Synthesis of archaeological research in the Peruvian Amazon

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* Amazon River

* Source

* Length and area

* Flora and Fauna

* Indigenous groups

* The Amazon rainforest

* Importance

* Weather

* Land – Relief

* Issues

* Town

* Nature Reserve

* Amazon Basin

* Most important rivers of the basin

* Articles

* Bibliography

Amazon River

Born in Andes of Peru to be the source of the Quebrada de Apachate birth. Travel the Peruvian-Colombian border and is bordered by Brazil tripartite flows into the Atlantic Ocean. In Colombia, the largest rivers flowing into the Amazon are the Putumayo and Caqueta. For these rivers and their numerous tributaries commerce is conducted and circulated between the villages of this vast jungle region.

Is a tenth of all the world’s forests. The air he breathes humanity is purified mainly in the Amazon.

In the major ports are the cities of Iquitos, in Peru, Leticia in Colombia and Manaus in Brazil.

To the south is the Trans Masonic is the result of one of the most daring adventures that have been made. Br-233 highway is progressing in parallel to the river Amazons. Is 5000 km long.

Of the 6,788 km of total length of the Amazon, 116 km correspond to Colombia, from the mouth of the river Atacuari to the confluence of the San Antonio creek.

it is estimated that the first inhabitants of the Amazon Basin came between 7000 and 5000 a. C., and the oldest remains of pottery found in the Ucayali region and date from 2000 BC C. However, the absence of archaeological remains, in part by the rapid disintegration of the waste in the rainforest climate and the lifestyle of these cultures, in general semi-nomadic, has hampered the chronological study of the cultures of the Amazon.

contains a fifth of the world’s fresh water

Source

The Spanish explorer Francisco de Orellana discovered in 1541 a South American river that stretched 2,500 km. from the Andes. On its shores, Orellana made his way to fight against indigenous people, joining the fighting groups of women warriors called Amazons. In his honor, the river was called the Amazon. to discover the Amazon River went 303 days from Guayaquil to the Land of Cinnamon and Golden “240 days sailed away to the Isle of Cobagua 17, giving a total of 563 days long.

Length and area

With a flow (of water) of 120,000 m3 of water per second

It has about 6,785 kilometers long in which there are about 6,000 islands. There are parts as wide (in Brazil) in its mouth, the distance of a bank to the other is about two hundred miles.

With over seven million square kilometers in area, covers the largest rainforest in the world, distinguished by the name of Amazon or Amazon.

Flora and Fauna

There are countless species of plants still unclassified, thousands of species of birds, amphibians and countless millions of insects.

There are insects, mammals, reptiles, birds and fish. In the lagoons along the Amazon plant blooms Victoria Regia, whose circular blades reach over a meter in diameter.

Is the source that provides the greatest amount of fish species that today inhabit the shops and aquariums around the world.

High temperatures favor the development of a dense and lush vegetation, evergreen.

Indigenous groups

In the territory along the Amazon River live countless numbers of indigenous groups originally from Peru, Colombia and Brazil.

The Spanish conquerors to the Mara~non River gave the name of “Amazon River” because its banks found women who fought so valiantly as the men.

The Amazon River contains 3666 different species of fish. The marine fauna is very rich in this river, but powerfully dangerous.

The Amazon rainforest

The vast equatorial forest hides a rich fauna. There are 4,000 types of butterflies, more than 2,000 kinds of fish, 1,700 birds and 20% of primate species on the planet. Under his lush habitats and there are different generic diversity of the animal world. The biological wealth is because over millions of years, the Amazon ecosystem has remained unchanged.

Is mainly extracted:

* Rubber

* Spices

* Wood in general

* Oils

* Resins

* Plants for drug development

vegetation can be divided into three types (according to height and solar filter):

* The Dome of the Forest: She mastered the giant trees (acacia), fruitful height between 40m and 60m. Is the level that receives more solar radiation and the richest in animal species (birds, insects, mono)

* Intermediate: Here appreciate as species begin to adapt to the shadows. The intermediate level corresponds to species that are between 40m and 10m high.

* Understory: The light just comes and there is an abundance of leaves decaying bodies.

Importance

regulates the flow of rivers flowing through it, by retaining the water from rainfall and be releasing it slowly.

Her thick vegetation cover protects the soil from erosion.

Regulates the regional climate and warming.

It is a huge lung that provides oxygen.

Weather

Rains throughout the year, but more strongly in January and June. Average rainfall between 2000 and 3000 mm per year.

Warm equatorial and tropical climate.

Soil

It is very fertile, humus layer is very thin (it destroys the disappearance of vegetation cover)

Black, rich in humus.

Relief

Large amount of sediment coming from denuded rocks and rivers, in addition to the material left by the sea.

Economy

primitive agriculture, hunting, fishing and forest products. More recently (and controversial) mining, timber production and cattle breeding.

Issues

Among the major factors and elements include:

* The lowering of the waters of the Amazon River and its impact on ecosystems, biodiversity and human populations.

* Climate change and its serious consequences, as evidenced in the Peruvian Amazon.

* The low water level of the River you can see the sewage which are a source of high contamination of this water reservoir.

* The drop in water level is directly linked to deforestation and criminal illegal sale of timber product without effective regulations.

* The oil pollution by ships.

* The dramatic problem of the lack of fish in the river, causing famine and imbalance in the area.

* The death of fish and the state of decay caused by pollution of the Amazon, which causes diarrhea and other diseases in the population.

* The critical situation of drinking water for the population.

* Extreme poverty in the area.

* Amazon Drought has also contributed to the occurrence of forest fires, both in Peru and Brazil, like other countries in the region.

This whole situation is the global warming with serious consequences for the climate that are expressed in increasing natural disasters.

Population

The most requested tour is navigation between Leticia and Puerto Nari~no, located almost at the other end of the Colombian Amazon. La Pedrera and Puerto Santander in Caqueta, the House, Arica and Tarapaca on the banks of the Putumayo River, La Chorrera in the river Igaraparana and Miriti the river Parana namesake, are towns of great beauty and attractions in the Colombian department of Amazon.

Natural Reserve

It is the largest nature reserve on the planet and its largest lung, with an area of 6,430,000 square miles that make up the majestic Amazon river basin, almost entirely covered by an impenetrable jungle that has required over thousands of years to form. Amazonia, Colombia would correspond 403,348 square kilometers of tropical rainforest, spread over a gently undulating topography with an altitude between 100 and 500 meters above sea level. The rest is divided between Brazil and Peru.

Amazon Basin

It covers an area of 7050000 km2 which makes it the first place in the world. Born as a mountain stream and river becomes plain.

The average flow is 185,000 m3 / s throughout the year fueled by the equatorial rains. Get the tributaries feeding you both hemispheres and snow in the high Andes.

Sends an estimated mass of ocean water that represents 11 percent of what they send all the world’s rivers.

The coloration of the waters of its tributaries can be light or dark. In the first case depends on the sediment transport, in the second, carrying suspended humus from decaying organic substances that have been acquired through the jungle. Both the sediments and humus are deposited in the banks, which fertilizes the soil.

In its lower course, after receiving the Xingu, Amazon is divided into innumerable channels which contain arms and islands. In times of rising, the waters cover those islands with a width of 40 to 50 km.

Therefore presents an inland delta and then opens into two branches: the south is the river or bay to Marajo and northern, Macapa, which is the longest and observed the phenomenon called “pororoca “-and explained,” especially in the month of October.

Marajo Islands, Caviano, Mexican and Gurupa Grande, located at its mouth, were caused by falls of ground.

In the stretch of plain, Amazon has no jumps, it does happen and its tributaries as they move from regions corresponding to the Brasilia Shield of sedimentary deposits. So while the Amazon is navigable tributaries allow the use of hydropower.

The Amazon and Orinoco are connected by a tributary of the Black, Branco, and through channel Casiquiare.

Is shared between the countries:

* Brazil

* Peru

* Ecuador

* Bolivia

* Venezuela

* Colombia

 

Major rivers in the basin

* Amazon

* Black.

* Purus.

* Madeira.

* Tapajos.

* Xingu

* Araguaia (not a tributary of the Amazon)

* Tocantins (not a tributary of the Amazon)

Articles

THE government declared a state of emergency and sent to the Armed Forces

The Amazon River is suffering its worst drought in 50 years

Several subsidiary streams dried up and there are 160,000 people isolated. Among other causes, suggests deforestation of the Amazon rainforest wilderness.

Eleonora Gosman. SAN PABLO. CORRESPONDENT

The Brazilian Amazon is suffering its worst drought in 50 years. The main rivers of the jungle, 5 million square kilometers, have greatly reduced flow and several water courses literally dried up. Coastal populations in a region where travel is done in an exclusively fluvial, are isolated and it is estimated that around 160,000 people are in a state of emergency due to lack of food, fuel and water.

Yesterday, the magnitude of the disaster to Amazon, the Brazilian government decided to mobilize the armed forces, the only Brazilian agency that has helicopters and all terrain vehicles. Reducing the depth affected as the Solim~oes river has its source in Colombia, through the jungle and empties into the Amazon River.

Yesterday, the governor of Amazonas, Eduardo Braga, decreed a “state of public calamity” in fifty towns in the region. Before yesterday, Braga had contacted President Lula da Silva to tell you that this is the most severe Amazon drought in half a century. It was then that the local officials asked the help of the Armed Forces to assist the affected communities. “A relief operation in the Amazon, which is long and complicated, requiring the presence and military coordination” said the governor.

Yesterday, between the government offices in Brasilia, there was speculation of possible causes of the fiercest drought or low flow of the river for a certain time of year. Mentioned, including deforestation wild in the Peruvian Amazon region bordering Brazil. Experts warn that there may be other triggers of the phenomenon: for example, the surface warming of the Atlantic Ocean and its own forest fires in Brazil.

Indeed, in other provinces of Amazonas, Para, there were 180 outbreaks of fire in the last month. According to the National Space Research Institute, is “a record” that affects also half a dozen parks (conservation areas).

Two weeks ago, the state of Acre, which borders Bolivia and is part of the legal Amazon, was wrapped in a thick cloud of smoke. It came from the fires that devoured vast jungle. Rains earlier this week tended to improve the situation somewhat.

In the Amazon state, the military operation that began yesterday will carry food, water and medicines of various kinds from Manaus, the state capital. But the military bikes will be used to scroll through the dry river channels, where-as-now counted coastal boats are stranded and dozens of dead fish.

Among the affected areas is Tabatinga, the border ra “hot” between Brazil and Colombia. Surrounded by the river Solim~oes, low flow forced to relocate the port, said the mayor of the city.

In this region, the river is usually plentiful, wide and deep. There is usually performed illegal drug trade. Also moving through these areas the police to control the flow of cocaine coming from Colombia.

Clarin Thursday 13/10/2005

Alarm for Amazon destruction

Brazilian government figures reveal that the Amazon is experiencing one of the worst devastation in its history. Between August 2003 and August 2004, deforestation reached 26.130 km2. To reach that figure was necessary to destroy a swath of forest the size of a football field every ten seconds!

The paradox is that over 70% of deforestation has taken place between May and July 2004, when it was launched in Brazil the Plan of Action for Reducing Deforestation, presented in March 2004. This shows that although the Brazilian government has taken positive steps, such as creating protected areas and the demarcation of indigenous lands, has failed miserably in implementing the plan, since the average annual deforestation over the last three years has been higher than the 23,000 km2.

In the same period the government of President Lula has applauded the rapid expansion of grain production and world leadership Brazil’s beef exports. So Antonio Palocci, the finance minister, said: “The land market is the best business in Brazil.” Thus, almost half of the deforestation occurred in Mato Grosso state, ruled by the largest private producer of soybeans in the world, Blairo Maggi.

Of the 12.576 km2 of forest lost in the State, 4,176 km2 were authorized by the government. The rest was illegal. Maggi does not hide his opinion about deforestation and an interview with the New York Times, in September 2003, said: “An increase in deforestation by 40% does not mean anything and not feel the slightest guilt over what we are doing here. ” The conversion of forests into agricultural land and illegal logging are key culprits of deforestation.

The Lula administration is facing a fundamental contradiction: to fight Amazon deforestation or promote the expansion of crops at the expense of the jungle to pay its foreign debt.

Bibliography

* Http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazonas_ (r% C3% ADo) # Origen_etimol.C3.B3gico

* Http://www.fuerzasarmadasecuador.org/espanol/historia/realaudienciaamazonas.htm

* Http://fpva.org.mx/docs/amazonas_agoniza.htm

* Www.webcolombia.com/treasures/rioamazonas/

* Www.uniandes.edu.com/Colombia/ Tourism / regions / amazonas.html

* Www.clarin.com.ar

* Encarta 2003

* American geography and Argentina, Paulina Quarleri, editorial Kapelusz

* Spaces and contemporary American societies. M. V. Fernandez Caso, R. Gurevich, J. White, editorial Aique.

* Geography of America and Antarctica, Horacio N. Lorenzini, Ra’ul Rey Balmaceda, Maria Julia Echeverria, AZ Editorial editor.

* Encyclopedia Hispanica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Publishers, Inc., Macropedia Volume 1, Aalto, Alvar, Arabia.

* Wild areas of the world, nature and wildlife. Amazon. Editorial Folio.

* Promas/noticia3.htm

 

 

Florence Rimonda

Buenos Aires, Argentina