The art of lecturing

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* Summary

* The art of lecturing

* The initial data for the development of work

* Developing theoretical

* Preparation of the dissertation

* Completion of the dissertation

* Bibliography

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to provide a simplified text that allows the author directed, transmitting some experiences of how to start, develop and conduct a scientific dissertation or write a paper based on a topic of Matter Defense Preparedness taught in Cuban universities, but can be applied to other subjects.

They provide basic theoretical definitions however are accurate and are introductory formulation development of a concrete example of how they determined each of the preliminary elements and then provide recommendations for the bibliography, theoretical elaboration and implementation of defense. .

THE ART OF lecture

(A methodology to develop and defend a thesis)

It is not intended, in this article cover everything that involves performing scientific research, including theoretical definitions are elementary and assumes that the author who will face the realization of a dissertation, previously must study at least one of the manuals or basic texts of the methodology for conducting scientific research.

So the goal is to provide a simplified text that allows the author directed, transmitting some experiences of how to start, develop and conduct a scientific dissertation or write a paper based on a topic of Matter Defense Preparedness is taught in the universities, but can be applied to other subjects.

The key words we need to master in order to understand what we mean is:

Lecture: Reasoning methodically on any scientific, artistic, etc..

Speaks: That speaks easily and with plenty of arguments.

SCIENTIST: Method of systematic study of a phenomenon that includes observation techniques, rules for reasoning and prediction, ideas for experiments planned and ways of communicating the experimental and theoretical results.

Therefore we must understand how scientific dissertation, a development-oriented textual rationale of a subject or topic of discussion, which has been studied, investigated and systematized, later presented orally.

Used to produce intellectual works, obtain or ratify teachers or scientific categories and to accredit undergraduate, master’s and postgraduate courses.

The dissertation should be short and explicit, but must include at least:

*

* A problem formulation to treat

* A location problem context, time, space, history, documentary references and scientific systematization.

* The objectives of the subject, explaining why treatment needs, applications and potential impacts

* A theoretical-ideological and methodological connect theory and practice of the subject matter.br> Considering these aspects, for a dissertation should be the following:

* Determine the preliminary data of the study.

* Bibliography.

* Developing theoretical

* Preparation of the Dissertation

* Conducting the Dissertation

A very brief characterization of each step is as follows:

I. – PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF DATA.

The data needed to perform the job will be:

* Theme Selection.

The theme for the completion of a dissertation, usually part of the interest of the speaker, as to deepen certain aspect, prepare a paper for a scientific event, write an article, etc. However, not infrequently, the speaker is forced to choose from a list of topics that are produced by a Degree Committee or the Department that manages the development of a particular course or activity. Then begins the “fajasn” for choosing the topics and especially the so-called access easier, when in fact most beaten paths are the most difficult to be able to leave a mark, so it is advisable not to rush, because this Much will depend now attainable hereafter.

Normally the issues are very comprehensive titles for a presentation, for example: “The Cuban Military Doctrine: The War of All the People”, hence can be tens of dissertations and even several theses, then you run the risk of being so general anything that is not specified and therefore being a total failure of the attempt dissertation.

Always be required to clearly define:

* That is to show (choose only one to two essential aspects, not try to make a thesis)

* That the author has capacity to cover what is proposed, because of their knowledge, the time available and the accessibility of certain literature

Considering these aspects, if the issue can be negotiated feasible, and if not, and is highly recommended No, forget the final definition of the title to conclude the preliminary work.

* Development of the hypothesis

You can not go forward if we fail to develop the hypothesis that will underpin all our work.

If a dissertation is a scientific research, although this is initial, elementary, must be based on certain assumption or prediction that takes as its starting point the existing theoretical and empirical knowledge of the facts and phenomena that give rise to the problem and this is what we call hypothesis.

All scientific research process target is plotted as a problem solving through demonstration or test a hypothesis.

The formulation of the hypothesis is a conjecture or supposition expressed as affirmative statement. Working without it impoverishes the theoretical level of research and will not allow adequate guidance on what to look for and reduces the theoretical model of the investigated object.

In the course of the investigation, the hypothesis is accurate, is rectified and modified according to the depth level of the object of study.

Examples of hypotheses on the subject may be initially treated:

* The War of All the People is part of the history of the Cuban nation.

* Systematic Attrition During the key role is played face aggression Revolutionary Armed Forces.

* The principle of “territoriality”, presides over all conceptions of the development of National Defense, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Cuba.

* Given U.S. military aggression scale to do a long war.

It is necessary to clarify that a job is selected a single hypothesis, and each of these examples may be entitled to a topic.

* The object of the research is that part of the objective reality of which is to act, both from the standpoint of practical and theoretical, with a view to resolving the hypothesis.

The purpose of the research should be characterized by particular and specific concepts, which are clear qualities and operations that can be observed in a given time.

Continuing with the previous example, we can define explained according to:

PURPOSE: To study the strategic and tactical principles employed by the major warlords, related to the participation of the people and the development of a people’s war, during the 10 Years War, War of Independence, insurrection against the Batista dictatorship and during confrontation with U.S. imperialism after the revolutionary triumph.

* Subject of the investigation

* Identification of the problem

The problem arises as a result of the diagnosis of the situation of the object in which it manifests a set of facts and unexplained phenomena.

To achieve a successful formulation of the problem, it is necessary to know the theory and history of it. The scientific study of the problem is the starting point on which to build new knowledge.

The problem must be formulated in the science concepts of particular matter in question, based on the system of scientific knowledge, when needed clearly the subject of the investigation.

The qualities that are required for this problem is considered as such are:

* Objectivity. – Every problem has to respond to a real need of society (Practical importance and social significance). The problem has to be an expression of a lack of knowledge, problem solving has to result in the emergence of new knowledge.

*

* Specificity. – It may be imprecise, it is necessary to determine which will be the subject matter of the investigation and what particular issues we care about.

*

* Proof. – The terms included in the formulation of the problem need to be checked by the researcher working directly in the search for information in a given time.

The problem can be formulated with one or more questions of a scientific nature, given the hypothesis and under investigation.

Continuing the example we have:

PROBLEM:

* The War of All the People, is a current denomination of war to a method developed by the Cuban people throughout their history or development means new beginning of the armed struggle.

* What are the principles of war employed during the 10 Years War, the War of Independence, the insurrection, and now. What are their common points and dissenting.

* What were the principles employed by War mambises warlords who allowed it to defeat an army superior in arms and men, which are present in the Cuban Military Doctrine of the All People’s War and what can be included

* Research Objectives

They are essentially the goals to be achieved in the investigation, so they must have the following characteristics:

* Specific, be clear about what, where, when and how it will change the situation,

* Measurable, it sought to quantify the targets and benefits;

* Achievable, possible achieve having identified the resources and capabilities available to whom planned actions;

* Realistically, it is possible to obtain the level of change reflected in the objective;

* Limited time, establishing at what period must complete each of them.

In the example discussed the objectives could be:

1. – Identify the principles of war employed in the wars for independence and during the insurrection.

2. – Sort on the principles of the present Cuban military doctrine, which correspond to the development of the war;

3. – Compare the early development of the war in both historical stages, determining which are common and which are not, determining its causes and its possible relevance to contemporary conditions of war.

4. – Generalize the fundamental principles of development of the people’s war, with the aim of deepening the concepts of the All People’s War and preparing to face an enemy aggression.

INITIAL DATA FOR DEVELOPMENT WILL WORK:

TOPIC: “The Cuban Military Doctrine: The War of All the People”

HYPOTHESIS: The War of All the People is part of the history of the Cuban nation.

PURPOSE: To study the strategic and tactical principles employed by the major warlords, related to the participation of the people and the development of a people’s war, during the 10 Years War, War of Independence, insurrection against the Batista dictatorship and during confrontation with U.S. imperialism after the revolutionary triumph.

PROBLEM:

* The War of All the People, is a current name to a method of warfare developed by our people throughout their history or development means new beginning of the armed struggle.

* What are the early development of the employees during the War of the 10 Years War, the War of Independence and now. What are their common points and dissenting.

* What were the principles employed by War mambises warlords who allowed it to defeat an army superior in arms and men, which are present in the Cuban Military Doctrine of the All People’s War and what can be included

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:

1. – Identify the principles of war employed in the wars for independence and during the insurrection.

2. – Sort on the principles of the present Cuban military doctrine, which correspond to the development of the war;

3. – Compare the early development of the war in both historical stages, determining which are common and which are not, determining its causes and its possible relevance to contemporary conditions of war.

4. – Generalize the fundamental principles of development of the people’s war, with the aim of deepening the concepts of the War of All the People and our preparedness to face an enemy aggression.

IMPORTANT:

At this time as is possible to define a little more Topic title:

“The Cuban Military Doctrine: The War of All the current or historical tradition Pueblo.Concepto.

* References to use

The author must manage, find, get, select, analyze and synthesize the documentation, theories, maps, videos, audios and other documentary sources that allow a conceptual form, exclusive to sustain itself and interpret scientific and technical study developing their research. This section must be taken into account the ability of information management, implemented their respective strategies and techniques.

We must start by finding all literature sources that discuss the theme, for this we can use automated means using any or several of the “seekers” existing, even knowing that there is already a search engine that has access to Cuban national literature all digitized. We must also access the reference sections of any library to point us what exists on the subject, as we find here in the chips for topics or authors.

For each work found and the decision is made to employ an index card, which can be by title or author, using a small piece of cardboard saying the title of the text or Web site, the author’s full name and the library where and the key is the reference that will allow you to access it easily. The reverse is advisable to make a note on the importance attached to the author for his work and then allowing you to develop the priority order.

Usually requires a graduation thesis or dissertation or lifting educational category should have about 40-50 references, a specialty graduate should include a 50-70 reference sources, for master’s thesis or dissertation must mention about 80-100 authors and a doctoral thesis must be based on no less than 150 renowned authors and preferably all the scientific degree or higher.

II. – Bibliography.

Note that this step may be the most extensive work to develop, because depending on the nature of the study, creativity, imagination, inventiveness and interpretation of the author, you can vary the amount of references used, and it will largely depend on the To get to fulfill the purposes that were outlined in the preliminary stage.

First step. You will need to choose the literature base, which shall consist of those manuals, books, Web sites, multimedia, etc.. that address the theme in its most complete form, enabling the author to get a complete idea of what to look for, and should be the least possible.

To work this bibliography is advisable to first read them full of “truck” as the saying goes. The second reading will be more detailed and thorough, taking into account certain preliminary data, marking the fundamentals (if the book is itself a possible marker underline and make marginal notes on the ideas that emerge during reading, if shading works on PC, change the font color and make any notes)

Step. Develop the topic guide for the bibliography. To do this, using the object, the Problem and objectives previously identified and the basic texts must divide the literature search work in sections and headings.

Example of Guide:

* General.

1.1. The concept of military doctrine. Importance of definition for National Defense

1.2. The concept of War

2. The 10 Years War.

2.1. Carlos Manuel de Cspedes

2.1.1 His proclamation start the fight.

Their conceptions 2.1.2 Development of War

2.1.3 The Constitution of Guaimaro

2.2 Ignacio Agramonte

2.2.1 Development Their conceptions of war

2.2.2 Employment in Camagey cavalry.

Etc, Etc,

10. Conclusions

11. Recommendations

This guide can be developed on the PC, and later gradually introduce tabs content where it belongs, but also need to have it printed, because sometimes you will need to produce chips on hand to subsequently pass them, unless you own a laptop PC I can move to where you are performing the bibliography.

Step. The development of the tabs content is the fundamental work of literature collection and will be essential for theoretical work and in achieving the goals set.

The bibliography began to be realized by the basic texts, will be its third reading, and concluded these worked the rest begin, determining pre order of priority. It should be noted that as to be given work may be appearing other literature references which incorporate and be determined, otherwise it may deviate from the objectives and make endless work.

The chips are made with certain requirements, which can not be ignored without offending against the principles of authenticity and reliability and therefore the scientific character of the work.

The chips can be made in the middle of a sheet of letter (A4). At the top are the reference points of the guide and then copy verbatim what the author wrote in quotes (“x”). At the bottom is stated who is the author, the title of the work, the editor who made the publication date and page from which it was copied.

On the reverse side, or in the case then it is done on a PC, are recorded the ideas raised during the gathering.

Sample Content tab:

 

Importantly for the bibliography can be corrected the guide produced, as may arise or eliminated some new elements.

Step Four. Once worked all literature, and study is required to order the chips.

During the collection to write a scientific paper or dissertation perform the upgrading teacher can accumulate over 1,000 pieces, requiring meticulous establish order, to pass the theoretical elaboration.

It is advisable to keep the organization of the guide tabs preset and start reviewing each section, paragraph by paragraph ordering the cards in chronological order (by date) or according to the determination of the author as they read the cards. If new ideas are written on one of the tabs or develops a new tab with the same. It is also the case where it is necessary to relocate a tab has been realizing misclassified or that is more convenient, its content, have it elsewhere.

III.-theorizing

It is at this stage that reveal the author’s scientific abilities, mastery of research methods and their real possibilities to access the degree to which it aspires.

Must demonstrate the accuracy of the assumptions made, achieving problem question answer and reach the objectives of the research.

Is required to achieve a qualitative leap in the theory, as refusing to practice dialectic. It requires a deeper critical analysis of the information obtained, both empirical and theoretical, is required to deepen the internal contradictions and find cause and effect, systemic internal relations, essential, stable, repeatable and binding that occur between the components of the object.

Before beginning the analysis and writing is appropriate to review several presentations made before, related to the subject or topic, detailing its organization and presentation.

First analyze whether to maintain the sections of the guide as chapters or whether to vary them. The advice, in the case of dissertations is not formally divided and that this exposure is composed only of three parts: Introduction, Development, Conclusions and Recommendations.

The theoretical development should be done by sections of the guide, using the obtained bibliography and currently performing any table, graph, map, etc. deemed necessary. From this analysis should be written the first version of that part and partial conclusions about the hypothesis, the object, the problem and the research objectives. Once each section should be treated the study as a system, as a single, and as a result developed rewrite everything.

During this stage arise many ideas are lost because they can not write at the time and then forgotten. Such is the case when you sleep, and has in mind the work that is being developed and mid morning or waking something comes to mind, or in a meeting on another aspect, etc.. It is therefore advisable to always have a notepad and pen to write these ideas and then analyze them.

No scientific work can boast such references if you have inserted into your text, but these have to be really important, provide essential and recognized the author’s own intellectual authority. Moreover, the inclusion of many quotes just for questioning the authenticity and character of the author and creator, if this is an error, the worse it verbatim copy written by other authors without so state in writing to the footer, which is plagiarism.

The conclusions are the key part of the dissertation, therefore must be carefully developed and should provide clear and convincing answer to the scenario developed, the problem question and reflect the performance of the proposed objectives (without mentioning formally) is recommended to write several times, leaving them “ripen” for several days between each attempt.

The partial conclusions determined in each section are the basis for their development, but only constitute a working tool and should not be said at the show, let alone in the final brief.

Often makes recommendations that could be written, even before determining the preliminary and is therefore questionable its emergence as a result of the investigation. Therefore be drawn again and again until you are convinced and sure that they are the result of the work and the author’s experience.

The Introduction is recommended to be the last to be developed, and should be very specific, highlighting the issue of timeliness, the importance of studying and state historical and scientific development. Also it should be noted the scenario developed for the development work. It is not appropriate at this time to discover the goals, much less talk about the demonstration of the assumptions and results of the work (this is done only when requested a review or summary of the work).

Normally not required to speakers present their work in writing in advance, but still is required in a scientific paper to give a formality in terms of preparation and presentation. Develop work includes carefully review spelling and writing, read it again and again, perfecting its theoretical content and formal.

Written work is done on A4 sheets (8.5x11cm) double-spaced, without erasures or deletions. Pages are numbered consecutively, including title.

IV DISSERTATION PREPARATION

The results of an investigation, to be developed theoretically can have an extension of up to 100 pages or more annexes excluded, but to present it is required to determine to be treated in this dissertation and usually must be done in 50-60 minutes, therefore the extent of work to be set this time. Whereas a page of text, on average requires 2 minutes to be explained and if you have a lot more tables or diagrams, work must not have more than 20 sheets

The success of the dissertation depends on the level of detail that has made preparation once the process.

The presentation of the dissertation can be done in digital (Power Point), with transparencies or banners. The first, not because it is the most modern is always more convenient because in this and transparencies few seconds each frame is exposed to serve as a reference and on many occasions it is necessary to repeat or go back. For both methods require that each box has a limited content as the main requirement is that it can be clearly seen by the court and not serving to read by the speaker, common mistake.

When there are multiple work schedules or maps or formulas it is best to go to the banners. Moreover they allow the speaker to order your exposure by placing banners all simultaneously and in turn will make it feasible and informed responses to questions asked by the court. Also on banners, in addition to what you want to show, you can make notes in smaller letters legible only to the speaker, which serve as a guide during the exhibition.

Preparing the dissertation defense be exposed to some of the companions of the Department, so that they will present their criteria, which is not well explained, what should be varied in the order, if the conclusions reflect the work done and whether the recommendations have practical value. This step can be done several times and even if you have a computer record their exposure and hear himself, correcting any defect of speech, phrases, etc.. Whenever possible attend some lectures preceding theirs, in order to gain experience and learn about the development of the court.

V, – CONDUCT OF DISSERTATION

The dissertation is done continuously, not stopping for any reason, you should purchase an exposure rate that is neither too fast nor too slow, and highly moderate voice, emphasizing key issues and even raising his voice repeating, subsequently adopting moderate pace. Time should be checked by placing a watch on the pulpit or computer table. Although be facing and looking directly at the board members should not see, or hear, ie should not allow comments expressions or influence them in his dissertation.

After the exhibition, one passes to the realization of questions by members of the court, how to be able to face this time will depend on the evaluation exceedingly. The first thing to be convinced that the author is none of these, except perhaps a few exceptions, will dominate what has exposed as he dominates, he has devoted much time to its study and deepening. Do not rush to answer, request that they do so and allow all members of the court to make their questions, list each carefully and start taking the time to answer it deems necessary, without being repetitive or redundant, explicit and Specifically, do not touch, or extend what has not been questioned.

It is essential at this time not to adopt a defensive position, touching aspects may not taken into account during the study or it really is necessary to deepen, not justified, there is no scientific work that can encompass all phenomena, therefore, acknowledge the observation and pose that will consider it for future research, is the most reasonable and politically.

REFERENCES

* Amarizca Valenzuela, Roberto. Dissertation or scientific paper. In: 2/2007

* Hurtado, Jacqueline. Book Summary of Research Methodology. In. 2/2007

* Hernandez Sampieri, R et al. Research Methodology. Mexico, Mc Graw Hiil. 1988.

* Scientific Research. In 4/2007

* Plasencia, Aleida. Methodical Method and historical. Cuban Book Institute. 1976

* Sabino, Carlos The research process. In 2/2007

* Zayas, A. Scientific Research Methodology .. Eastern University. In digital format.

 

M. Rodrigo Rodriguez Angulo Sc

Assistant Professor, University of Information Sciences