* Strategic Management
Strategic Management is one formal system capable of achieving the objectives, approach under a previously analyzed. This tool consists of two major phases: planning and strategy implementation. In the planning phase, you decide on the mission and philosophy of the company, on setting goals (short and long term) and on the tactics and strategies to achieve them.
In the implementation, we must develop an organizational structure capable of achieving the objectives also must ensure that all activities are met effectively designed and establish a control system capable of evaluating the deviations produced.
All strategic management process is implemented in profit or nonprofit companies has several stages which need a base to keep them cohesive and integrated, this basis are three elements: strategic attitude, strategic thinking and strategic intent.
The challenge facing organizations today is to be ever more efficient and effective in meeting the needs of the target audience to whom it is directed the activity of the same, then the strategic attitude should be in line with it.
In order to adjust the Cuban company to the demands of their development under the conditions currently prevailing in the management of this environment arises Business Improvement Process to create a new socialist enterprise efficient and modern, the results contribute to the development the country needs.
This process is characterized by a complex set of changes supported by the potential of the cadres and workers and the development of new methodologies both organizational and technical
It is necessary, therefore, efforts to adapt and identify priorities and strategies with concrete actions to respond to the challenges of the new business scenario perfected.
This projection is a strategic tool that will allow us to reach levels of management and qualitatively superior results.
This work is done in the repair company Granma, with the goal of diagnosing and designing alternative measures to raise the organization’s work processes that are evident relations men-machine-information-energy materials, evaluating the influence of these in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the process.
Performing a detailed characterization of the entity, knowing their purpose, mission and vision, and to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, through a strategic exercise giving the most sensible strategic solution, besides characterizing the production process Hydraulic hoses and low pressure tires, its listing cost and problems that may affect one way or another in the process, in addition to the results achieved in their indicators, whether effectiveness or efficiency.
To carry out the research involved various techniques that led to the development of the same, the process diagram representation, Paretto Technique, SWOT Matrix, collection of information, among others. Analyzing and assessing the damages that might contribute to the efficiency of the production process.
With a clear and defined strategy can position the company in the market arena, competing successfully, satisfy customers and achieve good business performance. Managers devise strategies depending on the company needs them.
As a result we found series effects caused by noise, attention to man is not required there are difficulties in the means of protection and lighting and ventilation that can be eradicated by changing the local production of hoses for one more affordable.
This research has great relevance, since the implementation of the technique could Paretto define what the needs and existing restrictions in the production process, object of study, providing the fastest and most efficient solution, since we have the available local to develop this production without any affectations, leading to the efficiency and effectiveness of this productivity.
In this chapter we will reference the above theoretical, Strategic Management.Strategic Management is one formal system capable of achieving the objectives, approach under a previously analyzed. This tool consists of two major phases: planning and strategy implementation. In the planning phase, you decide on the mission and philosophy of the company, on setting goals (short and long term) and on the tactics and strategies to achieve them. In the implementation, we must develop an organizational structure capable of achieving the objectives also must ensure that all activities are met effectively designed and establish a control system capable of evaluating the deviations produced.
The strategic direction is focused on the analysis framework strategy. After analyzing the environment, resources and capabilities to induce choose the best strategy, and their subsequent implementation in the various institutions.
All strategic management process is implemented in profit or nonprofit companies has several stages which need a base to keep them cohesive and integrated, this basis are three elements: strategic attitude, strategic thinking and strategic intent.
The strategic attitude Marina Menguzatto She notes the need for a change in attitude of management to enable rapid adaptation of the company to an increasingly turbulent environment and emphasizes that the focus of management must move from the domestic sphere Company and efficiency, setting up business relationships and effectiveness.
The criteria of the author argues that the center of strategic management is effective, however, if a company neglects the inner can be at the mercy of the threats if not aware of an increase or no exploits weaknesses to maximum strengths to take advantage of opportunities, therefore, considered that the strategic direction should focus on the effectiveness, or what is the same, focusing on achieving compliance with the strategic objectives efficiently and effectively as both variables should not be seen as competing but complementary from a strategic standpoint.
The challenge facing organizations today is to be ever more efficient and effective in meeting the needs of the target audience to whom it is directed the activity of the same, then the strategic attitude should be in keeping with this
Individual Strategic thinking involves the application of judgment based on experience to determine future directions. The company’s strategic thinking is the coordination of creative minds within a common perspective that allows a business to move into the future in a manner satisfactory to all. The purpose of strategic thinking is to help you exploit the many challenges ahead, both predictable and unpredictable.
Strategic thinking incorporates values, mission, vision and strategy they tend to be intuitive elements (based on feelings) rather than analytical (based on information). Reaching agreement on these elements among members of your management team is an essential prerequisite for effective planning.
It has become increasingly clear in recent years that to succeed every company needs the active engagement of all decision makers. While the formal process of strategic thinking usually begins with the CEO and senior management team and, to be effective, must transcend away the rest of the company.
To achieve the strategic thinking that leaders must be adequately trained and prepared to lead the process of implementation of the strategic direction.
One can consider three levels of strategy definition, depending on different hierarchical levels in the organization, each of which is assigned different responsibilities towards decision making.
a) Level of overall strategy: the company is considered in relation to its surroundings, being planned in which activities are required to participate and what is the most appropriate combination of these. The overall strategy is the general plan of action diversified company policy and refers to the decisions to set different positions and actions he uses to direct its diversified businesses. At this level becomes important strategic component field of activity.
b) Level of business strategy: This refers to policy action plan for a single business or rather to the so-called strategic business units. This level is referred to also as divisional strategy, since most diversified companies adopt the structure of the division organization. This is to determine how best to develop the activity or activities under the strategic unit. The main issue at this level is like building a better competitive position, for which we must develop internal potential.
c) functional level Strategy: Focuses on how to use and apply the resources and skills within each functional area of each business or strategic unit, in order to maximize the productivity of these resources. The best known are functional areas: production, marketing, finance, human resources, technology and shopping.
Strategic Management is an important study that strengthens the integration of activities both technological, political, economic and social change that frame all businesses need. Strategic management is aimed at addressing the challenges vanguards and to diagnose a competitive advantage that will help strengthen the future of an organization.
The production system can be defined as a process by which inputs are converted into goods and services through a technological process, which is the particular method of transforming inputs into outputs different, a change in technology changes the way in which an input is used in relation to another and can even alter the final product.
Labour productivity is a major efficiency indicators that underlie the planned rates of growth of social-global national income and also allows us to know the effectiveness of the production process in a given period. Its level is the basic qualitative indicator of the progressive nature of the production, which expresses the level of development of productive forces.
Effectiveness: Achievement of the objectives.
Efficiency: Achieving the goals with the least amount of resources.
Quality must be in pre-production, production, post production.
v In the preproduction stage: (Quality Assurance Planning error prevention and quality).
v In the production step (process control, maintenance, etc.).
v In the post-production stage: (rework, handling, transport, storage)
How to draw a Pareto chart
– Use a log sheet to collect the required data.
– Sort the data to be the largest category to the smallest.
– Calculate the total.
– Compute what percentage of the total represented by each category.
– Compute the cumulative percentage.
– Draw a horizontal and a vertical axis on graph paper.
– Graduated from the vertical axis to frequency.
– From left to right, build a bar for each category identifies the frequency up. Start with the largest category and will further the rest in descending order.
– Trace a vertical scale to the right on the graph and graduela percent (0% to 100%).
– Pose the cumulative percentage line.
Symbols used in the cursogramas.
To be stated in a cursograma everything about a job or operation is much easier to use a uniform set of symbols, which together serve to represent all types of activities or events likely to be encountered in any factory or office. They therefore constitute a key very comfortable, almost everywhere intelligible, which saves a lot of writing and allows state clearly exactly what happens during the process analyzed.
The two main activities are the operation process and inspection, which are represented by the following symbols:
“Indicates the main stages of the process, method or procedure. Usually, the piece of the case material or product changes during the operation” will be seen later that also used the symbol of the operation when a procedure is entered, for example , a stream processing office.
It is said that when there is no operation, information is received or when making plans or calculations.
“Indicates that verifies the quality, quantity or both.” The distribution between these two activities is evident: The operation is advanced to the material, one service element or step towards the end, either by changing its shape, as in the case of a part that is styled, or composition, in the case of a chemical process, or to add or remove items, if it is staged. The operation can also involve preparing any activity that promotes the completion of the product.
The inspection does not contribute to the conversion of the material in the finished product. Only used to check whether an operation was successful in terms of quality and quantity. If humans were infallible, most inspections would be unnecessary. Often requires more graphic detail that can give these two symbols and then used these three:
“It indicates the movement of workers, materials and equipment from one place to another” transport is because, when an object is moved from one place to another, unless the transfer is part of an operation that is performed by an operator in workplace to perform an operation or inspection. In this work the symbol always transport materials are being handled for them or remove them from trucks, banks, deposits etc.
Temporary storage or standby.
“Indicates delay in developing the facts: for example, work suspended between two successive operations or momentary abandonment, unregistered, of any object until needed” if the work is piled on the workshop floor between two operations, of drawers to open, by placing the pieces in his locker or signing letters.
“Indicates an object repository under surveillance in a warehouse where it is received or delivered through some form of authorization or where it is kept for reference purposes”
So there is permanent storage when saving an object and is careful not to be moved without authorization.
The difference between permanent storage and temporary storage or expect is that, generally, you need a delivery order, voucher or other proof of authorization to remove items left in permanent storage, but not for those deposited on an interim basis.
When you want to indicate that several activities are executed at the same time or by the same operator in the same workplace, combine the symbols of such activities, eg a circle inside a square represents the combined activity of operation and inspection.
The general data for the preparation of cost sheet are:
– Raw material and material.
– Breakdown salary.
– Other direct costs.
– Production overheads.
– Overhead address.
Expense Ratio Calculation of indirect production (CGIP)
ICOLD = Indirect Production Expenditure
Basic Salary production workers
Coefficient calculation overhead Address. (CGGD)
CGGD = General Expense Management
Basic Salary production workers
These calculations are made on the basis of Joint Resolution No. 1/05
The sound energy is transmitted through which a liquid, solid or gas produced by a vibrating source, capable of being perceived by the ear, is the set of compressions and depressions molecular layers of air over time as a result the vibration source. Noise is the sum of several sounds that do not necessarily relate to each other.
The NC :19-04-04 provides the following definition of noise:
Sound intensity by their spectral composition or other causes can cause unwanted damage to health.
Parameters and physical characteristics of the sound.
For the study of noise and to assess it is necessary to understand its characteristics and parameters.
Define a number of parameters such as:
– Sound pressure
The noise is a sound that in its intensity, spectral composition, or other causes, is undesirable and may cause damage to health, and is one of the most common hazards in industry where hundreds of professions and occupations are affected workers .
Noise is unwanted sound by:
– Cause discomfort to the worker
– Difficulty information transmission
– Can affect health.
In the workplace often sounds of interest occur in conjunction with other background noises called, the called masking may occur which interferes speech communication.
However other factors affecting (the reverb, the voice quality and information content)
The decibel measurement unit (is a logarithmic scale which is reduced with a wide range of sound pressure levels to a small set of numbers (0-160)
The measurement unit of the decibel scale is based on the noise means that: the unit that is used to measure the sound pressure level taking as reference sound pressure weaker than average ear can perceive.
SPL = 20 log (P / Po) or = 20 log P / Po
SPL sound are those changes which occur above or below atmospheric pressure, characterized by the audible range (2.10 2.10 Pa or Pa). The sound pressure level is determined by the equation L (dB) = 20 log P / Po, where:-P (Sound pressure measured)
– Po (reference sound pressure, (2.10 Pa) Perception threshold
Frequency analysis. Octave band frequencies
The audible frequency range of the human ear is from 20Hz to 20 Hz, although the greatest sensitivity occurs between 1 and 4 KHz.
Hearing sensitivity is amplitude reduction was necessary as their ranges, sound pressure for noise assessment.
Audible spectrum is divided into frequency bands, the most used are the octave bands.
Fm (Hz) 31.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
– Constants: NPS is noise which fluctuates significantly during the period of measurement, that is, with the slow sound response vary 5db at least 8 hrs.
– No Constants: NPS varies significantly during the measurement period, that is, with the slow sound response vary more than 5dB at 8 hrs.
Fluctuating: Those who are short people, high, medium, ie the level changes continuously and in a significant expansion during the period.
Blinking: noise whose level suddenly decreases to the level of background noise several times during the observation period. The time during which it remains at a higher level of background noise is 1 second or more. Ex: Escape steam valve.
Impulse: Noise in a ratio ranging extremely large time <1 sec. Eg Forge.
Constants: Those that affect the ear, using the criterion noise assessment.
Disturbance by noise * Reduction of hearing (hearing loss) caused by intense noise adaptation, ie, decreasing hearing sensitivity, causing the temporary threshold shift for long periods of unwanted noise.
* Mental disorders: nervousness, irritability, discomfort, lack of attention and concentration, impaired memory and reflexes, stress.
* Physiological disorders: disorders in digestion, increases metabolism, alterations in skeletal muscle tone, bias, fatigue, pupil dilation, hypoglycemia.
The maximum decibel that the human ear can perceive is (80)
The Granma repair company under the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry is located in Peas Altas Km.108, Matanzas municipality, covering a total area of 17,682 m.
Its purpose is:
Produce and market a wholesale parts, spare parts and automotive accessories and aluminum carpentry and metal structures, service repair, maintenance, recovery and repowering of all types of engines for light vehicles, heavy agricultural and construction reconditioning services forklifts, produce and commercialize light metalware wholesaler social programs associated with national or regional interest and mounting services and installation of the same, in domestic and foreign currencies as nomenclature approved by the Ministry of Internal trade, in short is the production and sale of engines in all its versions, generators, parts, components, automotive accessories, manufacture and repair of buses, trucks, trailers and wedges plus specialized technical services and technical assistance towards sales, capital repair engines.
Is unusual, in correspondence with its objects, to possess an open market, not having a single production line and offer various technical services, limited only by the available technology.
To provide efficient and quality after-sales services, repowering, engine repair, and the marketing of parts and other mechanical productions.
The Company has seven production areas and distinct services. They are:
It deals with the repowering of light and heavy vehicles with engines Brazilians 4-6 cylinders.
It proposes to introduce new production lines, and services are offered sheet metal and paint medium and capital. Its technology is advanced.
Plant charged engine repair and repowering, mainly brands:
Engines South Africans.
They have lack of equipment and tools.
UEB mechanical plant.
Make up work pieces by welding processes, machining and repair of other minor additions.
About 10% of the team has a poor technical state of obsolescence and the rest is of modern generation.
USTA UEB. (Automotive Technical Services Unit).
It is responsible for providing services in both the post-sale as at the stage of manufacturing equipment warranty Nationwide, importing new and used cars, coordinated their work with the central enterprises.
This plant has the advantage of being located geographically near the tourist resort of Varadero, which is in constant development, and almost in the central part of the country, having also a significant number of communication channels: international airport, port and accesses roads.
Goal: The USTA has plotted to better serve the task of working with quality and reduce costs and expenses in a manner that eliminates all your losses.
We can summarize these seven areas as a whole and have a definite image in the mind are posesionadas customer in either direction.
There are a total of 188 workers distributed as follows:
Leaders June 19%
Technical 59 21%
Administrative 3 2%
Services 32 11%
Workers 75 60%
This workforce can be characterized as:
With high spirit of commitment and sacrifice.
We are a company with a competitive corporate culture where sound management prevails in terms of material and financial assurances, where attention to man power, taking into account that people or human resources are the most important element which can consist The quality as an essential part of organizational culture, educating our group on the principle that things have to be done right the first time, the fundamental task of marketing our productions and services achieved a position in our region and neighboring areas, increasing technological development and research way forward achieving a systematic increase in effectiveness for efficiency.
As the microenvironment:
Provincial Company of drinks and liquors.
Bank of Credit and Commerce.
In the specific case of the hydraulic hoses:
– CIMEX (By General store network)
– Hydraulic Oil (Cienfuegos)
– Plugs Taino (Sagua la Grande)
– Company Guama (Contraimport Havana)
Stakeholders: SIME, Ministry of Labour, Government, Party, Family
Key Factors: Suppliers, Customers External
Key Areas: Marketing, production, financing, human resources and purchasing
Experienced workforce and high degree of sacrifice and commitment.
Image defined and positioned.
Ability to import raw materials and accessories.
Flexibility in production and services.
There is qualified and suitable to perform certain functions.
Not having advanced technology and measurement instruments and appropriate working media.
Poor working conditions and protections.
The lack of an automated system to facilitate internal relations, affecting poor collection management and decision making.
Breach of contract services for quality and delivery time.
Absence of stimulation system that affects the motivation of workers.
High competitive environment and very close.
Remoteness of the funders.
Chain of defaults that slow sales revenue.
Better working conditions and stimulating competition.
Joint customers to the competition.
Wide range market.
Possibility EPA with the outside.
Availability of new products and / or services.
I-To what degree can the strength X. X seize the opportunity
What grade II-strength allows X mitigate the effect of X. threat
What grade III-weakness prevents X. X seize the opportunity
II-To what degree can the weak X mitigate the effect of X. threat
The quality in the performance of the products and / or services of the company is evaluated by 90.9% as fair, this important parameter in the image of the company, which has its purpose in the provision of various services.
100% of the board of directors was planned for urgent management to promote the services and / or products sold by the Company.
The fundamental strategic problem.
If still high and very close competitive environment, it is our threat, and added to this not optimized the absence of qualified and suitable to perform certain functions that is my weakness, by much strength you have with a group of experienced workers and high level of sacrifice and commitment that I make good use of the opportunity to market a wide variety of
General Strategic Solution.
If potentiometric my full strength to have a group of experienced workers and high degree of commitment and sacrifice and minimize my weaknesses counting on the lack of qualified and suitable to perform certain functions, then I am able to attenuate the high and very competitive environment that is my closest threat, so I know to maximize the opportunity provided by the wide diversity of market.
So we have an offensive strategy (I-121), since we have very good opportunities and strengths and therefore not affected by the threats and weaknesses.
Particularly the problems that have to do with attention to man and other general costs for different areas such as: Media Health and Safety at work, uniforms, cleaning, etc.. Be addressed centrally but do not exclude the participation of the areas, they must concentrate on their rationale, the organization of production and services, at the lowest cost and highest quality for maximum client satisfaction.
In the art of combining essential decentralization and centralization is irreplaceable sustained success of this company, especially when it constitutes a geographical unit and therefore there are common problems such as security and protection center, dining and cafeteria, recreation, they must require attention not only common but also prioritized. This will contribute significantly to develop the organizational culture and the company’s corporate image.
Assembly process of hydraulic hoses and low pressure tires.
The production system is defined as a process by which inputs are converted into assets through a technological process. The first feature to the classification of the production system is the product flow from operations. To select this process must take into account whether the product is manufactured to be stored in inventory or to fill a specific customer request. In the center where this project was conducted, the process is inventory, which quickly provides greater flexibility and lower costs, unallocated individual orders to customers by producing and as for the linear production flow is continuous, since it characterized by a linear sequence of operations that are used during lengthy periods of time to produce one or more specific product many units of a single product. Which are highly standardized.
Analyze specifically the production area of low pressure hydraulic hose which is the hose carrying a lightweight textile reinforcement on the inside with a metal component known (fitting) fixing to facilitate this connection in the automotive vehicle, the target of this position is to establish the steps for assembling the same, where the greatest responsibility. Because of the degree of involvement of men is characterized as mechanical-manual and according to their level of detail in Universal.
The hose assembly process performs the following operations.
Cut hose: Your cutting is done with a team specifically for this, he has some stops to tighten hose to length cut, also has a fixed tape measure facilitates long hose cut by D-04.03-1 Table No.2 The operator makes adjusting the machine before starting the cut, along with the workshop checker, which verifies the cutting of the first five hoses. complies If it starts the process .
According hoses are cut they are placed in plastic baskets.
Mounting of fittings: the operator proceeds to mount the fittings on the bench screw is in the work table to start this assembly, placing the fitting at one end of the hose being operated testing and commissioning machine (A) , introduces the pressure inside the hose fitting to mount the other fitting. was used in this operation soapy solutions to facilitate this assembly being forbidden the use of oils or other substances.
After performing the assembly they are placed in plastic baskets.
Pressing of fittings: The operator performs the pressing of the hose fittings considering the type of wheel to be used are grinders in the plate 8 which is manually changed. Fitting is placed vertically on the plate with the teeth to a separation of 5mm hexagon fitting to end, the micro graduates with the extent provided by type of hose, turn on the electric seaming machine and thus pressed the fitting at both ends.
The operator every time you make pressing fittings at both ends checked with a caliper 0-150 mm dimension pressing footprint to comply with the provisions.
DATA TABLE FOR PRESSING
Once this operation are placed in plastic baskets hoses for final inspection.
After making the final check of the proceeds to make hoses hoses snaps machine manual, removed the plate of 8 wheels placed two wheels engraved with the letters G and R, are set and the remaining toggles recording made, after this operation are packed in nylon envelopes are cut into the sealing machine, in groups of 1 or 2 units, being sealed and placed in plastic baskets to be taken to store finished production.
Once the product available for sale and proceeds to the development of cost sheet, in accordance with regulations, are made on the basis of Joint Resolution No 1/2005.
The tab is cost in order to fix the prices of hydraulic hoses so as to ensure stability of prices in the market. The company sets its price so as to obtain satisfactory performance, and that future savings from experience to addressing the cost increases caused by inflation.
Meeting the needs of automotive equipment, light, heavy agricultural and construction that need parts, accessories, repairs and other plans as customer demand.
– Improvement of the technological conditions through investment level.
– Increase in service after – sales.
– Reduced costs through a detailed analysis of the manufacturing process and
– Promoting sales and financing facility.
– Meeting the needs of light equipment, vehicles, etc..
The place where the production is performed hydraulic hoses are located in a corner machining Workshop which will warehouse constructed of rubber which takes all the visibility and ventilation previously had, besides the intense noise emitting machinery workshop , so that after a detailed analysis regarding noise measurements for 8 hrs working frequency octave bands obtained the following results:
So there is a risk of hearing damage to workers because Fm 500 Hz NPS surpasses the maximum allowable level of 80 db, so it brings serious damages to the human ear, such as:
Reduction of hearing (hearing loss) caused by intense noise adaptation, ie, decreasing hearing sensitivity, causing the temporary threshold shift for long periods of unwanted noise.
Mental disorders: nervousness, irritability, discomfort, lack of attention and concentration, impaired memory and reflexes, stress.
Physiological disorders: disorders in digestion, increases metabolism, alterations in skeletal muscle tone, bias, fatigue, pupil dilation, hypoglycemia.
After a rigorous analysis via the general method of group problem solutions could detect a series of restrictions that affect our production process under study, which are caused by noise, attention to man is not required there are difficulties in As for the means of protection and lighting and ventilation that can be eradicated by changing the local production of hoses for a more affordable, which already exists in our organization, and so it can continue to develop this production without any affectations, leading to efficiency and effectiveness of this productivity.
Analysis was performed to see their behavior indicators of effectiveness or efficiency.
Indicators that manages the repair company Granma
Evaluation indicators improved repair company that manages the Granma during the past two years.
With horizontal analysis we get the following results: 83% of the indicators that are managed by the company and 74% efficiency are the results. In 65% of the indicators were analyzed improvement compared to 2005, prevailing indicators of efficiency and results. In 35% of the indicators that there was no improvement, 25% of them are indicators of process and efficiency, bone of the few indicators of effectiveness and results managed by the unit, half of them had no improvement over the years 2005. With this analysis we can conclude that the Company’s management for results and efficiency.
1. The most affected is the noise caused by machinery machining workshop, where is the place where they make the hoses.
2. There are deficiencies in the care of man as to protection and occupational hygiene, uniform cleaning tool.
3. The construction of the rubber stock to the side of the confined site hose all kinds of ventilation and visibility.
1. Change as soon as possible the local production of hoses for one more affordable.
2. They should make more management to solve the problems that frame the man’s attention
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Ing Dahyris Martinez
With 14 years experience as an industrial engineer. Diploma in Management.
CATEGORY: Strategic Management.
Date: October 2008.