Religion, in general, lifestyle or belief based on an essential relationship ..

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* Concept of religion.

* Origin of religion.

* Major religions.

* Secular state and religious state.

* Religion and the Venezuelan Constitution.

* Conclusions

* Bibliography

Introduction

Humanity today suffers a burning thirst and instead of going to the living waters to calm his anxiety, run to extinguish with their own blood and acrimony of the blood increases thirst.

Every man seeks happiness for the sake of your own happiness, sacrificing the brother, the son and wife and consummated the sacrifice once see that happiness vanished like smoke.

Then invents religions, schools and political parties in the belief that union is strength, but these same religions, schools and parties become bitter enemies of man, because they are based on selfishness and unbridled personal love.

This has been the state of humanity today.

Emerged from the masses, some beings who wanted to reform and regenerate the world with the doctrine of love, charted a new path that leads to happiness, but were pursued: some died insane, others poisoned and others crucified.

But the world marches on, in search of happiness and truth.

Concept of religion.

The concept of religion is the “set of beliefs or dogmas about divinity, feelings of veneration and fear of it, moral standards for individual behavior and social and ritual practices, especially prayer and sacrifice to give worship “.

The word “religion” comes from “religare”, meaning “double bind”, ie rule doctrine that man league individually and socially. This could be theological doctrine, and religion will then theology can also be sociological, then religion is sociology. But the everyday left the concept of religion related to the theological.

Religion, in general, lifestyle or belief based on a person’s essential relationship with the universe, or one or more gods. In this sense, systems as diverse as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism and Shinto religions can be considered. However, in an accepted sense of the term a common way religion relates to faith in a world order created by divine will, which is according to the way of salvation of a community and therefore each of individuals who play a role in that community. In this sense, the term applies particularly to systems such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which implies faith in a creed, obedience to a moral code established in sacred Scripture and participation in a cult. In its most specific sense the term refers to the way of life of a monastic order or religious.

It is impossible to find a satisfactory definition of religion or a realistic way to classify the different types of what we call religion because of the significant differences between the various systems function known.

Religions arise in cultures where components have developed a strong sense of differentiation between human mind and the natural environment, subjective consciousness and objective reality, and therefore between spirit and matter.

Origin of religion.

There are several theories about how religion arises, one of which is that it was created by impostors, beings which came up with the idea of controlling the masses through deception, controlling people and directing them to his will. This theory is rejected by many, history shows us that religion has existed simultaneously in distant parts of the planet, also found in every village, and is too improbable that all these places have been impostors to which you that idea had occurred.

Another is showing us religion as a product of the mind. Now, this creation can be something unconscious or conscious. He thinks religion is born of feelings of fear and hope by the events of life-that is, the unconscious-and not as Voltaire, who said that religion was an invention of the priests to exploit humanity. According to this theory, religion, or the concept of God can not be rooted in the philosophy or metaphysics, as at the time of the emergence of these, the man was too great to have a deep thought, therefore must have sprung from the imagination and feelings of humans.

Since the beginning of this century about new schools react against this subjectivism. Despite the great differences that exist in the inspiration of the different schools, which he ties together both the method and the results, is a common concern for bringing history within anthropology. We, therefore, designate the common name of historic schools: German school, from which emerged the first manifestos in favor of the “historical-cultural ‘(Ratzel, Frobenius, Graebner, Ankermann) Austrian school, which was struggling, at the same time, to increase the rigor of the method and scope of the conclusions that can be achieved (Schmidt, Gusinde, Koppers, Schebosta) English school, increasingly “diffusionist” (Maitland, Rivers, Elliot Smith) American School, less inclined to large synthesis and more sensitive to the phenomena of convergence (Boas, Dixon, Goldenweisser, Radin, Lowie).

Taylor, above all by the idea of the soul, made in the spirit of a savage by a naive interpretation of phenomena such as dreams or syncope, only saw the great historical religions transformed animism, encumbered by the same lack originality, Meanwhile, after believing Loisy check the origin of all practices of a purely magical sacrifices, concludes that the “idea of the sacrifice satisfaction, despite the refinement and attenuation in certain cults it has provided by moralize, deep magic only a guarantee. ”

It is believed to expose the origins of religion according to the facts, by a strictly objective method, while unwittingly builds a system. Not only the historical origin and psychological origins of religion are treated at the same time, but both are explained in terms of a philosophy that has been built according to other different ways.

Major religions.

We currently have a number of religions, however, the most important are limited to those that can be counted on one hand: Christianity, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. Being the strongest of all the Catholic religion with approximately 18.7% of followers of the more than five billion people living in the five continents.

Christianity.

Monotheism, the most widespread in the world because of the 1,700 million people who profess it.

Christianity, in many ways, and like any other system of beliefs and values, is understood only from within those who share the belief and strive to live according to those values. Any description of religion to ignore these internal conceptions would not be faithful to the historical order. However, one aspect that those who profess this faith is not generally recognized is that such a system of beliefs and values can also be described in a way that makes sense to an interested observer, but that does not share, or you can not share their point of view.

The Catholic Church.

The word catholic comes from the Greek language and means “universal.” This is the Church that the Lord founded upon Peter “The Rock”. Jesus commissioned the Apostles to proclaim the Gospel, to make disciples of all nations and to baptize in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

Structure of the Church.

Every church is made up of God’s people, and even their service and organization structure exists that responds to the spiritual and visible. They are simple pillars and walls erected on the basis of purely circumstantial historical circumstances.

The head of the Church is the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. Papacy was instituted by Christ in the person of St. Peter under the images of the rock, the keys of the power of binding and loosing, to feed or comfort his brothers.

The Protestant Church

One of the three major faiths of Christianity, represented by the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. Protestantism began as a reform movement of the Western Christian Church in the sixteenth century, giving rise to the Protestant Reformation, which split the Reformed Churches of the Catholic Church. The stated objective of the reformers pioneers was to restore the Christian faith as it had been originally, keeping what they considered valuable to the Roman tradition which had developed in the intervening centuries.

Protestantism retains its dynamic character and changes have accelerated since 1960. Some denominations have adopted very informal forms of worship to attract young people, others have been divided over the ordination of women as ministers of the faith, liturgical language modernization, mergers with other faiths, and as regards the perennial debate on the interpretation of the Bible and its relationship to scientific truth. Protestants, as individuals and as groups, are involved in a very intense subjects and political and social conflicts. Some are active in the most reactionary faction and others in the more liberal or radical. The characteristics that defined the first Protestant willingness to question received opinions, to report abuse and to challenge established authority-have remained throughout the twentieth century. Protestantism still spreading in this century and exerted a profound influence on contemporary cultures and societies.

Islam.

Movement of political, social and religious claims in the context of the Muslim world, the return to a society governed by the principles of Sharia or Islamic law. Since the 1970s, this term refers primarily to the more radical and violent tendency of this movement, commonly called fundamentalism or Islamic fundamentalism, although, in essence, Islam itself, though advocating non-violent, fundamentalist connotations would

.

Judaism.

Religious culture of the Jews (also known as the people of Israel). It is one of the oldest religions in history.

Sanctification is a system in which everything is subject to the express will of God, according to divine models revealed about the cosmic order and legality. The main feature is that of radical monotheism.

Although not very numerous, Jewish communities in Latin America come from different waves of Sephardic immigrants and, later, Ashkenazi, who have been arriving in the last 150 years. Most of these communities have maintained a liberal.

Judaism has been seriously affected by the slaughter of European Jews by the Nazis, and the founding of the modern State of Israel. Today, and for most of the Jews, Israel and the Holocaust are tightly bound, and represent a collective symbol of death and rebirth, in a deeply religious. Israel has a religious dimension that embodies the dignity of the Jews and the promise of the messianic fulfillment. During the last decades, the different movements of Judaism, except the ultra-Orthodox zealots have been oriented more towards the idea of Israel. Both reformist and conservative movement have made efforts to obtain legal recognition, and to achieve the same level of importance of orthodoxy in the State of Israel, where marriage, divorce and conversion are controlled by Orthodox rabbis, who within government are supported by orthodox religious parties

In 1948 the state of Israel, for the partition of Palestine into two states one Arab and one Jewish recommended by a commission of the United Nations, to avoid further internal conflicts. Your God: Jehovah or Yahweh religion is indispensable aspect of their culture. But equally important has also had compliance of the Torah, or law revealed by God to his people directly referring to all areas of life (politics, society and culture). Have a written law contained in the Pentateuch, and have an oral law transmitted by Yahweh to Moses, spread orally from generation to generation as performed by the Rabbis.

The other principle of the Jewish religion is the Talmud. Collecting the Pentateuch teachings of great importance as it explained the Torah text confusing and difficult to interpret. Have known of the two versions, one in Jerusalem and one of Babylon.

Hinduism.

Religion originated from India where most of its inhabitants still professing today. It is also practiced by those families who have migrated from India to the rest of the world (especially in the south and east Africa, southeast and east Asia and England). The word Hindu is derived from the Sanskrit word sindhu (‘river’, more explicitly the Indus) V century BC, the Persians used that name to refer to those who lived in the land of the Indus. Hindus themselves are defined as “those who believe in the closure” or “those who follow the four types (varnas) road (dharma) and stages of life (ashrams)”.

Hinduism is one of the most widespread and important religions of the world, not only for its membership (estimated at over 700 million), but also because of the profound influence he has had on many other religions during its long and uninterrupted history which began around 1500 BC in

In more current, many self-styled masters of the teachings of the religion of India have migrated to Europe and the United States, where they have been the inspiration for many groups of followers. Some of them, like the Hare Krishna sect founded by Bhaktivedanta, claim inspiration from classical Hinduism practices. In India, Hinduism has developed despite the many changes and reforms involved the gradual modernization and urbanization of life in the country. Myths persist in Indian cinema and rituals survive not only in temples but also in family memories or social rituals. Thus Hinduism religion that helped India were sustained over centuries despite foreign invasion and internal problems, still has a vital role for the support it offers and what it means in the lives of Hindus Today.

Buddhism.

Religion of great importance worldwide, founded in northeastern India. It is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as Buddha or the Enlightened One.

It originated as a monastic movement within the dominant Brahmanical tradition back then, although Buddhism was rapidly developing in another direction, acquiring characteristics. Buddha renounced not only some very significant aspects of Hindu philosophy, but also challenged the authority of their priests, did not accept the validity of the Vedic scriptures, and was against the cult sacrifices that were based on these scriptures. Besides Buddha opened his movement to people of all castes, openly rejecting the idea that the spiritual affairs of the people were determined by social status within the birth.

Today, Buddhism is divided into two main branches: Theravada (Way of the Elders) and Mahayana (Great Vehicle). Followers of Mahayana refer pejoratively to the Theravada using the name Hinayana or Lesser Vehicle.

One of the most remarkable features and has lasted longer in Buddhism, is its ability to adapt to changing circumstances in which it has had to develop, as well as adapting to different cultures. For philosophy, Buddhism is against material goods, both in western countries like the Marxists. Buddhism is not recognized in conflict with modern science. Rather, he argues that even Buddha had an experimental approach with respect to its most essential questions of faith.

The growing interest manifested by Buddhism in Asian cultures, as the interest that their spiritual values in Western countries, has been to develop a large number of companies dedicated to the study and practice of Buddhism.

Secular State and Religious State.

Here we will explain the relations between Church and State, for it will start from the characterization of what is the state to which should be given the following conditions must exist in the first instance a territory, population and power. In terms of population and territory, are similar for both the layman and for the Religious. However, in terms of power, we can say that there are substantial differences between these two types of states.

For teaching purposes, confine our comparative analysis only legislative differences due to the extent of the issue.

Religious State: The United Religious view religion as a complete system of life, are concerned with the physical and material welfare of the people. They run on financial and economic matters according to the precepts and approaches of each religion. Even some states have religious dietary guidelines, rules of hygiene, among others.

Secular State: The secular state is one in which the Church may or may not have ties to the organs of constituted power, more however, the influence of the Church on the legislative creation is not determinative.

In the United Religious we can see that the spiritual needs of the people, take them to create a legislative structure controlled religious principles, this is due to the theory that the truth of God, is the only truth that can form the basis for the creation of a legislative rule, without being subject to the convenience of humans distorting the law for their own purposes.

The State Religious interpret God as creator of man, as well as the laws and regulations found in the scriptures is fully aware of every detail of human realities and express in its true form, unlike men, whose knowledge and skills are limited to discover the natural laws of life, and the man is not considered sincere and objective in his conduct to the law.

In the United Religious law he is closely linked to individual thinking, therefore the performance of individuals is regulated not only by the enforcement agency, but also for society as a whole, hence derive fundamentalist positions such corporation.

In the United Secular, legislative sources to meet the needs of society to live in harmony according to their own collective interests. Generally, these schemes are not rigid and legislative are constantly varying according to the needs dela population.

Religion and the Venezuelan Constitution.

In Venezuela, the Bolivarian Constitution establishes us:

Article 59

“The State shall guarantee the freedom of religion and worship. Everyone has the right to profess their religious faith and worship and express their beliefs in private or in public, by teaching and other practices, if not contrary to morals, morality and public order. was guaranteed, also, the independence and autonomy of churches and denominations, without other limitations than those derived from the Constitution and the law.’s father and mother have the right to have their children and daughters receive religious education in accordance with their convictions. ”

Old Section 65 of the 1961 Constitution.

On the other hand, there is the Draft Law of Cults and Religions, which is currently being considered by Parliament, which aims to create legal mechanisms to prevent illegal by organizations using faith and the gospel for profit. It seeks to regulate all activities in the name of faith and belief are serving dark interests.

A legally established religious institutions in the country were given a blueprint for analysis and to present their proposals. Further, the State has raised a series of nationwide activities like forums, chats to all sectors involved in this instrument.

Should be developed on the constitutional freedom of religion and worship, established in Article 59, and to regulate the operation of the church and other religious movement that exists in the country. is looking to draft a law that is not discriminatory but wide, to establish the principle of equality.

The “Draft Law on Religions and Cults” presented at the National Assembly has been censored by the authorities of the Catholic Church, considering it as an attempt by the government to meet a Catholic denominations and sects lowercase. The project mix confusedly to church or other religious entities pseudoreligiosas. The purpose is to create a church Venezuelan revolutionary therefore proposes to maintain the current legal framework.

The current Venezuelan law provides for freedom of religion and gives equal dignity before the law to the faithful of various religions. However, recognizing the primacy of historical, cultural and numerical Catholic Church as generating Venezuelan identity.

The bill, however, has been endorsed by the self-styled “Interreligious Venezuelan Parliament” (PIV), formed by evangelicals, Jews and representatives of other minority religions except Catholicism.

The goal of the organizations gathered around the PIV, which represent only between 12 and 15% of the Venezuelan population, is the repeal of the Concordat signed between Venezuela and the Vatican in 1964.

Conclusions

Secular states are based on the control of the external activities of human beings in society.

Religious States based on the individual’s thought control, so its external behavior, is closely linked with religious mandates.

In the United Religious coercion for law enforcement is not only exercised by the judiciary, public punishment but plays a key role in social control.

Because in the United Religious were based on the interpretation of the scriptures, such interpretations can easily be manipulated according to the interests of powerful groups of the ruling classes. For example, in the conflict in Afghanistan, the interpretation of the scriptures made by the Taliban unleashed a conflict of global features, and create a social division in the country with fundamentalist traits.

Bibliography

CABANELLAS, Guillermo. Elemental Legal Dictionary.

Editorial Heliasta. Buenos Aires, Argentina

Chalbaud, Reinaldo. Social Institutions.

Liber editions. Caracas, Venezuela

ALTERIO, Ricardo. Handbook of Sociology of Law.

University of Carabobo. Editions of the Rectory. Valencia, Venezuela.

Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

Year 1999.

Website National Constituent Assembly.

 

 

 

 

Nancy Godoy