the set of content that it considers valuable set is reduced to ideas or knowledge, which have been deposited in books which in turn passed to the head teacher and this places them at the head of the student, ie memory.
But for a man conceived as intelligent organism in action with its environment, leads will be different. When the media promotes, allows its act and grow and is an opportunity for intelligence, depending on the situation arising plans of action to take advantage of the benefits and collect full results of the attempt. If the environment creates difficulties, the subject funcionalaza their intelligence to try to overcome them. By solving the learning problem would have occurred. Learn it will be actively resolving vital problems and not simply accumulation of data in memory. Therefore, consistent with education experiences.
When we refer to the type and quality of “school work. In one, the term will be TEACHING AND LEARNING in the other.
In the traditional view it is important to develop skills in the teacher and what he has to give, because what is in the books is much more important than what the student can find or make. While the most important critical concept is what makes the student to develop their skills.
The traditional teaching (in charge of the methods) used as “teaching methods” to the analytic, synthetic, inductive and deductive logic are general methods, ie methods characteristic of all thinking, and not teaching in particular. Because the man was thinking as “logos” as intelligence, reason, thought. Logical methods are those used in any daily activity, ongoing daily life. Of “teaching” have nothing in particular.
In the critical concept, the moments of “thinking” is “thought to act, think so. Teaching methods must rest on a new logic, which explains the structure of the scientific method to delimit or define the problem, find the necessary data, formulating hypotheses or alternative solutions, search for new data for each of the scenarios, forecast the consequences of choosing a particular alternative, testing or testing of alternatives.
In a traditional class, we have a person talking while the others listen. What matters is the transmission of knowledge. We can call it autocratic. The teacher is physically separated from the students with a place reserved for his performance which is what matters most. In this education the most learned, the fastest growing is the educator, as the students do what they should.
In the critical concept is the opposite for having moved the focus of school activity to learners, to make them familiar with the purposes and by giving them responsibilities in implementing them.
In traditional education, the end was only known to the educator. The student had no idea where he was going, or what he was going to teach tomorrow or to teach you what you are teaching today. The order was outside the school activity.
In the critical concept, the end is internal to the school activity inseparable. The student must understand the meaning and purpose of what it does, it means knowing the purpose of their activity. Here there is no rift between end and means.
In the traditional view, was reduced to be a repeat. Not only the student should repeat what was in the books, the teacher too. The duration of the lesson was regulated to forty-five minutes or an hour by the criterion of the resistance of intelligence and memory in data collection.
In the critical view, the lesson time is replaced by work sessions are governed by the multiple time approach, variable depending on the nature of the activity being committed, and what the experience is recommended as suitable.
The material or content
In the traditional conception occurs in isolated areas or independent. This is a logical division. The materials reflect the breakdown by sectors of the reality-style treaties, in a sense considered as subjects or materials. Mental gaps are created between the materials. It was difficult to imagine that what I learned in one subject could be related to each other, and that he actually gave the different fragments or parts.
Time is divided into hours and such time as the subject, bearing in mind that will not be placed very strong materials for the weariness of fatigue intelligence or memory. Consider that a person until you know what you are doing is simply a machine that performs the operation correctly assigned.
With this, we can say that the student learns to distinguish between two areas that are collated, school and life. Here you can make the note placement Alexandrianism Klipatrick applies to traditional education, specifically the famous library of Alexandria: “the library was a repository of all knowledge,” resembles the traditional, pulling out books and pass them heads.
Drawing a parallel, learning and problem solving that vitally affect what one is played in some way while traditional education is to repeat what they have books, there’s the big difference.
The ability to repeat something is no guarantee that you learn for life, the critical concept for its part, seeks to systematize to see if the experiences have been as aptitude, and ability to act as a possibility to solve new problems. Notably, the product of traditional education from the point of view of our current needs is an amputee, for such education, if not preclude the development of capacities at least prevent it.
A traditional class indicates that a good class is one where everyone is silent. If there were a lot of noise and conversation, obviously something wrong Why would walk Students must remain silent to the person who can act axis of school activity, in contrast to a critical class bustle find many who talk at the same time, movement and even other seating. Which would be silent would be the teacher because the students are really working are the groups that are doing their own research, learning, activity, and all have the opportunity to participate to try their own solution, wrong.
From the foregoing, we conclude that it is important that an individual is able to reach a city street because they know by heart the names of all. Experience shows that it is more difficult to settle at a critical concept because it is more challenging and complex. Easier it is for a teacher use the book already has what must be taught and transmitted to the student. On the other hand is not so easy to organize the environment or set of experiences or situations that allow activities to achieve future growth and behavioral dispositions.
From the perspective of a traditional education and believes that critical literacy should be a disquisition of them to choose one or be a mixture of both with the educational purpose of improving the quality of learning, it is not easy to uproot a traditional concession parameters since some teachers are set that way. Nor can we be stingy with it because it also has had favorable results.
The problem is exacerbated we can say that this concession when it has become a hyperbole of sidestepping rote skills such as analysis and synthesis have been developed with certain methodological strategies proposed and advocated the new concept of education.
Actually, this new way of teaching supplements in some way we try to banish it had given to the concept of learning is reflected through the conduct and regard was noted, however today with the contribution of Vigosky, Piaget, Brunner, Aussbel, Montessori, among others, the child’s learning is measured and considered as a process of mental, cognitive, that may show through observable behaviors. He looks inside from the standpoint of psychological and anthropological.
With the rapid changes in the different fields of knowledge plays a teacher to be susceptible to changes that gave modern pedagogy holds that globalization, cybernetics, robotics, and computer science required. The good teacher it is one that is consistent with the transformations, changes of the modern world because they run the risk of early education obsolete incompetent purposes of their products would be behind in the underdevelopment and the inability to forge opportunities descogollo in the evolution of life.
The teacher as leader of learning
A traditional education teacher believes in the following:
* All students must be qualified with notes, stars, and other incentives as a motivation to learn and meet school requirements.
* Each student must be qualified based on standards of learning, the teacher draws for all students equally.
* The curriculum should be organized by subject in a carefully sequenced and detailed.
Teachers who accept the behavioral perspective assumes that the student behavior is a response to their environment past and present and that all behavior is learned. So that any problems with student behavior is seen as the history of such behavior reinforcements received.
As for behavioral learning is a way to change behavior, teachers should provide students with an environment suitable for reinforcing the desired behaviors.
Undesirable behaviors of students in the classroom can be modified using the basic principles of behavior modification, such as:
Reinforcement of desired behaviors, which thus compete with the undesired behavior to replace it completely.
Weakening eliminating unwanted behaviors such reinforcements.
The technique of “saturation” which involves wrapping an individual in the same unwanted behavior, repetitively until the individual feels sick of behavior.
Change the status of the stimulus that produces the undesired behavior, influencing the individual to make another response to that stimulus.
Using punishment to weaken the undesired behavior.
An important application of operant conditioning used in traditional education is the Programmed Learning. In this technique, subjects are divided into small pieces or simple frameworks, in which each part the student is bombarded with a number of questions that the student probably knows the answer and answer correctly, then one at a time is questions are added to the repertoire, giving awards and incentives for correct answers.
The teacher as facilitator of learning
The facilitator must have a different attitude to the traditional teacher.
Due to authenticity, not behind a facade, must go to meet the student in a direct and personal way by establishing a relationship of person to person. Must put into action only attitudes that feels really theirs.
Should be considerate appreciation, acceptance and confidence in the student, his whole person, their feelings etc views. Acceptance of your fears, hesitations, occasional apathy, their personal experiences. The facilitator must have the ability to release natural intrinsic motivation of the learner, which is sometimes flooded.
A third approach is the facilitator of empathic care, ranging from in the reactions of the student, when you have a sensible assessment of how to present the process of learning to the learner.
The facilitator should provide resources of three types: general climate, use of group experiences as a resource for education and learning and teaching materials.
The facilitator does not give you more freedom than that with which he feels genuine and committed
In order to break the isolation to work with encounter groups that encourage meaningful learning environment. These groups tend to emphasize personal development and in increasing and improving communication and relationships, through the process based on experience. In these groups the main task of the coordinator is to enable team members to express what they think and what you feel, which does not preclude engaging in tasks that made up the group.
Basic principles of teaching and learning in the critical school
* Confidence in the potential of being human. As human beings have natural potential for learning, not only learned to do when it encounters obstacles. Trust is such that given the prevalence, importance and call on the student. The educational axis moves from teacher to student. The teacher creates conditions that enable self-directed change, not to worry about how you can teach anything but to create a relationship and a climate in which the student can use for their own development.
* The relevance of the matter is a condition to learn something. Refers to significant knowledge. Besides learning should not be threatening to the organization of the self, because in that case will be dismissed. This significant learning is achieved mostly through practice. Distinguishes between rote learning (meaningless, sterile, lifeless, to be forgotten when the conditions cease doing so required) and experiential learning (which is where the learning is of special significance for those who do). The latter type of learning brings into play the intellectual and emotional factors, it is self-initiated, the task is not uniform for all, not only increase knowledge but refers to the individual’s life. Reviews and ratings lose their value and their prerogatives.
* The participatory learning is more effective than passive. The student participates in formulating their own problems, decide its course of action, they help find learning resources.
* Learning is more lasting and more profound when the entirety of the person, an intelligence agency not only affection or isolated.
* The self must be accompanied by self-assessment and self-criticism. This encourages students to settle more responsible, because the student decides to create the most important criteria, the objectives to be achieved, and when to judge the extent of carrying out a learning achievements of responsibility, increases the experiential learning becomes more satisfactory and the individual feels more free.
* In the modern world most useful social learning is learning the process of learning which means an attitude of openness to experience and incorporate into itself the process of change. Rogers says that “only educated people who have learned how to learn, they have learned to adapt and change … The only valid purpose for education in the modern world is change and confidence in the process and not on knowledge static. ”
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF SCHOOLS AND SOME OF THEIR INDICATORS
Analysis of results
In this section, we will know the individual scores of students in the Bachelor of Laws from the generation 2007 – 2010, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, on the Civil Law, a year ago, during his second term. And in which, the undersigned, used 100% traditional methods to teach the class.
However, in order to maintain the anonymity of the person as such and their qualifications, not handle the names of the students, but that will be given a letter of the alphabet.
Notwithstanding an order to continue, establishing a year ago, when the group was studying the second semester of the race consisted of 14 students, now in the Fifth Quarter, there are 9 students, that is, have dropped 5. The causes of the drop have been varied: personal family level and / or economic, and institutional, in order to search for new options that are less demanding.
Then, the qualifications listed below, exclusively, are students who are still enrolled and pursuing a Bachelor of Law, Campus Morelia, Michoacan.
From the above, it follows the following comparative table:
As is clear from the graph, only 3 of 9 students obtained 10 rating in January 2008, while other 3 were 6, so we are talking about the scores of students, if It is true that they were approving, no less so is that, as many students with high passing, had the minimum approval.
However, it appears from the graph, in February of last year, there were no students with a passing, the number of students with 10 rating, 4, that is, there better grades than the January 2008.
As the graph is broken down in this school year, in January there were 5 of 9 students who scored the highest mark of approval, which is 10, March 9 and only took one sack in August, and consequently, it follows that the group much has improved his grades and would, for obvious school and academic performance has also improved.
However, as is clear from the graph, 6 of 9 students took 10 and the rest, 3, 9 removed, then we can say that the group has improved its performance, which is reflected in better grades.
In this graph, we can clearly see, as the students in question have improved their grades, since 2008, had poor grades 4 and 5 of a good standard, while in the annuity proceeds, 8 are good grades, approving and only 8. This, on the understanding that during the first months of last year, which agrees with the study group, developed the 100% classes under the classical or traditional school. While in the course of 2009, I tried to change the way we share knowledge with students, making it more dynamic, yearning to implement as possible, over the critical school, the traditional.
Unquestionably, when comparing the qualifications of the month, with the same subject and the same group, but with a different way to share the knowledge, skills, as seen by others so clear and unquestionable, have improved by 100 % because there is no 8, 7 nor, much less 6, and grades. We can therefore say that the way the teacher shares knowledge and taught the class, has had an impact on the results of student grades.
We conclude that, having changed their voice, how to share the Civil Law, with students of the generation 2007 – 2010, of Law degree from a traditional, a year ago I did, to critically, as they now try to do, because obviously that will never be achieved in full, they have reacted in excellent shape and have improved their performance as students, it is reflected in higher grades, because not only are approving, but with better numbers, then have gone from 6 to 8, to 9 or 10.
Then, it has benefited the students of the generation 2007 – 2010, Bachelor of Law, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, where the teaching of civil law matters, has changed the way of sharing knowledge, in a classical way traditional or an attempt to do so under the critical school.
Looking for students not only gain knowledge but also attitudes and procedures innate to matter. So, now, they talk less and act more, because I try to be cheerleader in their classes, providing knowledge and coordinate the time, without imposing, but rather, with guidance and conciliatory. So that they are active participants in the acquisition of their own knowledge, investigating, questioning, confronting, thinking, inventing and solving cases.
The objectives were fully achieved.
Poured into the tenor statement, pursuant to the first and second one, identify the criteria for the traditional school, and know the indicators of critical, were developed and made in the “Theoretical Framework”, and more clearly , were defined in the comparative table.
Moreover, the third, fourth and fifth goals:
* Research skills, in Civil Law, the group a year ago, in January and February 2008
* State the qualifications in Civil Law, which currently holds the group in January and February 2009
* Make a table comparing the results obtained
Were achieved in the space called “Lessons Learned”, because there, first intention was transcribed those notes, and then present graphical, visual way that we prove, that the generation to study, my people, has better results in terms of qualifications is concerned, on the Critical School, as opposed to traditional or classical school, as the notes of this year, are more satisfactory than a year ago, when the chair was a 100% traditional.
In that vein, we must conclude that there is a relationship between the way of passing knowledge around traditional school test scores, compared to the critical school and grades of students in the Bachelor of Law Generation 2007 – 2010, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, on the Civil Law.
Without that end is less important to indicate that the hypothesis was found because the justification, I mentioned the fact that at the end of the research work would have to prove or disprobar that: “The good animator, a few words.”
Therefore, I must say that this hypothesis is proven, it is not necessary that the teacher is acting magistrocentrismo in which anyone or anything, have access to it, pursuant to it, focuses on knowledge and all activity the classroom, and who is the mediator between knowledge and learners, but much less a link between it and the students, it encourages it, order and discipline, with the professor, the highest authority.
On the contrary, this research have confirmed that it is good that the teacher’s role is as a facilitator who guides and facilitates knowledge, promoting learning, being conciliatory and coordinator of the various activities that lead students to construct knowledge.
Not that this, we need to talk, talk, talk, but on the contrary, few words to say what will be done and how it will, the students will work, will function to investigate, question, reflect, discover truths, being subject active in their own learning, relationship with his teacher, because their learning is through discovery, that is, more for what they do than for what they are told and therefore necessary and will ensure that learning is meaningful and permanent consequence.
ANTHOLOGY OF TEACHING AND SYSTEMATIC FIELD OF EDUCATION
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MORAN Oviedo, Porfirio
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LEARNING STYLES AND TEACHING
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Epstein, Todd A.
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