The crimes of the Nazis had caused at least one among allies unwavering purpose: to eliminate the scourge of Nazism.
The purposes of the allies were too divergent Churchill wanted to prevent the Soviet Union and Stalin dominated Central Europe wanted his military victories and suffering of the Russian people were paid territorial currency. The new president, Harry Truman, initially struggled to take the legacy of Roosevelt and hold together the alliance.
However there was a blackout in terms of allies: the United States and the USSR, both great on the periphery, now faced in the heart of Europe.
Truman presided over the beginning of the Cold War and the development of the policy of containment. Embrace the Marshall Plan and the Point Four Program, by which the United States dedicated its resources and its economy to the recovery and development of distant societies.
Stalin took advantage of the weakening of the Western Europe and the planned withdrawal of U.S. forces to advance the Soviet border 1,000 kilometers west to the Elbe.
The story begins in the Cold War was to face the fact that tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States had not been caused by any mistake but, in fact, were generic.
Truman began his presidency trying to pursue the idea of the four policemen. Truman drew a contrast between the world community and chaos, and saw no alternative but anarchy to global collective security. Was rededicated in a special obligation to the Allies: keep your unit to establish and maintain a peaceful international order.
Stalin returned to his old system to direct its foreign policy and demanded payment for his victories in the only currency that interested him: territorial domain.
To Stalin’s diplomacy was but one aspect of a general struggle and inevitable to define the relationship of forces.
It can be seen that since the Cold War there is a new balance of power where there is a reduction in the number of great powers with the United States and the Soviet Union to the head. We see clearly that there is a bipolarity of power.
The power of the United States and the Soviet Union, compared to their current or future allies, has become so overwhelmingly superior that only through their own preponderance determine the balance of power between them. The balance of power has transformed from multipolar to bipolar.
There is a tendency towards a two blocks. As a result of this flexibility has disappeared bipolarity balance of power. Two superpowers, each incomparably stronger than any other power or combination of powers, oppose each other. The disparity between the major and minor powers is so great that they have lost the strength to participate in the role of the balance of power.
The disappearance of the mediator, is another consequence of this bipolarity of power, that is, is another change in the structure of the balance of power.
Today Britain is no longer able to fulfill that role (“holder of the balance”), because the modern technology of war has robbed the navy his undeniable mastery of the seas.
It can be deduced that the decline in the relative power of Great Britain, and his resulting inability to maintain its key position in the balance of power, not a fact attributable only to Britain.
The problem of the “Third Force”. There is a third force that can stand as “balance of power holder.”
Concepts to be used throughout the work:
* Cold War is an ongoing situation that emerges strongly in the immediate postwar period and will face first two superpowers (U.S. and USSR).
* International Relations (Truyol): those relations between human individuals and communities in its genesis and its effectiveness are not exhausted within a community, but transcends it.
* International System (Barb) is a conj. of actors relate to each other generating a power configuration (structure) within which there are a complex network of interactions (process) or a certain rules.
* Actor is one actor who exists as a legal entity. Identity is able to exert any kind of influence on the SI. According Barb: SI is that unity that has skills to mobilize resources to achieve your goals.
* Foreign Policy: process by which interests are formulated by a State.
* Diplomacy: Conj. mechanisms by which a State implements its foreign policy.
* UN: It is designed to safeguard the errors of the League of Nations. Create a Security Council (5) permanent and (10) non-permanent.
* Letter: A set of rules that constitute the United Nations system.
* International Regime: norms, rules, and procedures Ppios decision making which converge the expectations of actors in a specific area of issues.
* Organizations II: association of states for the realization of common objectives and structure II equipped with own independent standing bodies of member states.
* Definition of Power (Barb): are those who set the rules of games, and you have the resources, and they are able to mobilize to defend the rules of games.
* High power is applied after 2 GM a group of countries, with global interests. (France, Britain, China, Japan and Germany) c / u meets funct. diff.
* Hegemon: the U.S. is applied on the basis of their ability to make the rules of games in the economic and the political – military (along with the USSR). What U.S. would differ with the USSR during the Cold War. That is, it would be the only power with enough influence to determine the structure of power in all spheres (political, military, economic).
* International Politics: are interactions between two or more states – state or non-state, belonging to different political systems.
* Balance of Power: the result of a conj. Interstate Relations, consisting of an approximate equilibrium condition between two alliances.
* Superpower: Appears after the Cold War bipolar system, has a nuclear deterrent. His sphere of influence affects the whole globe. Both superpower like the great power are what dictate the rules of the game are what make the order in the system, not just putting sanctions but by creating rules that serve to the rest of the actors.
* Balance of terror: the fear that arises in the Cold War against the constant threat of nuclear war, in which there would be neither victor nor vanquished.
Origins and nature.
The alliance of the Soviet Union with Britain, the U.S. and France in World War II was a pact circumstantial. The prolonged coexistence between democratic and communist regimes became impossible.
The German attack on the Soviet territory in the summer of 1941, caused a shift of Stalinist diplomacy to Britain. He had an accent utilitarian: London was required by Stalin to the British Army opened one western front. This was impossible, but did manage to compromise with the Soviet annexation of the territories of eastern Poland in 1939 and in the Baltic States in 1940.
The victories of the Soviet Army were combined with diplomacy, full of ambiguities, trying to reassure the British and Americans. Moscow with its allies guaranteed self-determination of those territories to expel the Germans. The real intention was very different. After Yalta (1945), Stalin, denying ambivalence, refused to free elections in Poland. Churchill, after this event, reached the clear conclusion that the term democracy had a radically different reading for the Western democracies and the Soviet bloc. His idea of a United States of Europe showed unfeasible. He was the first to foresee the immediate bloc politics and its inherent risks.
* The structure of a rigid bipolar system, which did not fit the intermediate positions, that aligned to two blocks of countries grouped around two imperial powers, the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The postwar world was prepared to contemplate the hegemony of the big three, but the exhaustion of the UK and the serious problems that led to its decolonization process, gradually forced him to discharge its international responsibilities in the U.S., which thus became gendarmes in Western versus Soviet bloc.
* The tension between the two poles, motivated by the search for strategic balance in a world profoundly changed by the Second World War and subjected to continuous changes in the postwar period. The need for constant reaffirmation of leadership of the two superpowers, the forced alignment of other nations and the ongoing military buildup and ideology are the most important consequences of the search for balance, which is in the nuclear race its best.
* A calculated risk policy intended at first to the containment of the progress of the opponent and then to deter any hostile act but avoiding a conflict of global. This policy led to the continued occurrence of hot spots.
* Korea, Berlin, Cuba, etc. – Where the blocks measured their forces, ready to rebuild the “status quo” through negotiation, in terms of risk-taking is excessive for both. The uncertainty about the intentions and the resilience of the adversary forced a continuous increase in the offensive capability of the blocks since the last risk to take, always present in the plans of the General Staffs would be World War III.
* The role assigned to the United Nations as a forum for discussion between the blocks, the last action before the crisis and the propaganda stage opponents. Despite the negative effects of the veto, the “global directory” representing the permanent members of the Security Council and the increasing role of the Assembly and the Secretary General, the UN became a vital platform for dialogue in years in which international language appeared warlike connotations.
Evolutions of the Cold War world.
Truman and containment policy (1946-1953).
Churchill recognized in 1946 the evidence of Soviet control in most of the states of Central and Eastern Europe, behind what he called the Iron Curtain.
In 1946, under pressure from the UN, the Soviet Union had to withdraw its troops from Iran, where they were from 1941. However, demanded the recognition of the Republic of Azerbaijan, was going to join the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. But Stalin was frustrated his project to install bases in the Dardanelles, a longstanding goal of Tsarist Russia.
After requests from Western leaders, U.S. President Truman, in his speech to the House of Congress, in March 1947, announced the change in U.S. foreign policy. It was actually a formal act. The U.S. intervention in World War II, had broken its policy of distancing of European affairs. The first world power could not consider such participation as a parenthesis and retract the new order, which had been developed greatly. What might be called the Truman Doctrine was completed in the beginning of containing communism, and it showed in Greece.
Since 1946 the British were fighting in support of the economy helena against communist guerrillas, the Greek Democratic Army (ELAS). The Yugoslav border closure to this movement, after the breakdown of Tito to Moscow in 1948, and sending the U.S. Sixth Fleet in the Aegean, but not acted directly-meant salvation: shoring up the Greek crown. The Soviet Union was frustrated his attempt to control the Aegean and the Balkans in Greece with the installation of a Republic. In return the United States gathered for the British, with serious economic problems, the control of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
In June 1947, the Marshall Plan was born as an important initiative within the containment policy. Its economic reach was not without political implications. The associate of Stalin, Andrei Zhdanov, condemned the U.S. initiative: “American imperialism strives, as a usurer, to exploit the needs of postwar European countries. But such economic control implies a political dependency of American imperialism” (September 1947).
The Marshall Plan, as eminently economic fact – though not exclusive in its scope – was the historical trigger of the Cold War. Poland and Czechoslovakia, accepted the U.S. economic aid. Stalin, who could not allow cracks in your block, forced them to retreat.
In response to the U.S. plan, the Soviet Unio, ruined by war, took initiatives. First, create an ideological solidarity with its satellites. The Soviet Intelligence Bureau (Cominform) would ensure its cohesion. Then, in 1949, you configure the COMECON or CMEA, autarkic economic structure, and real basic aim was economic development of the Soviet Union, through the control of the member countries. It is sometimes presented as a common market.
The Sovietization of East reaffirmed by these two routes, trying to eliminate all U.S. influence in the area. If 1947 is considered almost unanimously, the year of the split between the United States and the Soviet Union, 1948 became the first year of the Cold War.
The Prague coup.
After 1946 Czechoslovakia was ruled by coalition governments. In 1947 he accepted the Marshall Plan, but was forced by the Soviet Union to the resignation. The climate of Communist intransigence led to the coup of Prague (1948), which meant the formation of a Communist government, the violent elimination of political opposition, the ouster of President-Democrat and proooccidental-and, finally, Moscow had control of the most prosperous economy in the countries of Eastern Europe.
The Berlin crisis.
One of the resolutions adopted at the Potsdam Conference (1945), divided Germany into four occupation zones.
As a result of the policy of mutual monitoring undergoing the two superpowers, the idea was born in American, British and French, to give a constitution to West Germany, divided into three parts since 1945 and 3/4 of Berlin who were in his possession. The theoretical goal was the reunification of the whole of Germany, actually knew the Soviet Union’s position contrary to that purpose. The most that was aspired to the reunification of their territories, and thus get a buffer state, and coalesced powerful Western powers, against the Soviet thrust.
The creation of a single state bank and the appearance of the frame as the monetary unit, in June 1948, Moscow had a strong response: the land blockade of West Berlin, the 24th of the same month. The move took U.S. and British to build two military airlifts of supplies to West Berlin. The first from Frankfurt, the second from Hannover. These added a third civilian from Hamburg. Stalin Truman threatened with war if this help was intercepted. Meanwhile shaken the world watched the mobilization of the armies of the two blocks and the subsequent developments. On May 12, 1949 Stalin decided to end the blockade. During this time, an average of 1,400 daily flights to West Berlin stocked with everything you need.
In May de1949 born West Germany (FRG) and the Soviets, in turn, proclaimed the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in October. Two extraordinary geopolitical events of magnitude in the intensification of the Cold War.
The Korean War.
The output of the Communist bloc Yugoslavia (1948) was soon counterbalanced by the rise of Mao Tse-tung to the headquarters of China (1949).
The Japanese withdrawal of Chinese territory after World War II led to a civil war (1945-1949), which pitted the Liberal Party Chinese Tang Kuo-Ming Chiang Kai-Check, with Mao’s communist. After the failed attempts of a coalition government, saw the first armed confrontation.
The support of the Soviet Union since 1947 lent Mao was critical to its success. Chiang Kai-Check, defeated established a new state on the island of Formosa (Taiwan): Nationalist China, before the Republic of China was proclaimed on October 1, 1949.
In 1950 the Soviet Union and China signed a dual economic and political pact. In the first, Mao returned Port Arthur Manchuria Railway and the Soviets and in return received financial and technical help, especially military. In the second they agreed with the nationalist movements in Korea and Indochina. The 38th parallel divided the Korean peninsula into two zones occupied by the Soviet Union on North and South America, after evicting the Japanese in 1945. Japan had held until then, as domain since 1894.
The Soviets refused to free elections, based on the unification of Korea. The occupation troops withdrew from both areas. In the North was installed a communist regime in the South and other ultraconservative proooccidental.
The irreconcilability of these two schemes, led the Northern army’s invasion of the South in June 1950. Immediately, the Security Council of the UN condemned the attack and suggested sending a multinational force that would act under the banner of this organization. This maneuver was possible to not present the Soviet Union, with a veto in the Council. His absence was due to the attitude of protest against the stance of U.S. support to the China Nationalist China the only recognized by the UN.
The North Korean invasion seemed unstoppable and Truman ordered U.S. forces displacing from Japan. Along with an army of fourteen countries landed near Seoul on September 15. The supreme command of this quota, mainly American troops went to General MacArthur. The North Koreans began the retreat to the Chinese border. Mao seized the moment to intervene, claiming the defense and survival of their state, not recognized by the UN.
The popular Chinese military intervention pushed back the international forces, to the point that MacArthur Truman proposed the atomic bombing of Manchurian strategic enclaves. MacArthur was dismissed. The Korean conflict had to be kept within the framework of a localized war.
Peace negotiations began in 1951 and an armistice was not signed until 1953. The war left an overall balance of a million dead. The 38th parallel was again the dividing line of two states today maintain a latent conflict.
NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
In a climate of pre-war between the West and the Eastern countries in 1949 lined the first Atlantic Pact signed in 1950 resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It was signed pro United States, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, Norway, Denmark and Ireland. Turkey and Greece would do in 1952, West Germany in 1955 and Spain in 1982.
The integration of West Germany into NATO was the trigger that caused historic, in 1955, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact. It was originally composed by the Soviet Union, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Albania. In 1956 there was the accession of the German Democratic Republic.
The Covenant, for purposes like NATO, notable differences remained with her, because also used to suppress internal dissent in the socialist bloc. This was demonstrated interventions in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968). Their internal organization was strongly centralized, had a more restricted than the military bloc led by the United States, since they deployed in other military alliances, its defense network around the world: Organization of American States (OAS), Defense Treaty Southeast Asia (SEATO), Australia, New Zealand, United States (ANZUS), Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), located in the Near and Middle East.
Khrushchev and Peaceful Coexistence (1953-1964).
Malenkov, Stalin’s successor, announced the new hub of international politics of his country: he negotiated all their problems. Consequently Soviet Union advocated for the promotion of consumer goods industry and the slowdown in heavy industry, in the manufacture of basic military equipment, but not everyone agreed: Nikita Khrushchev, Secretary of the CPSU since 1953, considered this industrial policy contrary to the promotion of Soviet military power in full arms race with the United States. The military supported the fall of Malenkov as president of government.
In the XX Congress of the CPSU (1956), Khrushchev reaffirmed guidance of international politics, it certainly transcended any kind of personalism. There was coexistenncia expressed the principle of peaceful, “based on political struggle, economic and ideological but not military” in his own words. The Soviets promoted the thaw in relations with the bloc adversary, but from a position of strength: military power comparable to U.S. diplomatic contacts with leaders of major nations arc of varied ideologies, support for national liberation movements what is called the Third World, and fight for the conquest of political power in the West through democratic mechanics. This line of action explains the alternating moments of tension and peaceful coexistence period.
The 1953 elections led to Eisenhower, representative of the moderate wing of the Republican Party to the White House. It was a Secretary of State, Foster Dulles, who scored the foreign policy guidelines. The U.S. administration continued in the fifties with the containment policy, but within a new strategy. Dulles policy formulated on the Brink, which involved the doctrine of massive retaliation.
The approach to the Soviet bloc decolonized territories or in the process of doing so, of particular concern to Washington. So the U.S. presence in former colonies doubles as an expression of the domino theory proposed by Dulles. U.S. ampararan not only to democracies, but any form of authoritarian or dictatorial government against communism. The Vietnamese case seemed to give sufficient arguments to the thesis of the U.S. secretary of state.
The battle of Dien Bien Fu (1954) meant the defeat of the French colonial army in Indochina. Nationalism independence of the area was covered by Moscow and Beijing, they secured the French possessions in Southeast Asia would become four countries: Cambodia, Laos, South Vietnam and North Vietnam, the latter under a communist regime personified by Ho- Chi-Minh and General Giap. Regime, in the seventies, communism spread to three other states mentioned.
In 1949 the Soviet Union had the atomic bomb and four years later with the hydrogen. The nuclear arms race was open in a duel of destructiveness. In 1956 the Soviets had developed intercontinental ballistic in 1957 and launched into space the first artificial satellite Sputnik, was the start of another career technical power and prestige. The U.S. government said the installation of medium-range missiles, equipped with nuclear warheads in Europe (Great Britain, Italy, Turkey). Witnessing the balance of terror. The mutual fear of a war in which there would be no winners or losers. In Geneva, 1955, the two great powers engage in nuclear disarmament talks.
In 1959, Foster Dulles died, Khrushchev met with Eisenhower at Camp David: Disarmament, negotiation, dialogue were the terms that defined the match. In which there was no any practical progress.
The Suez Crisis.
The nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egypt in June 1956 must be interpreted in light of the Bandung Conference (1955) and the leadership that Egyptian President Nasser holding in the Afro-Asian and pan-Islamist Third World. From a neutral position between the two blocs, Egypt had come to America in search of financial support for the construction of the Aswan Dam. Foster Dulles wanted to change a significant shift in policy from that country to U.S. interests. Nasser relented and found the support he sought in the Soviet Union.
This approach to Moscow seemed to swing the Egyptian foreign policy on the line against the West, despite its official neutrality. That seemed to indicate collaboration with Algerian war of independence with France.
The Canal, build under the Second French Empire, was configured as a French company with Egyptian participation. Economic problems in Egypt led to the sale of its shares to Britain. In 1956, the Canal was owned by an international company with French and English as majority shareholders.
Israel was surrounded by Nasser’s pan-Islamism. The nationalization of the Canal was considered a threat to the State and, in the night from 29 to 30 October, the Israelis leveled the Egyptian troops stationed in the Sinai. French elite troops and British took the Canal. In November, the Security Council of the UN asked the Soviets and Americans in Suez mediaci0n. The Soviet Union decided to send the fleet to the area, permission to sail Turkish straits, and even threatened to use nuclear weapons invaders.
Foster Dulles ended by asking, bluntly, its allies to withdraw from the area.
For the first time the two superpowers were related to an international problem. Egypt regained control of the Canal. Echo had been ratified by the Security Council of the UN. The Israelis retreated into their territory and the UN created an international monitoring force in Suez.
The Hungarian crisis.
Khrushchev, in his statement on the different roads to socialism in the XX Congress of the CPSU, opened the possibility of a humanized communism. From this premise was established a national government in communist Poland (1956), but within the limited sovereignty, or what was the same, dependent on Moscow.
Encouraged by the Polish case, in Budapest, also in 1956, starred Imre Nagy, a democratic endeavor. Nagy told in his attempt with the unions, with a section of the Hungarian Communist Party, the university and the military. Hungary declared itself neutral, leaving the Warsaw Pact and called for the departure of Soviet troops.
The Kremlin at this position held that the Hungarian case could cause an irreparable breach in the strength of the block and the November 5 Budapest dominated the Soviet army in an unequal struggle with the population. Nagy, would be executed in Romania, after a summary trial and secret.
The international forum of the UN condemned the intervention, but the Western bloc maintained a lukewarm attitude being the case. The chronological parallelism with the Suez crisis could help it so. Ultimately an implied covenant defined catchment areas of the blocks.
The Berlin crisis II.
In 1958, Khrushchev opened a debate with his country’s former allies, Berlin was to be demilitarized free city and proclaimed. The Soviet Union sign a peace deal separately with the German Democratic Republic, if, within six months of negotiations did not start. There was also no unity of opinion on the reunification of the two Germanys. The Soviet government wanted to occur by an agreement between the two states, while the West wanted a free plebiscite of all Germans. The difference of approach lay in the fact that the population of the FRG was double that of the German Democratic Republic.
The debate came to a head in 1961. Moscow reiterated its intention to make peace with the German Democratic Republic, unilaterally, which meant the refusal of German unity. In August, construction began on the Berlin world, symbol of bloc politics. The downing of a U.S. spy plane over Soviet territory in 1960, even more difficult relationships and antinuclear talks were suspended.
The Cuban crisis.
The Cuban revolutionary regime that ended the power of the dictator Batista (1959) provided economic and military agreements with the Soviet Union in 1960. On May 1, 1961, Fidel Castro proclaimed Marxist Socialist Republic. The United Party, unique in the country after the elimination of non-communist groups, change its name to the Communist Party in 1965.
Castro’s approach, at first, the United States had doubts about the real intentions of the revolution headed. In the hostile attitude of the American administration towards Castro’s Cuba, which soon began nationalization, has sought the origin of the approach to the communist bloc. This hostility was openly again with the new American president John F. Kennedy (1961). Although not approved the invasion of the island by the army, consented prepared by the CIAL operations: a landing anti-Castro Cuban exiles in Bay of Pigs (April 1961) which was a complete failure.
In October 1962, the White House knew the existence in Cuba of launchers aimed at medium-range missiles, capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
The alternatives that were considered were: the bombing of the landing bases or naval blockade. Prevailed this option became effective on October 22. On 26, the Soviet Unio admitted the existence of nuclear missiles in Cuba, qualifying its defensive and direct control. The situation was tense and the world immediately feared the outbreak of nuclear war.
Soviet ships approached the blockade, Moscow received orders back bow. On 28, the foundation had been dismantled, the day after the American ships withdrew. Decisions Khrushchev had had the full backing of the Supreme Soviet. Kennedy tried to soften this Soviet defeat in the eyes of the world, pledging to remove nuclear weapons from bases in Turkey. Actually the measure lacked strategic importance as nuclear-power operating Polaris rockets-was carried by nuclear submarines Nautilus type.
The balance of terror with the constant threat of nuclear war cemented what I call Nuclear Peace, a new phase, the last, in the context of the Cold War, it would have happened to the suspension of nuclear tests in 1963, as interpreted by Mao ideological betrayal of the Soviet Union, a significant step in the Chinese distancing Moscow.
Vietnam was the longest and toughest conflict of the Cold War.
Japan occupied this territory during the Second World War, at the time of the recapitulation the Vietminh (anticolonial resistance movement, communist-inspired) occupy the power vacuum, implanting the Republic of Vietnam. While in southern Britain occupied Saigon although the former colony ceded to France, it outlined a strategy to conquer the north turn and retrieve the entire Indochina peninsula
The First Indochina War (1946-1954)
France faced Vietminh guerrillas. Recovery was a colonial war, this war ended with the French defeat in Indochina.
For the Geneva Agreements on Indochina July 1954 was divided into three states (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) to free elections next few reunificaran the country. It was recognized in the communist north of Ho Chi Minh and French interests were preserved.
The origins of the Vietnam War
United States contrary to communism in Asia launched an operation to replace France as a power in the area, to achieve overthrew the Emperor Bao Dai in South Vietnam and implant the Catholic, and associate of the American ideology, Ngo Dinh Diem, this was the first phase. In 1955 he proclaimed the Republic of South Vietnam, thus leaving Vietnam divided into two part the communist North and South American support. When choosing a Catholic ruler in southern Vietnam is faced Buddhist trends, the majority in the country, taking advantage of this situation constituted Vietminh in 1960, the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam.
The U.S. intervention
The acinacin of peasants in the countryside and the overthrow of the Catholic leader Ngo Dinh Diem led to U.S. intervention, which supported by the U.S. Senate was held in 1964 from left are intensifying the number of troops and bombing, in 1965 the war spread to Laos and Cambodia but the guerrillas was uncontrollable and in 1968 the United States began to reduce the number of troops in Vietnam and intensifying the number of bombings, also opened the way for dialogue and in 1973 just after the conflict summit Paris. Following the war the revolutionary troops took Saigon, China joined the UN (1971) and is over, the months, the conflict in Laos and Cambodia. As a major consequence, the United States suffered the greatest military defeat in its history.
In conclusion of the Cold War can be said that beyond these two blocks was a third world, non-aligned, but their responses to conflict were really influenced by any block.
The Cold War generally avoided a direct confrontation.
The permanent tension was launched, the constant military threat, both conventional and nuclear, along with the ideological confrontation and economic warfare.
The Cold War profoundly altered the social, economic and political development of all the countries that form the international society and altered the collective psychology of the people.
One cause of this so-called “Cold War” is the inability of nations to cooperate and agreed policies, just after the Second World War to provide something. United States feared USSR capitalizing on Europe and Asia and submit them thus varying its international market and the USSR vice versa so that both were in constant tension.
Nuclear control could be established during the Cold War by a balance of terror: one thing to accept the risks of a conventional attack; quite another cause and thereby secure our own destruction. In addition, members of the international nuclear club were few and their political systems allow decisions to minimize the possibility of suicide. In these circumstances, the possibility of total annihilation meant, paradoxically, a guarantee of peace. The world witnessed one of the longest periods in history without a collision between great powers.
All definitions of the national interest in international affairs tend to soft already damning: all seem to fall, in one way or another, the need to create an international environment conducive to survival.
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* Morgenthau, Hans J.: Politics in the UN. Editorial GEL. Buenos Aires 1992. Part Seven, Chapter No. 21 and 24.
* Kissinger, Henry.: The Diplomacy. Editorial “Economic Culture Fund. Mexico 1994. Chapters XVII to XXXI.
* Paradiso, Joseph.: The era of the superpowers. Editorial Forum South S.R.L. Argentina.
* Encyclopedia Aristides Quillet. Mexico. Volume I.
* Atlas of World History. Clarin. Argentina 1994.