The Lathe

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* The lathe

* Work movements in the turning operation

* Structure around

* Classes around

* Non-production lathes

* Semi-production lathes

* Production lathes

The lathe is a machine for making geometric form of revolution. Used from very ancient times for pottery.

Then it consisted of a circular plate mounted on a vertical axis at the bottom was another dish that was rotated with the foot, to form, with clay, pieces of revolution with variable section.

Later came into use in carpentry for turned parts.

Over time it has come to become an important machine in the industrial process today.

the lathe

The lathe is a machine tool for machining parts by removing material revolution chip shaped by a cutting tool. This will be appropriate to the material to be machined can be made of carbon steel, high speed steel, cobalt high speed steel, tungsten carbide, ceramics, diamond, etc.. and always will be tougher and stronger than machined material.

This machine is very important in making that dates back to 1910 in its modern versions, but since the mid-seventeenth century were simple versions where the movement of the workpieces was driven by simple arrangements for strings, since the industrial revolution, where down the main parameters of this machine has hardly been changed except Numerical control integration in recent decades.


Cutting motion: usually imparts to the part that rotates about its vertical axis rotationally. This movement was printed an electric motor transmits its rotation to the main spindle through a system of pulleys and gears.

The main spindle has its end coupled to various fastening systems (claw plates, clamps, chucks auxiliary …), which clamp the workpiece.

Forward movement: it is due to longitudinal or transverse movement of the tool on the piece being worked.

In combination with the rotation imparted to the spindle, determines the distance traveled by the tool by giving each turn piece.

The movement may also not be parallel to the axes, thus producing cones. In that case the truck is rotated under the cross on a scale adjusting the angle required, which is half of the desired taper.

Depth: movement of the tool that determines the depth of material removed with each pass although the amount of material removed is always subject to the profile of the cutting tool used, type of material machining, cutting speed, etc..

The lathe can perform turning, boring, threading, endorsed, grooving, drilling, reaming, knurling, turning online, etc., Using different types of tools and interchangeable with various forms according to the forming operation to perform.

With the right accessories, which otherwise are simple, you can also perform milling, grinding and a series of machining operations.


The lathe has five components. The main parts are around the main spindle, bed, tailstock, carriage and drive forward.

The spindle containing the gears, pulleys which drive the workpiece and the feed units. The header includes the motor spindle speed selector switch unit and selector forward feed direction. It also serves to support and rotation of the workpiece spindle is supported.

The base serves as a support for other units around.

The tailstock can be moved and fixed in various positions along the primary function is to support the outer edge of the workpiece.

The car has front panel, tool, feed mechanism, a mechanism for threading support brackets and fasteners for the cutting tool. The application of power to advance is obtained by engaging the clutch to the selected step.

The auxiliary carriage can be rotated to various angles and cutting tools mounted on the tool holder.

The manual feed for the auxiliary carriage compound is obtained with the feed wheel.


* Air around

* Vertical lathe

* Lathe with copying device

* Lathe

* Watchmaker Lathe

* Wood lathe


* Lathe:

It is the most common and has the basic components and can perform the operations described above.

* Lathe fast:

It is mainly used for turning metal fast, and wood polish.

* Lathe garage:

is used to make tools, dies or precision parts for machinery.


* Copying lathes: a lathe with a ripper attachment. Cut the movement of the cutting tools.

* Lathe revolver having an aligning unit for multiple tools, instead of the tailstock. Have different positions and are horizontal and vertical lathes.

* Horizontal: It is classified into ram or tool, the rams have multiple tool turret mounted on the upper carriage.

The upper carriage is suitable for thick materials that take a long time for turning or boring.

* Vertical: Can operate automatically align with the workpiece or with a numerically controlled mechanism.

The Vertical revolver has two basic types: single and multiple station.

Multiples have multiple spindles are realigned after each drive.


Automatic spindle lathes or lathes: Similar to the shuffling of ram or top slide, except that the belt is mounted vertically, no tailstock, the movement for the advancement applies in the turret.

In these disorders using a series of pins and blocks shots to control operations.

Automatic lathes for threading: automatic, even material feeding bra job. These lathes are controlled with a series of eccentric regulating cycle. Are of single or multiple screw.

The single spindle lathe similar to a revolver except for the turret position. The Swiss lathe threading differ from others in which the head produces the advancement of the work piece, they also have a cam mechanism for the tool feed, they move the cutting tool is supported vertically to inward and outward while the workpiece passes in front of the tool.

Threading lathes with multiple spindles are four to eight spindles that align to different positions.

When aligning the spindles perform various operations on the work piece. At the end of one revolution is finished workpiece.

In an eight-spindle lathe, the workpiece is aligned eight times to effect the cycle of the machine. Whenever the carriage is aligned, it ends unloading a workpiece and the spindle.


Carolina Ospina

Faculty of Engineering.

Santiago de Cali

March 23, 2006